PHI 2000 Introduction to Ethics Final Exam Sophia Course ,MILESTONE| COMPLETE TEST BANK - $16.49   Add to cart

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PHI 2000 Introduction to Ethics Final Exam Sophia Course ,MILESTONE| COMPLETE TEST BANK

PHI 2000 Introduction to Ethics Final Exam Sophia Course ,MILESTONE| COMPLETE TEST BANK Which of the following statements best describes the relationship between philosophy and science? Philosophy is concerned with how to understand and interpret scientific facts. Which of the following statements best describes the relationship between philosophy and science? Philosophy helps define concepts that are at the center of scientific study. Philosophy pursues truths that cannot be determined through empirical observation. Which of the following is a philosophical question? Is it possible for a computer to have free will? What would life on other planets mean for us? How much freedom should individuals have? Which of the following is a benefit of philosophy? Consistency is maintained between actions and beliefs. People learn to ask questions about the foundations of moral judgments. We learn to recognize and guard against bias Which step of philosophical inquiry has Amy just done? Identify positions on the question In order to approach the question philosophically, what should his first step be? Dan should ask, "What is a sport?" Which of the following actions represents the step, "Advance a Thesis"? A principal says students should focus more on academics than extracurricular activities. Which of the following is an argument? Given my brother's passion for the outdoors, he would make a good forest ranger. Simon's restaurant receives the best reviews from local food critics. Therefore, Simon's restaurant is the best restaurant in the city. Shakespeare wrote The Tempest. The Tempest was written by an Englishman in the 1600s. Therefore, Shakespeare was an Englishman in the 1600s. Consider the following argument: (1) Since eating trans fat increases "bad" cholesterol, (2) and "bad" cholesterol is related to a number of heart problems, (3) eating trans fats is unhealthy. (4) Trans fats have no known health benefits. Which of the four numbered statements is the conclusion? 3 Which one is the conclusion? Jeremy is financially irresponsible. Anthony is sick. Which of the following is an inductive argument? Lisa is an artist. Most artists are extremely talented. Therefore, Lisa is probably extremely talented. Which of the following is a deductive argument? Richard works out three days a week. Everyone who works out multiple times a week is strong. Therefore, Richard is strong. There is no circumstance under which my town will ever cancel fireworks on the Fourth of July. So even if it's pouring rain, the fireworks will happen. 4. Which of the following is a strong inductive argument? Matt is into 1980s hip-hop. Run DMC is one of the most popular hip-hop groups from the 1980s. Therefore Matt is into Run DMC's music. Amy works for a company called Dewey, Cheatum, and Livingston. Some of that company's employees are accountants. Amy is probably an accountant. Which type of argument is this? Weak inductive Everyone named Bethany has exquisite taste in furniture. My sister's name is Bethany. My sister therefore has exquisite taste in furniture. Which type of argument is this? Valid deductive An argument is strong and the premises are all true. Which of the following terms best describes the argument?Cogent An argument is weak, but the premises and conclusion are all true. Which of the following terms best describes the argument?Uncogent An argument is valid, but one of its premises is false. Which of the following terms best describes the argument? Unsound Which of the following statements is true of ethics? Ethics seeks to define the good and the bad. Which of the following statements is true of ethics? Ethics is about determining what is moral and what is immoral. Which of the following statements is true of ethics? Professional and personal interactions depend on ethical behavior. Ethical topics are often closely related to issues of law, etiquette, or religion. Which of the following is an issue of law? Landlord Hank installs working smoke detectors in all of his properties. Which of the following is an ethical consideration for an employee who uses the work printer for personal projects? Does management approve of this behavior? Which of the following statements is an example of descriptive ethics Most people agree that bringing their pet bulls into china shops is morally wrong. Hank creates a concept map to compare how Kantian deontology and virtue-based ethics evaluate eating meat. This is an example of which branch of ethics? Metaethics Which of the following questions is an example of normative ethics? What obligation do children have to their aging parents? Dave and Margaret have hosted Thanksgiving dinner every year for two decades. Despite their family's protests, they've decided not to host this year. Their decision is likely an example of a(n) __________ action. Neutral Jason sees a neighbor collapse from a heart attack on her front lawn. Which of the following decisions would likely constitute an obligatory action in that moment? Jason has his son call 911 while he begins CPR. Most academic institutions have severe penalties for students who attempt to pass off another's work as their own. Such academic dishonesty is thus generally considered to be a(n) __________ action. Impermissible Which of the following statements reflects relativism? Jesse thinks that right is whatever a person feels comfortable doing. Which of the following statements reflects objectivism? Lorraine believes that murder is wrong, regardless of a person's culture Which of the following statements reflects conventionalism Torture is acceptable because we've been doing it here for many years. Prep Milestone 1 An argument is strong, and all its statements are true. 1 Which of the following terms best describes the argument? • Uncogent • Sound • Unsound • Cogent 2 Which of the following statements is true of ethics? • Ethical decisions should be made using a consistent framework. • Ethics relies on passions and subjective situations. • Ethical reasoning is about justifying your own beliefs. • Ethics is not technically part of philosophy. 3 Which of the following statements reflects relativism? • Ethical standards override individual preferences. • The same ethical standards apply everywhere in the world. • The same standard must be used to evaluate all actions. • A single universal standard for ethical truths does not exist. 