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Nursing 2058 Health Assessment Exam 1 Study Guide-Rasmussen College

Nursing 2058 Health Assessment Exam 1 Study Guide-Rasmussen College Nursing 2058 Dimensions Exam 1: Study Guide Chapter 1 1. Identify the most important element in nursing’s attempt to gain full autonomy of practice. A) Economic exploitation of nurses B) Maintaining the education system for nurses as it is now C) Gaining and maintaining control of nursing practice by nurses D) Restricting the latitude of decisions made by nurses 2. In its attempt to gain freedom and independence, what corresponding factors must the nursing profession embrace? A) Health and happiness B) Chaos and disorder C) Loss of control and negative feedback D) Responsibility and accountability 3. Select the most effective method that nurses can use to gain power over their practice. A) Use strikes and union tactics to increase pay. B) Join professional organizations in large numbers. C) Leave nursing as soon as better jobs come along. D) Confront hospital administrators about poor staffing. 4. What allows a nurse to exert referent power over a client when providing nursing care? A) The ability to withhold pain medication if the client does not comply with routines B) The ability to provide the client with additional food when he or she does comply with the nurse’s requests C) The power given to the nurse by reason of state licensure D) The establishment of a professional and personal relationship with the client 5. What is a group of jobs that is similar in type of work and found throughout an industry or country? A) Position B) Occupation C) Profession D) Stint 6. Which of the following types of nurses are classified as technical nurses? A) BSNs and MSNs B) LPNs and ADNs C) LVNs and BSNs D) UAPs and BSNs 7. Identify the approach that describes a profession as being in a continual state of development along a continuum. A) Trait approach B) Power approach C) Process approach D) Educational approach 8. A nursing student is approached by a friend who is not majoring in nursing. The friend asks why the nursing profession does not seem to be actively involved in the women’s rights movement. How can the student best respond to this question? A) Nurses do take an active part in leading the women’s rights movement, but it is done very quietly. B) The women’s rights movement shuns participation by nurses because of nursing’s subservient image. C) The health-care industry discourages nurses from becoming involved in women’s rights issues. D) Nurses avoid becoming involved in women’s rights issues because of their traditional role as “helpers.” 9. Identify the element that is the best indicator of increasing accountability in the profession of nursing. A) Increasing pay scale for staff nurses B) Improved public image of nurses on TV and in movies C) Demonstration of competency and high-quality care through peer review D) Taking care of larger numbers of clients with the help of unlicensed assistive personnel 10. What is the best method for nurses to prepare for future professional practice? A) Take additional courses in the use of computers. B) Understand and explore the issues involved in professionalism as nurses. C) Accept that nursing is a profession. D) Cross-train with other health-care providers such as physical therapists, laboratory technicians, and radiologists. 11. What allows a nurse to exert coercive power over a client when providing nursing care? A) The ability to withhold pain medication if the client does not comply with routines B) The ability to provide the client with additional food when he or she does comply with the nurse’s requests C) The power given to the nurse by reason of state licensure D) The establishment of a professional and personal relationship with the client 12. What allows a nurse to exert legitimate power over a client when providing nursing care? A) The ability to withhold pain medication if the client does not comply with routines B) The ability to provide the client with additional food when he or she does comply with the nurse’s requests C) The power given to the nurse by reason of state licensure D) The establishment of a professional and personal relationship with the client 13. Select the trait of a profession that requires the most improvement in the promotion and recognition of nursing as a full and equal profession. A) Activities involve a high level of individual responsibility. B) Activities are based on a specialized body of knowledge. C) Activities serve the public and are generally altruistic in nature. D) Activities are learned in institutions of higher education. 