ATI TEAS 6 - Science (Human Anatomy and Physiology)
ATI TEAS 6 - Science (Human Anatomy and Physiology)
Hierarchy of Structures
Lowest Hierarchy level is at Organelles within a cell. They obtain energy from food and reproduction.
-Cells with the same function are collected into larger groups called Tissues.
-Tissues are collected into Organs, carry out single task, like oxygenated blood (lungs), or filter out waste (kidneys).
-Organs work together in systems that perform coordinated large-scale functions,
like nourishing the body (digestive) or protecting the body from attacks (immune).
Organelles: Cell parts that function within a cell. They coordinate with other organelles to performs a cell's basic function, like energy processing and waste excretion.
~Examples: Ribosomes, Golgi Apparatus, Mitochondria, The Nucleus.
-Nucleus: Small structure that contains Chromosomes and Regulates the DNA of a cell. Defining structure of eukaryotic cells. It is responsible for the passing on of genetic traits between generations.
-Contains: nuclear envelope, nucleoplasm, a nucleolus, nuclear pores, chromatin, and ribosomes.
Highly condensed, threadlike rods of DNA. DNA is genetic material that stores information about the plant or animal.
Consists of the DNA and Proteins that make up chromosomes.
Structure contained within the nucleus, consists of proteins. Small, Round, and
does not have a membrane. Involved in protein synthesis, and synthesizes and stores RNA.
Encloses the nucleus. Consists of inner and outer membranes made of lipids.
Involved in exchange of material between nucleus and the cytoplasm.
Liquid within the membrane and is similar to cytoplasm.
-Made of Lipids and Proteins
-Isolates the cell from its external environment while still enabling the cellar to communicate with the outside environment.
-Consists: Phospholipid bilayer with the hydrophilic ends of the outer layer facing external environment.
~Cholesterol: Adds stiffness and flexibility
~Glycolipids: Help cell to recognize other cells of the organisms.
~Proteins: Help give cells shape
~Special Proteins: Helps cell communicate with external environment.
~Other Proteins: Transport molecules across membrane
With regard to size, charge, and solubility.
-Size: Membrane allows small molecules to diffuse through it. Oxygen and Water molecules are small and can pass through the cells membrane.
-Charge: Ions on a cells surface either attracts or repels ions. Ions with like charges are repelled, and ions with opposite charges are attracted to the surface.
-Solubility: Molecules that are soluble in phospholipids can usually pass through the membrane. Many are not able to diffuse the membrane, and if anything they'll have to be moved through by active transport and vesicles
Inside the cell. Contain: Ribosomes, Golgi Apparatus, Vacuoles, Vesicles, Cytoskeleton, Microtubules, Cytosol, Cytoplasm, Cell Membrane, Endoplasmic Reticulum, Mitochondria
Involved in synthesizing proteins from amino acids.
-Make up about a quarter of a cell.
-Some are embedded in the Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum (Rough ER)
Involved in synthesizing materials like proteins that are transported out of the cell.
~Modifies and Packages proteins secreted from the cell.
-Located near the nucleus and has layers of membranes.
Sacs used for storage, digestion, and waste removal.
-Plant: Has one large vacuole
-Animal: Has small, sometimes numerous vacuoles.
Small organelle within a cell, has a membrane.
-Functions: Moving materials within a cell.
Consist of microtubules that help shape and support the cell.
Part of cytoskeleton.
-Help support the cell.
-Made of proteins
Liquid materials in the cell. Mostly water, also contains floating molecules.
Refers to Cytosol and the substructures (organelles) found within the plasma membrane, but not within the nucleus.
Acting as a barrier. Helps keep cytoplasm in and substances located outside the cell out.
-Helps determine what is allowed to exit and enter.
-Rough ER: Has ribosomes on surface.
~Functions: Manufacture lysosomal enzymes, Manufacture of secreted proteins. (Protein production, protein folding, quality control, and despatch)
-Smooth ER: Has no ribosomes.
~Functions: Manufacture Lipids (fat), Metabolism, Steroid Hormone production (adrenal cortex and endocrine glands), Helps liver detox.
-Tubular Network that comprises the transport system of a cell. It is fused to the nuclear membrane and extendsthrough cytoplasm to the cell membrane.
Vary in terms of size and quantity. Has various functions.
-Functions: Production of Cell Energy (ATP) (Main function), Cell Signaling (Communications are carried out), Cell Differentiation (Cell transforms into a cell with more specialized purpose), Cell Cycle and Growth Regulation (Growth and Death, Reproduction).
-Inner and Outer membrane:
~Inner: Encloses the matrix. Contains mtDNA and ribosomes.
~Between the 2 Membranes: Cristae (Folds). Chemical reactions occur here that release energy, Control Water Levels in cells, and Recycle and Create Proteins and Fats.
-Aerobic Respiration: Occurs in Mitochondria.
Animal Cell Structure
Contains: Centrosomes, Centriole, Lysosome, Cilia, Flagella Centrosome
Pair of centrioles located at right angles to each other and surrounded by protein.
-Involved in Mitosis and Cell Cycle
Cylinder-shaped structures near the nucleus.
-Involved in Cellular Division
-Each cylinder consist of 9 Groups of 3 Microtubules. Occurs in pairs.
-Functions: Digest proteins, lipids, and carbohydrates. Also transports undigested substances to the membrane do they can be removed. Shape depends on material being transported.
Appendages extending from the surface of the cell.
-Moves the cell and results in fluid being moved by the cell. Flagella
Tail-like structures on cell that use whip-likemovements to help move the cell. Longer than Cilia. Only has one or a few flagella.
The process by which a cell reproduces which involves cell growth, duplication of genetic material, and cell division.
-Complex organisms: Use the cell cycle to replacecells as they lose their functionality and wear out.
-In Animals: Cell Cycle can take 24 hours.
-Human Skin Cells: Constantly reproducing.
-2 Ways for Cell Reproduction: Mitosis and Meiosis
Determines the different cell types
-When less-specialized cell becomes a more-specialized cell. Process is controlled by genes of each cell among a group of cells known as a zygote.
-Cell builds certain proteins and other pieces that set it apart as a specific type of cell.
~Example: Gastrulation (early phase in embryonic development in animals) Mitosis
Events that occur: Interphase, Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase, Telophase, and Cytokinesis.
Cell prepares for division by replicating its genetic and cytoplasmic material.
-Further divided into G1, S, G2 (Meiosis) Prophase
-Chromatin thickens into chromosomes and the nuclear membrane begins to disintegrate.
-Pairs of Centrioles move to opposite sides and spindle fibers begins to form.
