Iowa State University_PR 220 _Test 3 Exam Study Guide_2019_Already Graded A.
PR 220 Study Guide Latest Exam 2019
Attempt Score 100%
Fri Sep 2019
Licensure for public relations professionals
Two major public relations professional associations
Advantages and disadvantages of ethical codes
Organic search results
Farm Bulletins in Iraq
Samuel Adams tactics during American Revolution
Hamilton Mercer Wright
Applied social science
Kings of Ancient India
Settling the American West with immigrants
Corporate Social responsibility
Types of public relations employers
Types of public relations employers
News driven relationships
News driven relationships
Relationship maintenance strategies
Milton Freidman and competing loyalties
The free flow of information
Public relations career path
public relations career path
Black box fallacy
black box fallacy
Expectations of a public relations professional
expectations of a public relations professional
Integrated Marketing Communication
integrated marketing communication
4C\'s of marketing
4 types of brand journalism
4 types of brand journalism
Resource dependency theory
resource dependency theory
public relations skills
Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR)
public relations resumes
relational maintenance strategies
Business to Business relationships
business to consumer relationships
4 Cs of merketing
Strategic planning process
kimberly-clark case study
Gruning\'s situational theory and constraint recognition
Food Dialogues exampleTerm
Outcome (impact) objective
\"open\" communication (specifically with employee communication)
creative and unique tactics
Social Media Release (SMR)
Public Domain Images
Barcelona Declaration of Priciples
Advertising Value Equivalences (AVE)
Ethical concerns regarding statistics and evaluation
Expertise as an ethical component of public relations
Magic Bullet Theory
Social diffusion theory
Rules for mobile content
Appropriate of Likeness or Identity
Social media and crises
clear and present danger
International public relations
Mediated public diplomacy
Peace Corps definition of culture
Next Century Cities
Social media creators
Crisis Response strategies
The boomerang effect
Life cycle of an issue
Responsible supply chain management
Defining big data
Situational Crisis Communication Theory
Bid Data and productivity levels
3 Sources of big data:
Final Exam Journalism And Mass Communication 101. Graded 100%
T/fA monopoly exists when a handful of firms control an industry, either nationally or locally
t/fDisney owns the television network ABC
t/fThe passing of the Telecommunication Act of 1996 drastically weakened government control over the media industry
t/fLarge media corporations have been afraid to use the Internet because it threatens existing business models
t/fMedia owners encourage public debates about the structure and ownership of the mass media, because they consider such discussion to be in their best interests
t/fMost citizens of developed countries have a wide range of media products available to them, but have little say in which media are created and circulated
t/fMost media companies spread out their holdings among various types of mass media rather than trying to control one medium to avoid monopoly charges
t/fMost media monopolies today operate at the local, not the global, level.
t/fNews Corp. owns the television network Fox
t/fNews organizations owned by large media conglomerates have been significantly increasing the number of reporters assigned to cover international issues, especially following the terrorist attacks of Sept 11, 2001
t/fThe U.S. mainstream news media have expressed little concern in recent years over the growing consolidation of the media
t/fThe global economy has reduced prices to the point where most low-paid workers in Third World factories can afford the stereos and TV sets they help manufacture
t/fThe purpose of antitrust laws to encourage diversity and competition in the marketplace
t/fThe term synergy describes the dynamic creative energy of media corporations such as Disney
t/fThere is no real concern about competition in the radio industry because there are hundreds of independently owned stations
t/fOur discussion leaders claimed that the ACT entrance exams are an example of hegemony
According to the textbook, what\'s wrong with referring to a position as \"common sense\"?
America has been accused of cultural imperialism because
Because of antitrust laws, most media monopolies today operate on a(n) _____ level
Cultural Imperialism is
Economies of Scale
In our market economy, consumers have ____, but not very much control over the types of products they might actually want
Limited competition describes the following situation:
Media that rely primarily on direct payment to collect revenues include
Our society has been reluctant to debate the inequalities inherent in mass media ownership and has gradually collapsed the critical distinctions between
The acceptance of the dominant values in a culture by those who are subordinate to those who hold economic power describes
The billion-dollar mergers and takeovers that swept the mass media in the 1990s were possible because of
The book publishing and motion-picture industries are both examples of
The concept of synergy can be best described as
The significant tendencies in major mainstream media today are toward
The television network ABC is owned by
The trend of downsizing
(All options are correct)-Leaves newsrooms with fewer editors & reporters to cover important events-Is
A flexible media system, in which new products are constantly rushed to the marketplace, favors
When a company uses its concert promotion department to put on a show, then advertises the concert on the company\'s billboards, gives away free tickets on radio stations owned by that company, and advertises on the company\'s television stations, this is an example of
When a media business relies on indirect payments for most of its revenue, consumers tend to
Which of the following is not a statement that describes the modern concept of hegemony?