14. Which statement is the best description of a profession from the power approach method of defining a profession? A) The members of the profession attain all the traits required for that profession. B) The members of the profession have high income levels. C) The profession is near the end of its developmental process. D) The education for the members of the profession must be attained in graduate schools. COMPLETION 1. List in correct order the progression of the levels of health-care providers from the most educated to the least educated. (Enter the letter of each in the proper sequence; do not use commas or spaces.) A) APRN B) LPN-VN C) ADN-RN D) UAP E) BSN-RN EBCAD 2. Fill in the blank with the appropriate word to complete the statement: The overall goal of nurses who work as case managers is to _______________ the use of health-care services in the most efficient and cost-effective manner possible. coordinate Chapter 2 1. The early Christian era brought which of these important changes in health care? A) The development of aqueducts and sewage systems B) A belief in the sanctity of life C) A deep understanding of the anatomy of the human body D) The shift of care from the home to large hospitals 2. Which development during the European Middle Ages led to a major improvement in health care? A) A rapid growth in medical knowledge B) Establishment of large central hospitals C) Growth of religious orders to care for the sick D) A shift to care of ill persons by women 3. Who is called the “father of modern medicine”? A) William Harvey B) Hippocrates C) Cyrus the Great D) Emperor Darius 4. What are the dates of Florence Nightingale’s birth and death? A) March 3, 1578; June 10, 1657 B) January 9, 1715; September 30, 1785 C) May 12, 1820; August 13, 1910 D) April 15, 1932; December 10, 1957 5. Identify a key element in the success of Nightingale’s school of nursing. A) It was not under control of the hospital. B) Large amounts of private funds were paid to well-qualified teachers. C) The Watson Model for nursing was used. D) The primary goal was service to the hospital rather than education. 6. What was a major goal of Lavinia Dock? A) Establish a new nursing organization. B) Publish a nursing journal. C) Obtain the right to vote for women. D) Improve the education for nurses. 7. Which belief about what nurses needed to do shaped Lillian D. Wald’s nursing practice? A) Spend more time in clinical preparation and less time in the classroom. B) Fight political corruption to procure the types of legislation needed to improve social conditions. C) Conduct more research into the conditions of hospital patients. D) Stand up to medical doctors who were arrogant and obnoxious. 8. Which problem had the most severe effect on nursing education during the 1920s and 1930s? A) Too many college-based schools of nursing B) A lack of qualified nursing instructors C) Too many nursing students from the lower and middle classes D) Not enough demand for educated nurses 9. Identify a negative effect that World War II had on health care in the United States. A) A rapid increase in medical knowledge B) Expanded health-care services C) Increased use of LPNs and aides to substitute for a lower number of RNs D) Increases in pay for nurses 10. Select the statement that most accurately states the effects of increasing populations on health care. A) Economically depressed populations have fewer health-care needs. B) Larger populations often lead to large numbers of well-educated and well-nourished people. C) Large groups of economically depressed people tend to live in rural areas. D) Crowded living conditions in cities lead to the spread of communicable diseases. 11. Which characteristic of health care in ancient civilizations distinguishes it from the health care of today? A) Health care was closely related to religious practices. B) Most health care was provided by women. C) Health care focused on curing the sick and injured. D) Physicians received extensive education in formal schools. 12. What are two similarities between the health care provided by the ancient Hebrews and that practiced by the ancient Egyptians? A) The belief that disease was caused by evil spirits and the use of health spas B) Trained women as the primary care providers and the use of many medications C) Majority of health care provided in hospitals and the use of medical specialization D) Emphasis on sanitation and well-developed knowledge of surgical techniques 13. Select the element of the medical practice of Hippocrates that remains appropriate for the health-care providers of the 21st century. A) Belief that disease is a result of failure to comply with the natural law B) The whole client needs to be treated: the mind, body, and spirit C) Only physicians have enough education to provide safe health care D) Hospitals should be avoided unless there are no other treatment options 14. Identify the characteristic of ancient Roman society that distinguished the health-care practices of the empire from those of its surrounding neighbors. A) Use of slaves to provide basic health care B) Belief that the Roman Emperor was a descendent of a god C) Lack of concern about the sanctity of life D) Relatively high social status allotted to Roman women 15. To what event and to which period of history is the disappearance of male nurses usually attributed? A) The Crusades during the Dark Ages B) The use of medical inventions during the Renaissance C) The Protestant Reformation during the Middle Ages D) The rapid population growth during the Industrial Revolution 16. For which contribution to professional nursing is Isabel Adams Hampton Robb most noted? A) Raising the standards for nursing education B) Developing storefront clinics in New York City C) Advocating the use of MASH units during the Korean War D) Changing the laws that affect health care of the poor 17. Who is credited with the