-Mitotic Spindle moves chromosomes around wishing the cell.
Spindle moves to the center of the cell and chromosome pairs align along the center of the spindle structure.
Pair of chromosomes, sisters, begin to pull apart and may bend. When they separate, they are called daughters. Grooves then appear in cell membrane.
Spindle disintegrates, nuclear membranes reform, and the chromosome revert to chromatin.
-Animals Cells: Membrane is pinched
-Plant Cells: New cell wall begins to form
Physical splitting of the cell into two cells
- Some believe it occurs following telophase, others say it occurs from anaphase, as the cell begins to furrow, through telophase, when cell actually splits into two.
Same phased as Mitosis, except it happens twice and differentevent occur during some phases.
-First Phase: Interphase(1), Prophase(1), Metaphase(1), Anaphase(1), Telophase(1), and Cytokinesis(1)
-Second Phase: Prophase(2), Metaphase(2), Anaphase(2), Telophase(2), and Cytokinesis(2).
Interphase(1) Divided into 3 Parts:
-G1 Phase: Cell synthesizes proteins, including the enzymes and structural proteins it will need for growth. In G1, each of the chromosomes consists of a single linear molecule of DNA.
-S Phase: The genetic material is replicated; each of the cell's chromosomes duplicates to become two identical sister chromatids attached at a centromere.
-G2 Phase: DNA Replication Prophase(1)
-Chromosomes cross over, Genetic material is exchanged, and te trades of four chromatids are formed. Nuclear membrane dissolves/breaks down.
Pair of homologous chromosomes move along the metaphase plate. Anaphase(1)
Microtubules shorten, and homologous pairs of chromatids are separated and travel to different poles.
Telophase(1) and Cytokinesis(1)
Pairs arrives at poles and cell is pinched apart, separating into two cells. Prophase(2)
Disappearance of the nucleoli and the nuclear envelope again as well as the shortening and thickening of the chromatids. Centrosomes move to the polar regions and arrange spindle fibers for the second meiotic division.
Centromeres contain two kinetochores (pulls the chromosomes to the poles) that attach to spindle fibers from the centrosomes at opposite poles.
Remaining centromeric cohesion is cleaved allowing the sister chromatids to segregate. The sister chromatids by convention are now called sister chromosomes as they move toward opposing poles.
Telophase (2) and Cytokinesis(2)
Marked by decompensation and lengthening of the chromosomes and the disassembly of the spindle. Nuclear envelopes reform and cleavage or cell plate formation eventually produces a total of four daughter cells, each with a haploid set of chromosomes.
Groups of cells that work together to perform a specific function
-Grouped into 4 broad categories: Muscle (Body Movement), Nerve (Brain, Spinal Cord, and Nerves), Epithelial (Layers of Skin/Membranes), and Connective Tissue (Bone tissue, Cartilage, Tendons, Ligaments, Fat, Blood, and Lymph).
~Includes: Epithelial, Connecting, Cartilage, Blood, Bone, Muscle, and Nervous. Epithelial Tissue
Cells are joined together tightly
-Example: Skin Tissue
May be dense, loose, or fatty.
-It protects and binds body parts.
Cushions and provides structural support for body parts.
- Jelly-Like base and is fibrous
Transports Oxygen to cells and Removes wastes.
-Carries hormones and Defends against disease. Bone Tissue
Hard tissue that supports and protects softer tissues and organs.
-Marrow produces RBC
Helps support and move the body.
~Smooth: Provides tension in the blood vessels, control pupil dilation, and aid in peristalsis.
~Cardiac: Only found in the heart
~Skeletal: Includes the muscles commonly called biceps, triceps, hamstrings, and quadriceps.
Neurons form a network through the body that control responses to change in the external and internal environment. Some send signals to muscles and glands to trigger responses.
-Located in brain, spinal cord, and nerves
3	Primary Body Planes
-Transverse Plane (Horizontal): Divides the patient's body into upper and lower halves.
-Sagittal Plane (Vertical): Divides the body, or any body part, into right and left sections. Runs parallel to the midline of the body.
-Coronal Plane (Vertical/Frontal): Divides the body, or any body part, into front and back. Runs through the body at right angles.
Terms of Direction
-Medial: Towards the mid-line, Middle, Away from the side.
~Example: The little finger it medial to the thumb.
-Lateral: Toward the side, Away from the mid-line.
~Example: Anatomical position, Thumb is lateral to little finger.
-Proximal: Structures closer to the center of the body.
~Example: Hip is proximal to the knee.
-Distal: Structures further away from center of the body.
~Example: Knee is distal to the hip.
-Anterior: Structures in front.
-Posterior: Structures behind.
-Cephalad/Cephalic: Adverbs meaning towards the head.
~Example: Cranial is the adjective, meaning The Skull.
-Caudad: Adverb meaning towards the tail/posterior.
~Example: Caudal is the adjective, meaning The Hindquarters.
-Superior: Above, or closer to the head.
-Inferior: Below, or closer to the feet.
Group of tissues that work together to perform specific functions. Organ Systems
Group of organs that work together to perform specific functions.
-Includes: Respiratory, Cardiovascular, Gastrointestinal, Nervous, Muscular, Integumentary, Reproductive, Endocrine, Renal/Urinary, Immune, and Skeletal. Respiratory System Structures
Upper: nose, nasal cavity, mouth, pharynx larynx
Lower: trachea, lungs, and bronchial tree (bronchi, bronchial network)
- Lined with cilia to remove microbes and debris
Bronchial Tree -> lungs -> terminate into alveoli (air sacs) -> gas exchange with blood capillaries
Walls of Alveoli allow for the exchange of gases* with the blood capillaries that surround them.
Right lung - 3 Lobes Left lung - 2 Lobes
-Surrounded by Pleural Membrane (reduce friction)
Diaphragm: separates thoracic/abdominal cavities
Intercostal: between ribs
-Supplies body with oxygen and Removes carbon dioxide (occurs in alveoli)
-Filters Air: passes through nasal passages -> lungs
-Speech: Air -> throat -> through larynx, causing vibrations and producing sound before heading to trachea
-Cough: Particles -> nasal passages/airways -> expelled from body
-Smell: Chemoreceptors (nasal cavity) respond to airborne chemicals Hyperventilation
Increase blood pH during Acidosis (low pH)
Slow breathing during Alkalosis (high pH) -Lowers blood pH Breathing Process
-Diaphragm/Intercostal muscles contracts to expand lungs
-Inspiration (Inhalation): Diaphragm contracts and moves down increasing the chest cavity
-Expiration (exhalation): Intercostal muscles contractand ribs expand, increasing size of chest cavity
~Volume of chest cavity increases, then the pressure inside chest cavity decreases
~When relaxed: Size of cavity decreases forcing air out.