Which of the following is not true about the globalization of media?
t/fAccording to modern reporting rituals, journalists must rely on outside expert sources for information, even if they are experts on a subject themselves
t/fBy presenting both sides of controversy, reporters always ensure that the news story is fair and balanced
t/fDeeply held beliefs, like ethnocentrism and small-town pastoralism have been shown to rarely affect journalists\' judgment
t/fJournalism has always used the same set of criteria for deciding what is newsworthy
t/fJournalists routinely straddle a line between the public\'s right to know and a person\'s right to privacy
t/fMany journalists take great pride in asking tough questions and acting as an adversary to the prominent political leaders and major institutions they cover
t/fSatirical news shows like The Daily Show and The Colbert Report only seek to entertain, not inform, viewers
t/fThe public journalism movement asks reporters to think of themselves as involved in their communities rather than detached from them
t/fThe most common form of bias in news media is political
\"Media Logic\" describes the criteria by which conglomerates consider mergers
t/fNews stories are most biased toward events with easy access to sources and long term, cumulative time frames
t/fCourts, police stations and hospitals generate more news stories not because more news actually happens in those places, but because that\'s where journalists often look for stories
t/fMost newsrooms frown on using deception for news gathering, but don\'t outlaw it
t/f\"Herd Journalism\" occurs when an important enough news event happens that journalists feel the need to share sources for the sake of public safety
t/fThe \"4 in 5\" rules requires journalists to double check their facts with at least four sources before printing a story
t/fOur discussion leaders said that they didn\'t care to know about reporters\' personal beliefs because what matters most is objectivity
According to the textbook, which of the following is not characteristic of modern journalism?
Critics of CNN say it too often engages in ethnocentrism because
If a news reporter negligently and falsely accuses a private person of criminal behavior, the reporter is likely to be guilty of
Journalism critics say the quest for balance presents some problems for journalists, including
One of the main reasons newspaper organizations wanted their reporters to write in a neutral, detached style was that
Since the 1970s, local TV newscasts have developed a similar look. That\'s because
The current trend toward public journalism differs from traditional journalism by
The growing trend of twenty-four hour cable news stations filling time with \"talking head\" pundits
The sound bite in a TV news report is the equivalent of a _____ in a newspaper story
Which of the following did not develop into an underlying subjective value in the culture of journalism?
Which of the following did not result from hiring television news consultants?
Which of the following is a characteristic of public journalism?
Which of the following is not a change the Internet has wrought upon traditional journalism?
Which of the following is not one of the basic criteria of newsworthiness?
Which of the following is not true about sound bites?
Which of the following is not true about \"fake\" news programs such as The Daily Show and Jon Stewart and The Colbert Report?
Which of the following would be okay for a journalist to accept and still avoid a conflict of interest?
While the Internet has provided many new tools for journalists, what is a potential Internet pitfall for reporters?
t/fAgenda-setting theory refers to the media\'s ability to change public opinion on controversial issues
t/fThe early stages of media effects history assumed audiences were more passive than active
t/fContent analysis is the primary method researchers use to measure the amount of violence on network television
t/fCultural studies scholars, such as Habermas, feel that critical public debate beyond the control of aristocrats,
t/fMedia effects research first emerged because of concerns about television violence
t/fOne key difference between content analysis and textual analysis is the greater emphasis on counting, measurement, and reliability in content analysis
t/fOne of the main problems in studying the effects of media is that whatever real effects the media cause, they also often serve as a scapegoat for larger social problems
t/fResearchers associated with the minimal effects model argue that people engage in selective exposure and selective retention with regard to the media
t/fSocial psychology studies measure public attitudes
t/fSurvey research is better than experimental research at establishing cause-effect linkage, but experimental research gets closer to real-world conditions
t/fTextual analysis is able to demonstrate the effects of the media on audiences
t/fThe cumulative-effect theory suggests that heavy viewing of television leads to individuals to perceive the
t/fThe Uses and Gratifications Model was the first to consider the audience as active
t/fCultural Studies scholars often criticize media effects research as too neutral
t/fConnotation represents the literal mental concept of what a text is describing
t/fPolitical Economy Studies do not treat media as messages, but rather as a system that interacts with power within a society
t/fThird Person Effect says that individuals worry more about the influence of negative media on their own lives than of one the lives of others
A mass media effects researcher might choose an experiment approach if he or she has
A mass media effects researcher might chose a survey approach if he or she has
A type of study that looks at changes in a population over time is called a/an
Contemporary mass media effects researchers have described social learning theory as a four-step process. Which of the following is not one of the steps in the process?
Critics of mass media research point to which of the following as one reason the growing body of academic knowledge about the media seems to have little impact on the vast majority of mass media users?
Habermas formed his ideas about the public sphere wile examining which aspect of 17th and 18th century English and French society?