development of the nurse practitioner role? A) Anne Goodrich B) Loretta Ford C) Isabel Robb D) Barak Obama 18. What situation led to the development of the nurse practitioner role? A) Not enough regular nurse jobs for the excessive number of BS graduates. B) Nurses with advanced degrees recognizing they could function in a primary physician role. C) A shortage of health care providers in rural areas of the county. D) Hospitals seeking a less expensive source of primary care providers. COMPLETION 1. List the following civilizations in their correct time sequence. (Enter the letter of each in the proper sequence; do not use commas or spaces.) A) Greek Empire B) Ancient Hebrews C) Roman Empire D) Egyptian Empire E) Taoism DCEBA 2. Complete the following statement by filling in the blank with the correct word. The Dark Ages brought the advent of __________ __________ __________ that were composed exclusively of men who wore suits of armor to protect themselves and their hospitals. military; nursing; orders Chapter 4 1. What is a type of nursing education program conducted in junior and community colleges that is nominally 2 years in length? A) Diploma program B) Baccalaureate program C) Associate degree program D) Professional nursing program 2. Identify an important similarity between the various types of educational programs for nurses. A) There is homogeneity of entering students. B) No state or national approval is required. C) The same courses are taught in all programs. D) Clinical experience is required to gain certain knowledge and skills. 3. Select an important element found in baccalaureate nursing programs that is usually not found in other types of nursing education programs. A) Use of both classroom and clinical experiences for learning B) Limiting enrollment to students with the highest ability C) Comprehensive curriculum D) Development of the total intellectual skills of the individual 4. Which contribution of Florence Nightingale had the greatest impact on nursing education? A) Recognizing that formal, systematic education in both theory and practice was essential for the preparation of high-quality nurses B) Advocating that all nurses be educated in universities so that nursing care would meet the standards established by the government C) Forcing physicians and hospitals to recognize that clinical practice was not as important as the theory-based learning obtained in the classroom D) Enforcing the requirement that all nursing instructors have a master’s degree in nursing to provide the highest quality education possible for students 5. Which statement best describes nursing education in the United States during the 1800s and early 1900s? A) It was high quality with a balance between classroom education and clinical practice. B) Strict criteria were established for nursing education by the NLN and the ANA to guarantee high-quality education. C) There were no formal nursing education programs during this time period; nurses were trained in apprenticeships only. D) There was little or no classroom education, and students learned through hands-on experience during their 12- to 14-hour shifts on the hospital units. 6. Identify a major benefit of the diploma-type training programs for nurses. A) Nurses from these programs were assertive and could stand up to physicians who made unrealistic demands. B) Nurses from diploma programs were proficient in basic nursing skills and could assume a hospital position with minimal orientation. C) Nurses trained in diploma programs were often limited to employment in the institutions where they were trained. D) All diploma schools were regulated by the NLN criteria and met strict standards for educating students. 7. Which practice of diploma nursing programs most concerned the state boards of nursing? A) Excessive use of classroom time during the program B) Mandatory housing of the students in a closed dormitory near the hospital C) Use of the students as unpaid hospital personnel during their education programs D) High failure rates of diploma graduates on the NCLEX examinations 8. How can the concept of a career ladder in education best be described? A) Specialized programs for associate degree or diploma RNs to attain a baccalaureate degree B) The ability of staff nurses to be promoted based on their clinical skills C) The relationship between one level of nursing education and the next level of education D) After nurses pass the NCLEX examination, they are all considered professionals. 9. What are common characteristics usually found in LPN educational programs? A) Located on college campus, 2 years in length, require no clinical experiences B) Theory-oriented curriculum, wide scope of practice, highly selective admission C) Technically oriented, located in vocational technical schools or community colleges, 9 to 12 months in length D) Clinical experience in advanced care areas, located in community colleges, prepare nurses for professional practice 10. Which category of advanced practice nurses is the most widely accepted by the public? A) Expanded practice nurses B) Clinical nurse specialists C) Certified nurses D) Nurse practitioners 11. Identify the primary position advocated by the 1964 ANA Position Paper on Education for Nurses. A) Any nursing education program is acceptable as long as the graduates take and pass the NCLEX examination. B) Baccalaureate education should be the basic level of preparation for professional nurses. C) Associate degree education should be the basic level of preparation for professional nurses. D) Only nurses educated at the master degree or higher level should be considered professional nurses. 