-Controlled by Medulla Oblongata
~Monitors carbon dioxide in blood, signals the breathing rate to increase when levels are too high.
High Altitude: Decrease lung function due to low oxygen levels.
*People who live in high altitude, evolve over time to have larger lungs.
Chemicals, Pollen, Smoke: Damaged cilia causing Emphysema, Allergies, or Inflammation.
Pathogens: Influenza (corona virus), Tuberculosis (mycobacterium), and Pneumonia (walking - mycoplasma infection)
*Mycosis -> Fungus
Cystic Fibrosis (gene mutation), Asthma, Lung Surfactant Insufficiency: Impedes lung action.
Process of aerating the lungs Respiratory Directions
Air -> Trachea -> Bronchi -> Lungs -> Alveoli Alveoli
-Aqueous Surfactant: The median for gas exchange and keeps lungs from collapsing on itself due to surface tension
Pathway of Oxygen/Carbon Dioxide in Lungs
How Respiratory System effects Circulatory System
-Lungs are perfumed by blood vessels from the heart to bring deoxygenated blood rich in carbon dioxide to the lungs, where oxygen is added and carbon dioxide is removed to return oxygenated blood to the heart for circulation to the rest of the of the body
-Diffusion: Passive transport mechanism. Rate of Diffusion is directly proportional to the surface area involved and the concentration gradient, and is inversely proportional to the distance between the two. solutions.
-Oxygen in the lungs moves into the blood, and carbon dioxide in the blood moves to the lungs. Lungs then exhale carbon dioxide back out of body.
Amount of air breathed in and out of lungs
-Small amount of stale air.
-Remains trapped in alveoli after expiration and mixes with the fresh air brought in by inspiration.
Internal transport of substances to and from the cells.
-3 Parts: Blood, Blood Vessels, and Heart.
-Open or Closed.
Human has 5 quarts of blood.
Plasma: Half blood volume. Mostly water, serves as solvent.
-Contains: plasma proteins, ions, glucose, amino acids, hormones, and dissolved gases.
RBC (red): Transports oxygen to cells. Form in bone marrow. Live for 2 Months, constantly replaced.
WBC (white): Defends body against infection and removes waste.
~Lymphocytes, neutrophil, monocytes, eosinophil, and basophil.
Platelets: Fragments of stem cells.
~Function: Blood Clotting
4	Chambers: 2 Ventricles, 2 Atriums -Halves separated by AV Valve (located between ventricle and artery leading away from the heart).
Types of Circulation
Coronary: Flow of blood to the heart tissue. Blood enters the coronary arteries, which branch off the aorta, supplying major arteries, which enter the heart with oxygenated blood.
Deoxygenated blood returns to the right atrium through the cardiac veins which empty into the coronary sinus.
Pulmonary: Flow of blood between the heart and the lungs. Deoxygenated blood flows from the right ventricle to the lungs through pulmonary arteries. Oxygenated blood flows back to the left atrium through the pulmonary veins.
Systemic: Flow of blood to the entire body with the exception of coronary and pulmonary. Blood exits the left ventricle through the aorta, which branches into the carotid arteries, subclavian arteries, common iliac arteries, and the renal artery. Blood returns to the heart through the jugular veins, subclavian veins, common iliac veins, and renal veins, which empty into the superior and inferior vena cavae.
-Portal circulation: Included in Systemic. Flow of blood from the digestive system to the liver and then to the heart and renal circulation, which is the flow of blood between the heart and kidneys.
Fluid pressure generated by the cardiac cycle.
Arterial: Functions by transporting oxygen-poor blood into the lungs and oxygen-rich blood to the body tissues.
-Arteries branch into smaller arterioles which contract and expand based on signals from the body.
-Arterioles are where adjustments are made in blood delivery to specific areas based on complex communication from body systems.
Capillary Beds: Diffusion sites for exchanges between blood and interstitial fluid. Capillary: Has thinnest wall of any vein, consisting of single cell endothelial cells. Merge into venues which in turn merge with larger diameter tubules called veins.
-Veins transport blood from body tissues back to the hearts. Thin and contain smooth muscle and function as blood volume reserves.
-Valves inside the veins facilitate this transport. Lymphatic System
-Function: To return excess tissue fluid to the bloodstream.
-Consists of transport vessels and lymphoid organs.
Lymph Vascular System: Consists of lymph capillaries, lymph vessels, and lymph ducts.
-Function: Return excess fluid to blood, Return of protein from capillaries, Transport of fats from the digestive tract, Disposal of debris and cellular waste.
-Consist of lymph nodes, spleen, appendix, adenoids, thymus, tonsils, and small patches of tissue in the small intestines.
Lymph Nodes: Located at intervals through the lymph vessel system. Contains lymphocytes and plasma cells.
Spleen: Filters blood, stores of RBC and macrophages.
Thymus: Secrets hormones. Major site of lymphocyte maturation.
-Upper left of the abdomen, behind the stomach and below diaphragm.
-Blood vessels are connected to the spleen by splenic sinuses.
-Function: Filter unwanted materials from the blood (including old RBC) and to help fight infections.
-Up to 10% of the population has one or more accessory spleens that tend to form at the hilum of the original spleen.
Peritoneal Ligaments that Support the Spleen
-Gastrolienal: Connects the stomach to the spleen
-Lienorenal: Connects the kidney to the spleen
-Middle Section of the Phenicol ligament: Connects the left colic flex use to the thoracic diaphragm
-Atrial Contraction: Fills ventricles and then ventricular contractions empty them, forcing circulation "cardiac cycle"
-Cardiac Muscles attach to each other and signals for contraction spreading rapidly.
-Complex Electrical System: Controls the heartbeat
-Cardiac Muscle Cells: Produce and conduct electrical signals. Capillaries
Drain interstitial fluid that fills the spaces between cells
-Filters it through a system of lymph nodes that are enriched in lymphocytes and provide surveillance by immune system.
-Essentially plasma with RBCs removed
-Large numbers of leukocytes and lymphocytes are enriched in lymph nodes
-Where they monitor and respond to foreign molecules washed into the system.
-Nodes are enriched in oral, nasal, and genital regions where foreign entities enter the body. Pathologies (Health Issues)
Heart attack, stroke, aneurysms, atherosclerosis, arrhythmia and hypertension. Cardiovascular System Functions
Transporting nutrients, waste, chemical messengers, and immune molecules.
