Chapter 24: The Child with Fluid and Electrolyte Imbalance - $7.49   Add to cart

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Chapter 24: The Child with Fluid and Electrolyte Imbalance

MULTIPLE CHOICE 1. What substance is released from the posterior pituitary gland and promotes water retention in the renal system? a. Renin b. Aldosterone c. Angiotensin d. Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) ANS: D ADH is released in response to increased osmolality and decreased volume of intravascular fluid; it promotes water retention in the renal system by increasing the permeability of renal tubules to water. Renin release is stimulated by diminished blood flow to the kidneys. Aldosterone is secreted by the adrenal cortex. It enhances sodium reabsorption in renal tubules, promoting osmotic reabsorption of water. Renin reacts with a plasma globulin to generate angiotensin, which is a powerful vasoconstrictor. Angiotensin also stimulates the release of aldosterone. DIF: Cognitive Level: Understanding REF: p. 947 TOP: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: Client Needs: Physiological Integrity 2. Nurses should be alert for increased fluid requirements in which circumstance? a. Fever b. Mechanical ventilation c. Congestive heart failure d. Increased intracranial pressure ANS: A Fever leads to great insensible fluid loss in young children because of increased body surface area relative to fluid volume. The mechanically ventilated child has decreased fluid requirements. Congestive heart failure is a case of fluid overload in children. Increased intracranial pressure does not lead to increased fluid requirements in children

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