12. What is the most important consequence of the ANA Position Paper on Education for Nurses? A) Increased numbers of associate degree programs B) Large numbers of students graduating with baccalaureate degrees in nursing C) Resistance to the proposal by hospitals and diploma nursing programs D) Demand for a clear distinction between technical and professional nursing programs 13. Identify two key requirements for entry into a master’s degree nursing program. A) Baccalaureate degree in nursing, satisfactory score on the GRE or MAT B) At least 3 years of experience as an RN, associate degree in nursing C) Three letters of reference, certificate of health status D) Associate degree in nursing, 3.0 or higher GPA 14. What is a trend found in doctoral-level programs that has developed since the 1970s? A) Movement toward generalization of knowledge B) More emphasis on the clinical than on the academic nature of nursing C) Increased use of research-based teaching strategies D) Movement away from the independence of educational needs 15. Identify an important function that a nurse serving as a case manager would be required to perform. A) Overseeing client care during rehabilitation at home B) Using provider-centered models to control health-care costs C) Guiding the care provided by physicians over the course of an illness D) Ensuring the high quality of care at all points of interaction with the health-care system 16. What is the key element in relationship-centered nursing care? A) Focus on care as it is given in the community setting B) Use of high-level advanced nursing skills in the care of the client C) Clients’ trust in the role and skills of the nurse in the healing process D) Responsiveness to societal changes in a consumer-driven economy 17. Identify the primary purpose for the development of the Quality and Safety Education for Nurses (QSEN) project? A) Increase the number of students in nursing programs. B) Shift nursing education to a more medical model due to the increased client acuity. C) Focus nursing education on competencies to reduce the number of medical errors. D) Decrease the number of associate degree nursing programs. MULTIPLE RESPONSE 1. Select all of the elements that are found in the Pew Health Professions Commission Report on the reform for nursing education. A) Increasing the use of computer technology and interactive software B) Preparing all nursing faculty at the doctoral level C) Promoting interdisciplinary education D) Developing cultural sensitivity E) Limiting nursing class size to no more than 40 students F) Expanding the scientific basis of the programs 2. Select all of the elements that were found as assumptions in the ANA Position Paper on Nursing Education. A) Nursing education should meet the increasing need for nurses as quickly as possible. B) The professional practitioner is responsible for the nature and quality of all nursing care clients receive. C) Education for those in the health-care professions must increase in depth and breadth as scientific knowledge expands. D) Community colleges are able to prepare nurses just as well as 4-year colleges. E) The demand for the services of nurses will continue to increase. 3. Select all of the elements that are QSEN competencies. A) Quality Improvement B) Outcome Based Education C) Teamwork and Collaboration D) Informatics COMPLETION 1. Fill in the blanks with the correct word(s) to complete the following statement: Nursing care that is client-focused and revolves around the client’s trust in, value of, and understanding of the nurse’s skills is called _______________ _______________. relationship; centered 2. Fill in the blank with the correct word(s) to complete the following statement: In 1996, the American Association of Colleges of Nursing presented a position paper emphasizing the belief that the _______________ degree should be the minimal requirement for entry into the nursing profession. baccalaureate Chapter 5 1. What measure can nurses use to establish a nurse support network? A) Insist that all nurses follow the same path to success. B) Avoid criticizing each other in public. C) Set very high standards for care. D) Advocate for a multi-entry level education system. 2. What is the primary goal for establishing licensure of nurses? A) Guarantee high-quality nurses. B) Increase tax revenues for the state. C) Set a minimum level of competency to protect the public. D) Maintain high numbers of nurses in the profession. 3. Identify the basic requirement found in a mandatory nurse practice act. A) Nurses must be employed under the general supervision of a licensed physician. B) Nurses must be currently licensed in the state where they wish to practice nursing. C) Nurses must graduate from a school accredited by a national nursing organization. D) Nurses must be enrolled at least yearly in courses approved by the state to meet requirements for continuing education. 