2	Integrated Circulatory System
-Closed Circulatory System
-Open Lymphatic System
Closed Circulatory System
Double-loop system consisting of thick-walled arteries that transport blood away from the hear, thinner-walled veins that transport blood to the heart, and capillaries made of a single layer of endothelium that form a network that connects arteries to veins in tissues.
Transports blood Double Loops
-Pulmonary: Carries deoxygenated blood from the right ventricle to the lungs and returns oxygenated blood to the left atrium.
-Systemic: Carries oxygenated blood from left ventricle to the body, returning deoxygenated blood to the right
Open Lymphatic System
Circulates and filters interstitial fluid between cells and eventually drains into the circulatory system.
-Cleans up excess fluid and proteins and returns them to the blood. Systole and Diastole (Contraction Cycles)
Systole: Contraction of heart muscles
Diastole: Relaxation of heart muscles
Controlled: by a "pacemaker" called the Sinoatrial Node, which sends out electrical signal. Arteries vs. Veins
-Arteries have thick walls to withstand the pressure of blood pumped by the hearts.
-Veins have walls with a thinner muscle layer and larger lumen.
Simplified Overview of the Heart Cycle
The ventricles contract (ventricular systole), causing the Atrioventricular Valves (including mitral and tricuspid valves) to close, making a "lub" sounds. Subsequently, the empty ventricles are filled with blood pushed out during Atrial Systole. Same time, the Semilunar Valves in the aorta and pulmonary arteries close, preventing blood from falling back into the ventricles, making a "dub" sound, and completing the "lub-dub" sound of the heart.
Where does Gastrointestinal start and end? Starts at mouth
Ends at Anus
What does saliva provide? What initiates it?
Amylase and Lipase
Initiates chemical digestion for starch and lipids. Bolus
Food packaged into small parcels Then swallowed
Moves bolus down to stomach through gastric sphincter (prevents back flow into esophagus)
-Initiates chemical digestion of proteins by this enzyme
-Activated by acid and autocatalyst
Lubricates the food in the saliva
The 3 Main Secretions of the Stomach
Pepsinogen (chief cells), Mucus(goblet cells), hydrochloric acid (parietal cells)
All three secretions together
Chyme neutralized by?
Bicarbonate in pancreatic secretions Duodenum receives what from gall bladder? Alkaline bile juices.
Duodenum produces what enzymes?
-"Brush Border" enzymes
-Proteases, Lactase and other disaccharides, and bicarbonate.
Villi and Microvilli function?
Absorb polar digested nutrients into blood, lipids into lacteals as chylomicrons, and B12
Blood carrying nutrients passes through? Allowing what to happen?
-Through hepatic portal duct to the liver
- Allowing liver enzymes to deaminate amino, convert ammonia to urea, metabolize consumed toxins, and to store glucose as glycogen.
Small Intestines Absorb what? A lot of water and nutrients
Small intestines include what structure in the order of digestion? Duodenum->jejunum->ileum
Digestive System Functions
-Movement: Mixes and passes nutrients through the system and eliminates waste.
-Secretion: Enzymes, hormones, and other substances necessary for digestion are secreted into the digestive tract.
-Digestion: Chemical breakdown of nutrients into smaller units that enter the internal environment
-Absorption: Passage of nutrients through plasma membranes into the blood or lymph and then to the body.
Structure of Digestive System
Mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small and large intestines, rectum, and anus.
Infused into digestive systems to assist the absorption and processing of nutrients. What controls the Digestive System?
Nervous and Endocrine Systems Beginning of Digestion
-Mouth: By chewing and mixing of nutrients with saliva.
-Salivary Glands: Stimulated and secrete saliva.
~Saliva: Contains enzymes that initiate the breakdown of starch in digestion.
-Once swallowed, food moved down Pharynx into the Esophagus, headed towards the stomach.
-Mixing and storing foods
-Dissolving and degrading good via secretions
-Controlling passage of food into the small intestines. Protein digestion begins in stomach
-Acidity helps break down the food and make nutrients available for absorption. Smooth muscle contractions move nutrients into the small intestines where absorption process begins. Small Intestines
-Enzymes from pancreas, liver, and stomach are transported here to aid digestion.
-Enzymes act on fats, carbohydrates, nucleic acids, and proteins.
-Gall Bladder: stores bile (useful in fat break down)
-Epithelial cells at the surface of villi (microvilli), to further increase the ability of the small intestine to serve as the main absorption organ.
-Concentrates, mixes, and stores waste material
-Rectal wall is distended by waste material, the nervous system triggers an impulse in the body to expel the waste from the rectum.
-Muscle sphincter at the end of the anus is stimulating facilitates the expelling of waste matter.
-Speed of waste movement through colon is influenced by volume of fiber and other undigested materials present.
-Lack of Bulk in diet: Bowel obstructions, constipation.
-Largest solid organ in body, largest gland
-4 Lobes: Right, left, quadrate, and caudate.
-Secured to diaphragm and abdominal walls by 5 ligaments (falciform, coronary, right triangular, left triangular, and round ligaments).
-Lobules: Blood enters here through branches of the hepatic portal vein and hepatic artery. Then flows through small channels called sinusoids.
-Processes all the blood that passes through digestive system.
-Nutrients are converted into forms appropriate for the body to use Liver Function
-Production of bile, certain blood plasma proteins, cholesterol
-Storage of excess glucose in the form of glycogen
-Regulation of amino acids and blood clotting
-Processing of hemoglobin’s
-Conversion of ammonia
-Purification of the blood
-Controlling infections by boosting immune factors and removing bacteria. Pancreas
-Head: wider side, Tail: Narrower side
-Exocrine and endocrine tissue
-Exocrine: Secretes digestive enzymes from a series of ducts that collectively form the main pancreatic duct.
~Main pancreatic duct *connects to common bile duct near duodenum
-Endocrine: Secretes hormones (insulin) into the bloodstream.
-Blood is supplied from the splenic artery, gastroduodenal artery, and the superior mesenteric artery.
Digestive Role in Pancreas
-Assists in the digestion of foods by secreting enzymes (to the SM.INT.) that help break down
many foods, like fats and proteins.
-Precursors to enzymes (zymogens) are produced by groups of exocrine cells (acini).
-Converted through a chemical reaction in the gut, to an active enzyme (like pancreatic lipase and amylase) once entered into small intestines.
-Secretes large amounts of sodium bicarbonate to neutralize the stomach avid that reaches the small intestines.
~Controlled by hormones released by the stomach/duodenum when food is present.