4 Which of the following is a deductive argument? • Every time I’ve walked past that store, the proprietor has smiled and waved. So, the next time I walk past the store, he will smile and wave. • It has rained on opening day of the golf tournament every year since we’ve begun. Therefore, it will rain on opening day this year. • It’s very hot today. When it’s hot outside, Joel goes swimming. Joel will go swimming today. • Cole was playing baseball in the yard nextdoor to the broken window. It follows that Cole broke the window. 5 Two musicians are discussing whether rap counts as music. In order to come to a conclusion, they decide to ask, "What is music?" 5 In order to continue their philosophical inquiry, what should their next step be? • They should evaluate arguments from famous rappers. • They should make an argument that rap is music and provide justification. • They should find as many positions on the question as possible. • They should look for arguments against rap as music. Ethics is often confused with issues of religion, social etiquette, and law. 6 Choose the action that is an issue of religion. • Hank opens the door for his wife when they go on a date. • The city repaired a pothole on the street in front of my house. • I go to church every Sunday. • I wear my wedding ring on my left hand. 7 Which of the following decisions would likely constitute a neutral action? • Frank and Inez have their driveway repaved. • Frank and Inez let their dog play in their neighbors' yard. • Frank and Inez invite their new neighbors to dinner to get to know them. • Frank and Inez put an addition onto their house without pulling the required permits. 8 Consider the following argument: (1) My baby is six months old. (2) Most babies get their first teeth around six months of age. (3) My baby will get her first tooth soon. Which of the three numbered statements (if any) is the conclusion? • 3 • • 2 • • All three statements are premises. • • 1 9 Which of the following considerations is ethically relevant to an employee who stocks the break room snacks? • Who reimburses me for the snacks I buy? • Is it my place to force my coworkers to eat healthy? • What are my favorite kinds of snacks? • How much food do I need to get? 10 Katrina calls her grandmother every week because she believes it is her moral obligation. 10 Which branch of ethics is represented by this belief? • Normative ethics • Metaethics • Descriptive ethics 11 Which of the following statements best describes the relationship between philosophy and science? • Scientific arguments require support, whereas philosophical arguments do not. • Philosophy uses the scientific method to uncover truths about the world. • Philosophy examines evidence and support for scientific arguments. • Philosophy is a less objective discipline than science. 12 All mammals have lungs. Iguanas have lungs. Iguanas are therefore mammals. Which type of argument is this? • Weak inductive • Valid deductive • Invalid deductive • Strong inductive 13 Which of the following is a benefit of philosophy? • Philosophy provides concrete answers to scientific questions. • Subjective thinking leads to recognition of bias. • Philosophy encourages agreement by focusing on compassion. • The logical organization of ideas improves communication. 14 Which of the following is an argument? • If it rains, then I won't go outside. • Rainy days are the best. I like to put on a sweater and read a good book. • It's going to rain today because the meteorologist says it will. • Everyone should experience standing out in the rain. 15 Which of the following is a philosophical question? • What is friendship? • On average, how many people get married every month? • Who do you spend the most time with? • How many friends do you have on social media? OFFICIAL MILESTONE 1 1 Which of the following is an argument? • I got eight hours of sleep and ate a healthy breakfast. Therefore, I am going to have a great day. • Every time your phone rings, your brain releases a chemical called dopamine. • If you don't water your plants, they will wilt. If you water them, they will be healthy. If you fertilize them, they will be healthier. • Donuts are the best breakfast food. I had one this morning. 2 Which of the following is an inductive argument? • My new cell phone charges to full capacity in 30 minutes. My best friend’s new cell phone does the same thing, and so does my sister’s. It follows that all new cell phones recharge in 30 minutes. • Bruce is not feeling well. If Bruce is ill, he will not be able to attend classes today. Therefore, Bruce will not attend classes today. • There are seven employees that are on assignment today. There are two employees that are in the office. There are no other employees. Therefore, there are nine employees. • Michael and Laura and their two children make a family of four. Michael and Laura have blond hair. Their children have blond hair, too. Thus, all members of the family have blond hair. 3 Which of the following statements about philosophy is true? • Philosophy is quite interesting, despite having little or no application in other fields. • Philosophy is obsolete due to advances in scientific inquiry. • Philosophy is a way to answer questions about the physical universe without observation. • Philosophy is concerned with seeking and recognizing knowledge. 4 Ricardo and Monica volunteered to serve food at their church picnic during the 8-10 AM shift. At the end of their shift, they noticed that the kitchen was still pretty busy, so they continued to help through the next shift. Most people would likely say their decision is an example of a(n) __________ action. • obligatory • neutral • impermissible • supererogatory Susan is studying the morality of taking terminally ill patients off life support. After thorough research and consideration of many different views, she argues that doctors have a moral obligation to use whatever means are available to preserve a patient's life. 5 Which step of philosophical inquiry has Susan done? • Identify positions on the question • Evaluate positions • Specify your question • Advance a thesis and justification 6 Which of the following is a weak inductive argument? • Most nurses are good people. Andrew is a nurse. Andrew is probably a good person. • Krista's favorite composer is Tchaikovsky. Jason also likes Tchaikovsky. Jason and Krista probably have a lot in common. • Things that are blue are sad. The sky is blue, so it must be sad. • People who like wine think they're a big deal. Aaron thinks he's a big deal, so he must like wine. 7 Many people confuse topics of religion, social etiquette, and law with ethical topics. Select the example related to law. • Jack allows a woman with children to board the airplane first. • I am the only insured driver, so my daughter cannot drive the rental car. • Nancy was baptized when she was a baby. • We tipped the server 25% because he did an excellent job. 8 Which of the following considerations is relevant to a person whose elderly parents are sick but refuse to make an appointment at the doctor?

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