4. What is the primary form of RN licensure currently used in the United States? A) Optional B) Compulsory C) Customary D) Traditional 5. In relationship to a profession, what is the primary purpose of professional organizations? A) Collect dues and fund research. B) Monitor professional practice and discipline incompetent practitioners. C) Fund political actions groups. D) Establish standards for maintaining high-quality practice in the profession. 6. Which term is used to identify the listing of names of individuals on an official roster when they have met certain pre-established criteria? A) Certification B) Licensure C) Registration D) Practitioner 7. Identify the primary function of permissive licensure. A) Protects only the title “Registered Nurse” B) Allows anyone to use the title “Registered Nurse” C) Used by states to maintain quality and control over nurses D) Allows institutions to use foreign nurses as RNs 8. Select the most serious problem encountered when institutional licensure is used. A) The standards are too difficult for most nurses to meet. B) It makes moving from one institution to another more difficult. C) Many qualified individuals are excluded from the profession. D) There are no external controls to determine a minimum level of ability. 9. What type of credentialing indicates that an individual has achieved a high level of expertise and knowledge in an area of practice? A) Licensure B) Certification C) Professionalism D) Registration 10. Identify the primary purpose of the National League for Nursing. A) Establish standards of practice to ensure high-quality care. B) Maintain and improve the standards of nursing education. C) Increase the political power of nurses to influence legislation. D) Prevent unqualified nurses from practicing in hospitals. 11. Identify a primary goal of the American Nurses Association. A) Promote the professional growth and development of all nurses. B) Maintain and improve the standards of nursing education. C) Limit access to health-care services to individuals in need. D) Control the independence of practice by nurses to those with BS degrees. 12. Which group composes the primary membership in the American Nurses Association? A) Schools of nursing B) Health-care facilities such as hospitals C) Individual nurses D) State nursing organizations 13. Identify a key service provided by the American Nurses Association. A) Accrediting schools of nursing B) Improving the standards for higher education in nursing C) Improving health and nursing care throughout the world D) Testing and certifying advanced practice nurses 14. What is the primary goal of the National Student Nurses Organization? A) Changing curricula in schools of nursing to allow more students to graduate B) Eliminating poor and unprofessional nursing professors from schools of nursing C) Maintaining high standards of education in schools of nursing D) Keeping unqualified students from entering the profession 15. What is the most significant benefit to a student who belongs to the National Student Nurses Association? A) Receiving the official publication, Imprint, along with the membership B) Experiencing firsthand the operation, activities, and professionalism of a national organization C) Obtaining one of the many large cash scholarships available through the organization D) Joining an elite group that has a great deal of power and a wide range of control over other students 16. Identify the primary advantage that grassroots organizations have over large, well-established organizations. A) Members are very passionate about only one or two issues. B) The organization is usually well funded from local sources. C) Membership is drawn from a diverse, more representative population. D) The organization deals with issues that have national significance. 17. Why is it important to determine if the goals and purposes of a specialty organization are at odds with the goals and purposes of the American Nurses Association? A) Divergent goals produce better dialog between groups of nurses to improve both the quality and the options for care. B) Nurses will have a choice between several distinct options and can make more informed decisions about which organization to belong to. C) Legislators can become easily confused if they receive conflicting information from several different groups of nurses. D) The health-care system has become so complex that only a wide range of options for the provision of health care can successfully be used. COMPLETION 1. Fill in the blanks with the correct word(s) to complete the following statement: One of the most important factors in recent changes that have occurred in the health-care system is demands by __________ __________ for higher quality care. health-care; consumers 2. Fill in the blanks with the correct word(s) to complete the following statement: The primary driving force in the history of the development of licensure for nurses was _____________ _____________ of nursing care and protection of the public. inconsistent; quality MULTIPLE RESPONSE 1. Select all of the items characteristics of the New York State Licensure Bill of 1904. A) Required hospitals to accept nursing students for training B) Required nursing schools to be registered with the state board of regents