If survey data showed that heavy consumers of violent videos engage in more violent behavior that do light consumers, a social scientist would be justified in concluding that
In which kind of research do researchers systematically code and measure media content?
Media historian James Carey defined communication as
Often people choose to expose themselves only to media outlets that express their views. What is this called?
The 1938 radio broadcast of War of the Worlds made millions of listeners believe that Martians were invading Earth; however, most listeners didn\'t believe that the story was real. Those outcomes ultimately helped to support which research model?
The close reading and interpretation of the meaning of cultural forms is called
The Hypodermic-Needle Research Model might be considered most directly the opposite of which research model?
The scientific study of mass media got started because of interest in?
The theory that those who believe they hold minority opinions on controversial issues keep silent due to fear of social isolation is called what?
Which kind of research method employs a control group for comparison?
Which kind of research method reveals correlations between two variables?
Which line of research has generally demonstrated that the mass media don\'t tell people what to think as much as they tell people what to think about?
Which line of research suggests that heavy viewers of television are more likely than light viewers to perceive reality in ways that are more consistent with \"TV reality\"?
Which of the following is characteristic of a cultural studies approach to mass media research?
Which of the following is not a legitimate technique for gathering research quality data?
While social science research can be characterized as trying to establish a cause and effect relationship, cultural studies
One research idea proposed by our discussion leaders involved asking people to come to take a survey, but making them wait 30 minutes first. In reality, the researchers are interested in watching how much of the waiting time people spend on social media. This is an example of what type of research methodology?
t/fAppropriating a writer\'s or artist\'s words or music without consent or payment is never protected
t/fCurrently, both print journalists and broadcasters need federal licenses to operate their businesses
t/fFor the first half of the twentieth century, local and state film review boards were considered constitutionalt/fIf a soon-to-be-released article seems to violate libel or obscenity laws, most U.S. courts would act to stop publication
t/fIn 1912, federal law outlawed the transportation of boxing movies across state lines - not because they were violent but because there had been a black heavyweight boxing champion since 1908
t/fLibel is a right guaranteed by the First Amendment
t/fMost of the world\'s population now lives in countries where the press is free
t/fMovies released in the United States are required by federal law to be labeled with an MPAA movie rating
t/fNewspapers are not required by law to give individuals an opportunity to reply to an editorial attack
t/fOnly after the Sedition Act expired in 1801 did Americans broadly support the idea of a free press
t/fParodies and insults of public figures are protected from libel suits unless the statements cause undue emotional pain
t/fPrint and broadcast media are not treated equally under the First Amendment
t/fPublic speech that causes someone damage of actual injury is libelous, even if the speech in question is true
t/fThe Miller v. California case established a national standard for obscenity that is the same for all communities in the United States
t/fThe Sedition Act strengthened First Amendment protections for citizens
t/fThe Supreme Court has defined censorship as prior restraint of speech
t/fThe United States follows a libertarian model of free expression and free press
t/fThere is no federal shield law for journalists in the United States
t/fU.S. law recognizes that everyone, including public figures, has the same right to privacy
t/fOur discussion leaders all agreed that Wikileak\'s dissemination of classified documents should not be protected by the first amendment
A written or broadcast expression that defames someone\'s character is
At the end of the copyright period, a creative work such as a book or song becomes
Because of fears about the spread of communism in the 1950s and the tactics of lawmakers such as Senator Joseph McCarthy, actors, producers, and other members of the entertainment industry had to
For public figures to successfully sue for libel, they must prove \"actual malice,\" which means the news medium
In 1912, in the first type of national action limiting the film industry, the U.S. government banned the interstate commerce of which kinds of films?
In the Mutual v. Ohio (1915) decision, the U.S. Supreme Court rules that film was
In the Progressive magazine case, a federal district court took a course of action based on concern that the magazine would publish
Members of the media can get into legal trouble for violating the usual rights of privacy for a private citizen. Which of the following actions would not cause a potential problem of this kind?
Private individuals must prove falsehood, damages, and negligence to win which kind of case?
Section 315 of the 1934 Communications Act requires broadcast stations to
The Communication Act of 1934 mandated that radio broadcasters operate in the \"public interest, convenience and necessity\" based on what argument?
The Pentagon Papers case involved which legal concern?
The U.S. movie rating system is an example of
The creators of works such as books, music, lyrics, movies, and TV programs can sue if someone else tries to make money off their work because of
The notion of the press working as the Fourth Estate, or as watchdog over the government, is contained in which model of speech and expression?
Which choice is not part of the legal definition of obscenity?
Which of the following is not characteristic of libertarian model for expression and speech?
-legally protects the rights of authors and producers to their published or unpublished work.-Give authors financial incentive to produce works-Originally protection for 14 years - then enter public domain where public has free access to work-Public domain gives incentive to produce derivative works-Extended multiple times, (most recently for Disney) now for 95 years