# University of KwaZulu-Natal

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Consider a transmission line of length l, characterized by propagation constant g and characteristic impedance Zo, terminated in a load of impedance ZL. Let the line be fed by a generator of input impedance Zg, and with open-circuit voltage Vg. Let the transmission line extend from z=0 at the generator to z=l at the load

Complete the timing diagram for the circuit below with the three different storage elements. Assume zero propagation delay.

Asynchronous sequential systems have no clock; internal states change when there is a change in the input variables. • Memory is achieved by the unclocked latches, delay elements, or Inherent delay in circuits. • Asynchronous sequential systems are used where a fast response to input changes, without having to wait for a clock transition, is necessary. • Asynchronous sequential systems are also used where the introduction of extra frequency components related to the clock must be avoided. ...

nvestigate the transition table of the figure below and determine the race conditions. State whether they are critical or noncritical

btain a primitive flow table from the given specification. • Reduce the flow table by merging rows in the primitive flow table. (STATE REDUCTION) • Assign binary states variables to each row of the reduced flow table to obtain the transition table. (STATE ASSIGNMENT-RACES) • Assign output values to the dashes associated with the unstable states to obtain the output maps. • Simplify the boolean functions of the excitation and output variables (HARZARDS) and draw the logic diagram.

ystem has n inputs and m outputs and 2pow(k) states. • The STATE of a sequential circuit is a collection of state variables whose value at any time contain all the information about the past necessary to account for the circuits future behavior. • A circuit with k binary state variables has 2pow(k) possible finite states. • Sequential circuits are also named Finite-state machines because the sequential logic circuit that implements them can be in only a fixed number of possible states. ...