C) Formulated rules for the examination of nurses D) Established the minimum length of basic nursing programs at 1 year E) Established a State Board of Nursing Chapter 17 1. What is the underlying principle upon which all definitions of civility are built? A) Good manners B) The Civil Rights Act of 1974 C) Recognizing the importance of all human beings D) The fight against injustice and oppression 2. The caring-civility link is best exemplified by which of the following? A) Helping in disasters in foreign countries B) Conducting scholarly research into overcoming health-care disparities C) Accepting criticisms from physicians even though unjustified D) Making nursing assignments based on clients’ needs and nurses’ skills 3. Which element increases the likelihood of incivility? A) Using a problem-solving approach B) Using assertive communication C) Internalizing workplace issues D) Increased levels of stress 4. Why are interpersonal bonds important in establishing an environment of civility? A) It provides individuals with a feeling that they have a duty to each other B) Individuals are less likely to demonstrate incivility to others they know well C) A close family atmosphere always enhances civility D) People are more likely to overlook individuals imperfections 5. What has been identified as a key element to effective education of nursing students A) A feeling of personal safety in the classroom setting B) Low stress levels produced by decreased work assignments C) Permitting students to use cell phones during classes D) High-quality interpersonal relationships between students and teachers 6. What is an example of horizontal violence? A) A student talking back to an instructor in the classroom B) Posting false and derogatory information on FaceBook about a fellow student C) Faculty assigning additional homework when students fall asleep during class D) Keying the car of faculty who are unreasonable and unfair 7. Identify the characteristic that would commonly be found in an individual recognized as a “violator/tormentor”? A) Self-absorption and negative attitudes B) High self-esteem and rigid behavior C) Positive attitudes and codependence D) High energy levels and manipulative behavior 8. What action would contribute most in preventing experienced nurses from “eating their young”? A) Punishing experienced nurses with extra shifts for displaying incivility to new graduates B) Keeping new graduate nurses segregated as much as possible from hostile experienced nurses until they gain more on-the-job experience C) Providing in-service training sessions for experienced nurses on civility D) Teaching new nurses to be more assertive and to express their opinions without fear 9. What is the first step in defusing the spiral of incivility? A) Reflecting on the problem B) Developing a plan to resolve the problem C) Active listening to a fellow worker’s accounts of incivility D) Reporting the incident to a superior 10. How does transformational leadership aid in reversing incivility in the work or school environment? A) Nurse leaders learn how to develop plans to deal with incivility when it occurs. B) It acts as a lens through which leaders can reflect and change inequalities. C) It creates a more open channel of communication from workers to leaders. D) It maintains the status quo so that the environment is more predictable, thereby reducing workers’ stress levels. 11. What is the most serious consequence of bullying and intimidation in the workplace? A) Client safety is jeopardized. B) Nurses quit after a short time, which increases the nursing shortage even more. C) The morale of the workplace becomes very negative. D) Hospital costs increase and reduce the ability to purchase necessary equipment. 12. Identify the primary role of civility in the nursing profession. A) It allows nurses to practice without fear of retaliation. B) Unit morale is maintained at a high level, increasing productivity. C) Civility is simply an expectation of professional behavior. D) Civility in the profession enables nurses to make caring the focal point of their practice. 13. Which of the following statements is most accurate about individuals who bully other people? A) They obtain their reward when the bullied individual stands up to them. B) They have low self-esteem and poor self-image. C) They use bullying as a form of entertainment. D) Their targets usually are strong-willed and confident, and they use bullying as a way to “bring them down a peg or two.” 14. Identify the item that is not a manifestation of covert lateral violence. A) Making faces behind someone’s back B) Whining C) Threatening body language D) Fabrication 15. Which of the following statements is most accurate about lateral violence? A) It is a new phenomenon for the nursing profession. B) Oppression theory notes that marginalization is a key contributing factor to lateral violence. C) It has not been connected by research to the production of physical symptoms. D) The concept of inappropriate use of coercive power becomes a key element in lateral violence. 16. Extreme bottom-up vertical violence can sometimes manifest itself as: A) using passive-aggressive ways to decrease productivity. B) an environment that remains in a constant state of fear. C) an employee “going postal” and causing physical injury. D) decreased communication. 