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Summary TOEFL1 Reading Skill 8

Reading Skill 8: Infer Rhetorical Purpose, pp. 97–108 Reading Passage 1, p. 101 1. Answer choice D is correct because the phrase One more familiar use at the beginning of the paragraph indicates that other uses were presented in previous paragraphs. Answer choice A is incorrect because the more familiar use being referred to is xerography. Answer choice B is incorrect because the sentence states xerography is dependent on photoconductive materials, not electrochemistry. Answer choice C is incorrect because the phrase One more… use indicates that there are additional uses for electrochemistry. 2. Answer choice A is correct because the previous sentence states that xerography… is dependent on photoconductive materials. This sentence explains what a photoconductive material is. Answer choice B is incorrect because the sentence states the material is an insulator in the dark. Answer choice C is incorrect because the previous sentence states xerography is a process for replicating documents. This sentence does not mention document replication. Answer choice D is incorrect because though the sentence mentions A photoconductive material is an insulator in the dark, it does not explain how insulation works in xerography. 3. Answer choice C is correct because the phrase small grains to which dry ink adheres is in parentheses, which indicates it explains or defines a previous term. The phrase is explaining what “toner” is. Answer choice A is incorrect because the phrase small grains to which dry ink adheres is in parentheses, which indicates it explains or defines a previous term. There is no transition in the phrase to show contrast. Answer choice B is incorrect because no previous examples of conductivity are given in the sentence. Answer choice D is incorrect because no previous explanation for the effectiveness of toner is given, so an alternate explanation is not necessary. 4. Answer choice C is correct because a laser printer is xerography that creates a brighter light and a greater contrast between lighter and darker areas than photocopying. Answer choice A is incorrect because the first paragraph discusses photocopying, which is one method of xerography. A laser printer is xerography that creates a brighter light and a greater contrast between lighter and darker areas than photocopying. Answer choice B is incorrect because a laser printer is a machine that is used in xerography, and the first paragraph establishes that xerography is one use of electrochemistry. Answer choice D is incorrect because the sentence states When a laser printer is used, the image is projected by means of a laser beam… and therefore results in sharper printed images. 5. Answer choice C is correct because the second sentence of the paragraph states Initially, the procedure took several steps to complete, and necessitated… flat plates… manipulated by hand. Answer choice A is incorrect because the sentence states a cylindrical rotating surface that allowed the process to be entirely automatic, except for a push of the “start” button, which indicates the start button was the only part of the process the user could control. Answer choice B is incorrect because the sentence states a cylindrical rotating surface that allowed the process to be entirely automatic, except for a push of the “start” button, which indicates the process would not start until the button was pushed. The last sentence states that every step had been made to be automatic, except for the push of the “start” button. Answer choice D is incorrect because pushing a start button is not a forgotten step; it is the only step that could not be automated in the copying process. 6. Answer choice B is correct because the sentence states This first generation of copiers was cumbersome by today’s standards. Answer choice A is incorrect because the sentence following this sentence states Fortunately, continuing

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