~Flow into the main pancreatic duct and are delivered to the duodenum through duct. Nervous System
Senses, Interprets, and Issues commands as a response to conditions in the body's environment. Made by a very complex communication system organized as a grid of neurons. Integrates muscles and nerves.
How are messages sent across Plasma Membrane? By Action Potential
When do messages occur?
Occur when a neuron is Stimulated past a necessary threshold. Stimulations
Occur in a sequence from the stimulation point of One neuron to its contact with another neuron.
"Point of Contact"
-A substance is released that stimulates or inhabits the action of the adjoining cell.
Framework for Nervous System
Network fans out across the body forming the framework.
-The direction the information flows depends on the specific organizations of nerve circuits and pathways.
3	General Functional Types of Neurons
*The Sensory Neurons, Motor Neurons, and Interneurons.
Transmit Signals to the Central Nervous System (CNS) from the sensory receptors associated with touch, pain, temperature, hearing, sight, smell, and taste.
Transmits Signals from CNS to the rest of the body such as by signaling muscles or glands to respond.
Transmits Signals between neurons.
~Interneurons receive transmitted signals between sensory neurons and motor neurons.
3 Basic Neuron Parts
Cell body, The Axon, And many Dendrites.
Receive impulses from sensory receptors or Interneurons and transmit them toward the cell body.
-Strands coming off the Cell body Cell Body of Neuron
- Contains the nucleus of the neuron. The Axon
Transmits the impulses away from the cell body.
-Insulated by oligodendrocytes and the Myelin sheath with gaps knows as nodes of Ranvier.
-Terminates at the synapse.
-Impulse transmitted to the next cell using chemical neurotransmitters secrets into the synapse from the axon terminals.
Central Nervous System
2 Primary Components:
-Spinal Cord and The Brain
Encased in the bony structure of the vertebrae
-Protect and Supports the vertebrae.
-Nervous tissue functions mainly with the respect to limb movement and internal organ activity.
-Nerve tracts ascend and descend from the spinal cord to the brain. Brain
Consist of *Hindbrain (medulla oblongata, cerebellum, and pons) Midbrain integrates sensory signals and orchestrates responses to these signals, Forebrain (cerebrum, thalamus, and hypothalamus)
-Cerebral Cortex: Thin layer of gray matter covering the cerebrum.
-2 Hemispheres: Left and Right. Responsible for multiple functions.
Brains 4 Lobes
Frontal, Parietal, Occipital, and Temporal Lobe
-Located in the front of the brain
-Responsible for a short term/working memory and information processing as well as decision-making, planning, and judgement.
-Located slightly toward the back of the brain and the top of the head.
-Responsible for sensory input as well as spatial positioning of the body. Occipital Lobe
-Located at the back of the head just above the brain stem.
-Responsible for visual input, processing, and output; specifically nerves from the eyes enter directly into this lobe.
-Located at the left and right sides of the brain
-*Responsible for all auditory Input, processing, and output. Cerebellum
-Plays a role in the processing and storing of implicit memories.
~Specifically, for those memories developed during classical conditioning learning techniques.
~ Discovered by exploring the memory of individuals with damaged cerebellum so. Were unable to develop stimulus responses when presented via a classical conditioning technique. Researcher found that this was also the case for automatic responses
-Known as Brain Stem
~Connected to the spinal cord.
-3 Parts: Midbrain, Pons, and Medulla Oblongata.
- Information from the body is sent to the brain through the brain stem, and information from the brain is sent to the body through the brain stem.
-Important part of Respiratory, Digestive, and Circulatory Functions.
-Above the pons and the medulla oblongata.
-Parts: Tectum, the Tegmentum, and the Ventral Tegmentum.
-Important Part of Vision and Hearing.
Comes between midbrain and medulla.
-Information is sent across the pons from the cerebrum to the medulla and the cerebellum.
Piece of the brain stem that connects the spinal cord to the brain.
-Important role with autonomous nervous system in the circulatory and respiratory system.
Peripheral Nervous System
-Consists of nerves and ganglia throughout then body and includes sympathetic nerves which trigger the "fight or flight" response, and the parasympathetic nerves which control
basic body function.
Autonomic Nervous System
(ANS) maintains homeostasis within the body.
-Controls the functions of the internal organs, blood vessels, smooth muscle tissue, and glands. Accomplished through the direction of the hypothalamus (located above the midbrain).
Controls the ANS through the brain stem. Direction from the hypothalamus, the ANS
helps maintain a table body environment by regulating numerous factors including heart rate, breathing rate, body temperature, and blood pH
Sympathetic Nervous System Division of ANS
-Controls the body's reaction to extreme, stressful, and emergency situations.
~Example: Sympathetic NS increases heart rate, signals the adrenal glands to secrete
adrenaline, triggers the dilations of the pupils and slow digestion.
Parasympathetic Nervous System Division of ANS
-Counteracts the effects of the Sympathetic NS
~Example: Parasympathetic NS decreases hearts rate, signals adrenal glands to stop secreting adrenaline, constricts pupils, and returns the digestions process to normal.
Somatic Nervous System
-Controls the 5 senses and the voluntary movement of skeletal muscles.
-Has all the neurons that are connected to the sense organs.
-2 Nerves that send signals to neurotransmitters: Efferent and Afferent. They help SNS operate the senses and the movement of skeletal muscles.
-Brings signals from the CNS to the sensory organs and skeletal muscles.
-Brings signals from the sensory organs and the muscles to the CNS.
-Simplest Nerve Pathway, which bypasses the brain and is controlled by the spinal cord
-Stimulus: Detected by sensory receptors, and a message is send long the afferent (sensory) neuron to one o more interneurons in the spinal cord.
~Interneurons transmit this messages to a efferent (motor) neuron, which carries the message to the correct effector (muscle)
-3 Types of Muscle Tissue: Skeletal, Smooth, and Cardiac.
-3 Common Properties:
~Excitability: Tissues have an electric gradient which can reverse when stimulated.
~Contraction: Tissues have the ability to contract, or shorten.
~Elongate: Tissues share the capacity to elongate, or relax.
-Voluntary muscles that work in pairs to move various parts of the skeleton.
-Composed of muscle fibers (cells) that are bound together in parallel bundles.
-Known as striated muscles due to their stripped appearance under the microscope.
-Only muscle to help with the movement of the body.
Skeletal Muscle Contractions
-Muscle Fibers contains a bundle of myofibrils. Composed of multiple repeating contractile units called Sarcomeres.
-Myofibrils: Contain 2 Protein Microfilaments.
~Myosin: Thick Filament
~Acting: Thin Filament
~Dark bands (striations) in skeletal muscles are formed when thick (myosin) and thin (actin) filaments overlap.