17. All of the following are methods faculty can use to overcome academic incivility, except: A) become a catalyst and a change agent in one’s own nursing program. B) make civility and cooperation a key element in the vision, mission statement, and outcomes of the program. C) revise the curriculum so that shared values, collegiality, and collaboration are threads that guide students and faculty in the learning process. D) develop and post a list of uncivil behaviors that nursing faculty display. MULTIPLE RESPONSE 1. Select all of the elements that may make a person a target for bullying. A) Being highly self-confident B) Having a different sexual orientation C) Possessing physical defects D) Defending himself or herself against bullies E) Unintentionally displaying an attitude of timidity F) Being ostracized from the group 2. Select all of the elements that are commonly a result of workplace lateral violence. A) A toxic work environment B) Increased self-esteem C) Workplace physical violence D) Psychological pain E) Positive emotions F) Anxiety 3. Select all of the actions that the Nursing Organizations Alliance recommends help build a positive workplace environment and overcome incivility. A) Developing an action plan to immediately stop lateral violence and bullying B) Training leaders competent in cooperation and communication C) Sharing decision-making with all those it will affect D) Developing professional standards including the development and acquisition of an appropriate set of values and an ethical framework in the work environment E) Continuously developing employee skills and clinical knowledge F) Recognizing and rewarding employees’ contributions COMPLETION 1. Fill in the blanks with the correct word(s) to complete the following statement: When the ____________ ________________ _______________becomes part of the culture of a unit or institution, it may not even be recognized as bullying. bullying; vicious; circle Chapter 14 1. What is acute care of sick persons that is provided in hospitals called? A) Primary intervention B) Secondary intervention C) Tertiary intervention D) Assistive intervention 2. Identify a negative effect of the centralization of health care in hospitals rather than the home setting. A) Minimized individual responsibility B) Increased concerns about the cost of health care C) Professionalization of nursing D) Increased reliance on advanced technology 3. Which element is usually excluded in the current trend toward decentralized health care? A) Provision of care on an outpatient basis B) Emphasis on the cure of illness C) Promotion of responsible self-care practices D) Cost containment measures by health-care providers 4. Which demographic factor has the most significant effect on the health-care delivery system of the future? A) Large numbers of babies being born to minority women B) Increasing use of alcohol and tobacco among teenagers C) Rapidly increasing average age of the population D) Oversupply of nurses 5. Identify the most significant element in the continued rise in health-care costs in the United States. A) Expensive new technology B) Increasing need for long-term care C) Lack of motivation for consumers to comparison shop D) Expensive new medications 6. What is the most important reason why nurses should be familiar with health-care reimbursement methods? A) It allows nurses to be informed client advocates. B) Nursing care plans can be developed based on financial incentives to lower costs. C) Nurses can decide which tests do and do not need to be conducted for particular clients. D) Decisions can be made about when a client can be discharged based on reimbursement restrictions. 7. What is a major problem identified with self-insured health-care plans? A) Increased cost to the members B) Shielding from many state tax regulations C) Exclusion of potential employees based on their health history D) Elimination of outside regulators to supervise private insurance plans 8. What is a result of past difficulties with the Blue Cross/Blue Shield insurance plans? A) Increased emphasis on preventative health care B) Involvement of the hospital boards of directors to lower costs C) More private insurance companies administering Blue Cross/Blue Shield programs D) Transfer of more power to physicians’ groups to monitor the flow of money within the program 9. Identify where diagnosis-related groups (DRGs) are primarily used. A) Private insurance companies B) Prospective payment systems C) Retrospective payment systems D) Current reimbursement systems 10. Which methods are used by health maintenance organizations (HMOs) to reduce the cost of health-care delivery? A) Increasing the number of diagnostic studies to detect diseases early B) Encouraging clients to remain in the hospital longer so that they can recover completely and not be readmitted C) Referring more clients to specialists so that complex health-care problems can be treated better D) Providing more health promotion and illness prevention services 11. The primary difference between HMOs and independent practice associations (IPAs) is that under the IPA system: A) physicians lose much of their control over health-care delivery. B) clients pay on a fee-for-service basis rather than prepaid premiums. C) nurses receive reimbursement on an individual basis for the care they provide. D) the number of services provided is not limited. 