~Light bands are from thin filaments overlapped.
-Attraction occurs when action slides over myosin shortening the sarcomere.
-Action potential reaches a muscle fiber, then calcium ions are released.
~Calcium Ions bind to myosin and actin, which assist in the binding of myosin heads of the thick filament to the actin of the thin filaments.
-Adenosine triphosphate: Released from glucose provides the energy for contraction.
-Involuntary muscles that are found int he walls of internal organs like the stomach, intestines, and blood vessels.
-Cells are shorter and wider than skeletal muscle fibers.
-Found in sphincters or valves that control various openings throughout the body. Cardiac Muscle
-Involuntary muscle found in only the heart
-Cells are striated
Disorders that Disrupt Signals and Responses Muscle Strain, Sprains, Muscular Dystrophy Reproductive System
-Male and Female reproductive systems are complex and involve physical structures, hormones, an secretions.
-Works with the endocrine system to influence many other parts of the body.
Male Reproductive System
-To produce, maintain, and transfer sperm and semen into the female reproductive tracts and to produce and secretemale hormones.
-External Structures: Penis, Scrotum, and Testes
-Internal Structures:Epididymis, Vas Deferens, Ejaculatory Duct, Urethra, Seminal Vesicles, Prostate Glands, and Bulbourethral Glands.
-Contains the Urethra
- Can fill with blood and become erect, enabling the deposition of semen and sperm into the female reproductive tract. during sex.
-Sac of skin and smooth muscle that houses the testes and keeps them at the proper temperature for spermatogenesis.
(Ext.) Testes (Testicles) "Male Gonads"
-Produce sperm and testosterone. (Int.) Epididymis
-Stores sperm as it matures
-Mature sperm moves through vas deferens to the ejaculatory duct. (Int.) Seminal Vesicles
-Secretes Alkaline fluids with proteins and mucusinto the ejaculatory duct, also.
(Int.) Prostate Gland
-Secretes milky white fluid with proteins and enzymes* as part of semen.
(Int.) Bulbourethral (Cowper's)
-Glands that secrete a fluid into the urethra to neutralize the acidity in the urethra. Hormones in Male Reproductive System
-Follicle-stimulating hormone:Stimulates Spermatogenesis
-Luteinizing hormone:Stimulates testosteroneproduction.
-Testosterone:Constantly producing. Responsible for the male sex characteristics (production of mammary glands, axial and facial hair, fat deposition patterns, and muscle growth)
Female Reproductive System
-Produce ova (oocytes, or eggs), transfer the over to the fallopian tubes
for fertilization, receive sperm from male, and to provide a protective, nourishing environment for the developing embryo/fetus
-External Structures: Labia major/minor, Bartholins glands, and clitoris.
-Internal Structures: Ovaries, Fallopian Tubes, Uterus, and Vagina.
(Ext.) Labia Major/Minor Enclose and Protect the vagina. (Ext.) Bartholins glands Secrete a lubricating fluid (Ext.) Clitoris
Contains erectile tissue and nerve endings for sexual pleasure
-Produce the ova and secrete estrogen and progesterone.
-Graafian follicle: In response to changing hormones. Eggs is released as follicle matures.
~Corpus Luteum: Empty Graafian follicle. Produces large amounts of progesterone to prepare the endometrium for implantation of the fertilized egg. Uterine lining sheds if fertlizations doesn't occur.
(Int.) Fallopian Tubes
Carry mature egg towards the uterus.
-Fertilization occurs in fallopian tubes. If fertilized, egg will travel to uterus, where it implants into uterine wall (endometrium) and produces the placenta.
-Placenta: Allows fetus and parents to share blood within eachother. Nourishes the fetus and removes wastes.
Protects and nourishes the developing embryo/fetus until birth
-Cervix: Opening to uterus
-Estrogen: From ovaries. Causes the egg to mature in the Graafian follicle and the uterine wall thickens.
-Luteinizing hormone (LH): From Pituitary Gland. Causes the egg to be released.
Largest Organ: Skin
-Layers of Skin: Epidermis, Dermis, Subcutaneous (Hypodermis)
-Contains organs and glands that are vital to protecting the body and regulating the temperature.
-Consist of Skin, Sebaceous Gland, Sweat Glands, Hair, Nails.
-Variety of functions: Protect, Secrete, and Communicate
-Skin manufactures Vitamin Dand can absorb certain chemicals like certain medications.
Most superficial layer.
-Deepest portion is stratum basal. Single layer of cells that continuously undergo division. Older cells pushed towards the surface.
-Most epidermal cells are Keratinized.
~Keratin: Waxy protein that helps waterproof the skin.
-As cells die they are sloughed off. Dermis
Mostly Connective Tissue
-Contains *Blood Vessels, Sensory Receptors, Hair Follicles, Sebaceous Glands, and Sweat Glands.
-Also, contains Elastin and Collagen
Technically NOT a layer of skin
-Consists of Connective Tissuewhich binds the skin to underlying muscles.
-Fat deposits here to help cushion and insulate the body.
-From pathogens including bacteria, viruses, and various chemicals from entering the body. Secrete
-Sebaceous Gland secretes Sebum (oil) that waterproofs the skin.
-Sweat Glands secrete sweat. Associated with body's homeostatic relationship with thermoregulation.
~Also, serve as excretory organs and help rid the body of metabolic wastes.
-Exocrine Glands found in skin. Secrete through ducts to the skin Communicate
Sensory Receptors distributed throughout the skin send information to the brain regarding pain, touch, pressure, an temperature.
Thermoregulation (Temperature Homeostasis)
-Activated by Sweat Glands
-Body maintains a stable body temperature as one component of a stable internal environment.
-Temperature of the body is controlled by the Negative Feedback System consisting of a receptor, control center, and effector.
Control Center Hypothalamus Effector
The Sweat Glands, Blood Vessels, and Muscles(shivering).
-Evaporation of sweat across the surface of the skin cools the body to maintain tolerance range. Vasodilation: Dilated blood vessels when body is warm. Carry blood to the blood vessels near the surface to release heat into the environment.
Constriction: Constricted blood vessels when body is cold. So, that less blood is carried to the surface.
Looks Like: Flushed cheeks.
~Sebum: Oily mixture of lipids and proteins.
~Inhibits water loss from the skin and protects bacterial and fungal infections.
-Connected to hair folliclesand secrete sebum through the hair pore.
Either Eccrine Glands or Apocrine Glands
-Can contain trace amounts of *Urea, Lactic Acids, and Alcohol.
Eccrine Glands: Not connected to hair follicles.
-Activated by elevated body temperature. Also, as part of body's thermoregulations.
-Located throughout the body and can be found on forehead, neck, and back.
-Secrete a salty solution of electrolytes and water containing sodium chloride, potassium, bicarbonate, glucose, and antimicrobial peptides.
-Secrete oils solution containing fatty acids, triglycerides, and proteins.
-Located in the *armpits, groins, palms, and soles of feet.
-Secrete oil when person is experiencing stress or anxiety.
-Bacteria feed on apocrine sweat and expel fatty acids, producing body odor.
-Set of organs that secrete hormones into the circulatory system. They regulate many patterns in the body for short and long term.
-Contains: *Adrenal, Thyroid, Parathyroid, Pancreas, Thymus, Pineal, Pituitary Glands. Endocrine and Circulatory Relationship
-Hypothalamus and Pituitary Gland coordinate to serve as a neuroendocrine control center.
~Hypothalamus sends sends signals to Pituitary and then they send releasing hormones it to the specific glands.
- Hormones are made at the gland and then released directly into the circulatory system. Received by target cells or organ by hormone-specific receptors.
-Endocrine acts more slowly than nervous system and the effects last longer than the nervous systems impulses.
Triggered by a variety of signals including hormonal signals, chemical reactions, and environment cues.
-Cells with particular receptors can benefit from hormonal influence.
~"Lock and Key" model for hormonal action Steroid Hormones
Triggers gene activation and protein synthesis in some target cells. Protein Hormones
Change the activity of existing enzymes in target cells.
8 Major Endocrine Glands
Adrenal Glands Located on Kidneys
-Adrenal Cortex: Monitors blood sugar level, helps in lipid and protein metabolism.
-Adrenal Medulla: Controls cardiac functions, raises blood sugar, and controls the size of blood vessels.
-Thyroid: Helps regulate metabolism, functions in growth and development. Located in the Neck
-Parathyroid: Regulates calcium levels in blood. Located in the Neck
-Pancreas Islets: Raises an lowers blood sugars, Activate in carbohydrate metabolism. Located on Pancreas
-Thymus: Plays a role in immune responses. Located in front of Heart, behind Sternum.Produces T-Cells.
-Pineal: Has an influence on daily biorhythms and sexual activity. Located in Brain
-Pituitary: Plays an important role in growth and development. Located in Brain
Endocrine Functions of the Pancreas
Amongst the groupings of exocrine cells are groups of endocrine cells, called islets of Langerhans.
-Islets of Langerhans are made up of insulin-producing beta cells (50-80% total) and glucagon-releasing alpha cells*.
-Major hormones produce: Insulin and Glucagon
-Insulin affects fat metabolism and can change livers ability to release stored fat.
~Body uses insulin to control carbohydrate metabolism by lowering the amount of sugar (glucose) in the blood.
-Glucagon has opposite effect of insulin. Body uses it to increase blood sugar levels.
~Body uses glucagon to control carbohydrate metabolism.
Level of Insulin and Glucagon are *balanced to maintain the optimum level of blood sugar throughout the day.
Thyroid and Parathyroid Glands
Located in the neck just below the larynx
Basic function of thyroid gland is to Regulate Metabolism
-Parathyroid Glands are 4 small glands that are embedded on the posterior side of the thyroid glands
-Thyroid Gland: Secretes the hormones *thyroxine, triiodothyronine, and calcitonin.
~Thyroxine and Triiodothyronine: Increases metabolism
~Calcitonin: Decreases blood calcium by storing calcium in bone tissue.
-Hypothalamus directs the pituitary gland to secrete thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), which stimulates the thyroid gland to secrete parathyroid hormone which can increase blood calcium by moving calcium from the bone to the blood.
Endocrine System Regulates Body Functions
Like Blood production, appetite, reproduction, brain functions, sleep cycle, salt-and-water homeostasis, growth, sexual development, and response to stress and anxiety.
-Non-polar, Fat-soluable Hormones: Estrogen and Progesterone. Released in a pattern set by age and development an their effects are long-lasting.
-Other polar, Water-soluable hormones: Epinephrine. Released acutely in response to stress, actions are short lived.
Hormone Imbalance can cause Metabolic Diseases like Diabetes, Hyperthyroidism, and Gigantism.
Genitourinary System (Renal/Urinary System)
*Eliminating excess substances while preserving the substances needed by the body to function.
-Structures; *Kidneys, Ureters, Urinary Bladder, and Urethra.
-Functions: filtering blood, creating urine, stabilizing water balance, maintaining blood pressure, and producing the active form of Vitamin D.
Bean-shaped structures that are located at the back of the abdominal cavity just under the diaphragm.
3 Layers: Renal Cortex, Renal Medulla, and Renal Pelvis.
-Cardiovascular System: Pumps blood into the kidneys through the renal artery. Pressure of the blood helps the glomerulus filter out waste and return vital nutrients to the blood through the renal vein.
-Produce renin: Hormone that regulates blood pressure by retaining or removing water and salt.
-Composed of about one million nephrons (tiny, individual filters of the kidney).
~Nephrons contain a cluster of capillaries called glomerulussurrounded by the cup-shaped Bowman's Capsule, which leads to tubule.
-Kidneys receive blood from the renal arteries, which branch off the aorta. Blood flows from
renal arteries into arterioles into the glomerulus, where it's filtered.
-Glomerular Filtrate: Enters the proximal convulated tubule where water, glucose, ions, and other organic molecules are reabsorbed back into the bloodstream.
-Substance like urea and drugsare removed from the blood in the distal convoluted tubulue.
~pH of the blood can be adjusted in the DST by the secretion of hydrogen ions.
-Urine begins to produce
-Unabsorbed materials (salt and water) flow out from the collecting tubule into the collecting duct.
Collecting ducts drain into renal pelvis which opens into the Ureter.
-Contains: Urea, Water, Salts, and other excess Metabolites.
Drained from the kidneys through the ureters to the urinary bladder, where it is stored until expulsion from the body through the urethra.
-One for each kidney.
-Small tubes that carry Urine from the Kidneys to the Urinary Bladder.
-Hollow, muscular organ that holds 500 to 1000mL of liquid.
-Has sensors that communicate with Cardiovascular System.
~Both, internal and external sphincters of the bladder must be released for excretion to occur.
-Urethra: Tube from bladder to an opening. Urine flows from bladder to opening to be expelled out of body.
Protects the body against invading pathogensincluding bacteria, viruses, fungi, and protists through the presence of barriers composed of skin, and secretions such as acid, enzymes, and salt.