12. The major advantage that preferred provider organization (PPO) payment systems have over HMOs is that the PPOs: A) extend benefits beyond the use of their services at an increased rate. B) require copayment fees each time a service is rendered. C) have services that are used by a smaller number of clients, which reduces the wait for services. D) have a system that reduces costs more. 13. What is the key element in the horizontal integration of health-care services? A) The use of a fee-for-service payment method B) One hospital providing the entire scope of services, so clients can be cared for without referral outside the system C) Several health-care agencies working together to cut costs by sharing resources D) The development of clinics outside the hospital to provide services traditionally found in the hospital 14. What is the primary focus of nurse-run clinics? A) Health promotion B) Disease cure C) Pregnancy counseling services D) Cost control 15. Identify the factor that is most important in the increased development of alternative ambulatory services. A) Increased length of hospital stays B) New technology that enables complicated and dangerous procedures to be performed on an outpatient basis C) Consumer demand for more technology in the cure of disease D) Establishment of satellite clinics in suburbs and rural communities 16. Identify a type of care delivery model that is task oriented in that each person performs a specific job to meet a particular need of the unit. A) Modular nursing B) Team nursing C) Primary care nursing D) Functional nursing 17. Identify a type of care delivery model that focuses on the whole person and gives the nurse responsibility for all of the client’s nursing needs. A) Modular nursing B) Team nursing C) Primary care nursing D) Functional nursing 18. What is a type of care delivery model based on a decentralized organizational system that emphasizes close interdisciplinary collaboration? A) Modular nursing B) Team nursing C) Primary care nursing D) Functional nursing 19. Which care delivery model takes a unified approach to client care involving different levels of care providers working together to achieve client health-care goals? A) Modular nursing B) Team nursing C) Primary care nursing D) Functional nursing 20. Cross-trained personnel are an integral part of which of the following care delivery models? A) Team nursing B) Modular nursing C) Primary care nursing D) Functional nursing 21. What is the primary advantage of the case method of care delivery? A) It is inexpensive and cost effective. B) It allows several health-care providers trained at different levels to provide care at the same time. C) It gives nurses a high degree of autonomy and responsibility. D) It allows nurses with minimal education to provide high-quality care for all clients. 22. Which two types of care delivery models are commonly used in managed care? A) Functional and team nursing B) Case management and functional nursing C) Modular nursing and primary care nursing D) Case management and primary care nursing 23. What is the primary goal of using the Six Sigma process in the health-care setting? A) Providing a reliable process of care in all cases by eliminating errors B) Helping nurses increase the number of clients for which they can safely care C) Increasing data collection used in evidenced-based practice D) Organizing client care based on a reliable statistical model COMPLETION 1. Fill in the blank with the correct word(s) to complete the following statement: The _________________ health-care system uses tax dollars to pay for health services through health insurance available from a nonprofit agency (e.g., government). Type II MULTIPLE RESPONSE 1. Select all of the components that are found in the Canadian Federal-Provincial Arrangements and Established Programs Financing Act. A) Per capita payments are made based on previous expenditures and adjusted regularly in relation to the gross national product (GNP). B) No out-of-pocket expenses are required for any health care. C) Tax points are transferred by the federal government, allowing provinces to reduce their tax contribution to the federal government and at the same time increase the portion of tax collected at the provincial level. D) Equalization of tax points is distributed among poorer provinces. E) Coverage is not extended to government employees because they have their own system of health-care payment. F) Additional per capita payments are indexed to help pay for nursing home, residential care, home care, and ambulatory care. 2. Select the primary goals of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA) of 2010. A) Increasing the tax rate on the wealthy B) Addressing inequities in insurance coverage C) Helping the struggling elderly D) Providing a way to insure all Americans E) Increasing the number of large hospitals F) Breaking the insurance industry’s strangle hold on health care 3. Select the phases used in the Six Sigma process. A) Define B) Measure C) Verify D) Analyze E) Implement F) Control

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