-Includes: Lymphatic System (Lymph, Lymph Capillaries, Lymph Vessel, and Lymph Nodes)
~Also, Red Bone Marrow, numerous Leukocytes, or White Blood Cells.
-Underactivity/Failure: AIDS-Infects T cells and prevents it from activating Cytotoxic T cells and B cells. Preventing Adaptive Immune System from opening.
-Overactive: Allergies-Target innocuous foreign particles (pollen), causing body to go into overdrive by producing huge amounts of IgE that trigger histamine release from mast cells. Autoimmune Disease- Mistakenly target a host molecule as a foreign antigen.
Lymphatic System in the Immune System
-Tissue Fluid enters Lymph Capillaries combined they form Lymph Vessels.
-Skeletal muscle contractions move the lymph one way through the lymphatic system to lymphatic ducts, which dump back into the venous blood supply into the Lymph Nodes, which are situated alone the Lymph Vessels, and filter the lymph of pathogens and other matter.
-Lymph Nodes: Concentrated in the neck, armpits, and groin areas. Outside the Lymphatic Vessel System
-Lymphatic Tissue include the tonsils, adenoids, thymus, spleen, and Peyer's patches.
-Tonsils: Located in the pharynx, protect against pathogens entering the body through the mouth and throat.
-Thymus: Maturation chamber for the immature T-Cells that are formed in the bone marrow.
-Spleen: Cleans the blood of dead cells and pathogens.
-Peyer's Patch: Located in the small intestine, protect the digestive system from pathogens
General Immune Defense
Skin: Intact epidermis and dermis form a formidable barrier against bacteria. Ciliated Mucous Membranes: Cilia sweep pathogens out of the respiratory tract. Glandular Secretions: Secretions from exocrine glands destroy bacteria.
Gastric Secretions: Gastric acid destroys pathogens.
Normal Bacterial Populations: Compete with pathogens in the gut and vagina.
-Phagocytes and Inflammation: Responses mobilize WBC and chemical reactions to stop infection.
~Responses include: Localized redness, tissue repair, and fluid-seeping healing agents.
~Plasma proteins act as the complement system to repel bacteria and pathogens.
3 Types of White Blood Cells
Form the foundation of the body's immune system.
Macrophages: Phagocytes that alert T-Cells to the presence of foreign substances.
T Lymphocytes: Directly attack cells infected by viruses and bacteria.
B Lymphocytes: Cells target specific bacteria for destruction.
Others that contribute to body's defense:
-Memory cells, Suppressor T-Cells, Helper T-Cells
Immune Response to Antigen
-Can be anti-body mediated when the response is to an antigen, or cell-mediated when the response is to already infected cells.
~Responses are controlled and measured counter-attacks that recede when the foreign agents are destroyed.
-Once an invader has attacked the body, if it returns it is immediately recognized and a Secondary Immune Response occurs.
Secondary Immune Response:
-Rapid and Powerful, much more so than the original response.
~Memory lymphocytes circulate throughout the body for years, alert to a possible new attack.
Innate Immune System (Nonspecific Response) External: Internal:
-Secretions (acid, salt, enzymes) -NK Lymphocytes
-Normal Flora -Phagocytes (APC)
Innate Immune System Barriers
-External: Physical (skin and mucus) secretions, Chemical barriers (Low pH, Salt, Enzymes), Cellular barriers of commensal micro-organisms.
~If pathogens breach the barriers and enters the blood or tissues, internal barriers include Antimicrobial peptides; Interferons that prevent viral replication; Complement, which involves the binding of antibodies to the pathogen, inflammation reactions, including fever. NK Lymphocyte cells that engulf and digest extracellular pathogens.
-Macrophages and Dendritic cells respond to conserved pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPS) through toll-like receptors and trigger an inflammation or antigen presentation.
Adaptive Immune System (Respond to Specific Antigen) Reaction: Prevention:
-Cytotoxic T cells -B cells produce kill pathogens antibodies
-Activated by antigen and help T cells.
-Helper T cells are activated by APC
Adaptive Immune System
Responds by remembering signature molecules called Antigens. Functional cells are Lymphocytes
"White Blood Cells"
-Produced in the Red Bone Marrow
-Classified as Monocytes (macrophages and dendritic cells), Granulocytes (neutrophils, basophils, and eosinophils), T Lymphocytes, B Lymphocytes, or Natural Killer (K) Cells.
-Found traveling in the lymph or fixed in lymphatic tissue are the largest, long-living phagocytes that engulf and destroy pathogens.
Present Antigens (Foreign Particles) to T Cells. Neutrophils
Short-living phagocytes that respond quickly to invaders
Alert the body of invasion
Large, long-living phagocytesthat defend against multicellular invaders
T Lymphocytes (T Cells)
Include: *Helper T cells, Killer T cells, Suppressor T cells, and Memory T cells.
-Helper T cells: Help the body fight infections by producing antibodies and other chemicals.
-Killer T cells: Destroy cells that are infected with a virus or pathogen and tumor cells.
-Suppressor T cell: Stop or "suppress" the other T cellswhen the battle is over.
-Memory T cells: Remain in the blood on alert in case the invader attacks again.
B Lymphocytes (B Cells) Produce antibodies
Antigen and Typical Immune Response
Antigens: Substances that stimulate the immune system.
~Proteins on the surface of bacteria, viruses, and fungi.
~Drugs, toxins, and foreign substances can be antigens.
-Body recognizes the antigens of its own cells but it will attack cells or substances with unfamiliar antigens.
-Specific antibodies are produced for each antigen that enters the body. Typical Immune Response
-When a pathogen/foreign substances enters the body, it is engulfed by a macrophage, and the killer T cells and B cells are activated.
-Killer T cells (cytotoxic T cells) search out and destroy cells presenting the same antigens.
-B cells differentiate into plasma cells and memory cells.
-Plasma cells produce antibodies specific to that pathogen or foreign substances.
-Memory cells remain in the blood stream to protectagainst future infections from the same pathogen.
Birth: Innate Immune System protects an individual from pathogens.
-When an individual encounters infection, or has an immunization, the individual develops an adaptive immunity that reacts to pathogens.
-Active and Passive immunities can be acquired naturally or artificially. Active Immunity
Naturally Acquired: The individual is exposed and builds immunity to a pathogen withoutan immunization.
Artificially Acquired: The individual is exposed and builds immunity to a pathogen by a vaccine.
-Pathogens can enter body through lymph nodes. Nodes contain large number of antigen- presenting cells (APC) that can trigger the adaptive immune system.
Naturally Acquired: Happens during Pregnancy as antibodies move from the mother's bloodstream to the bloodstream of the fetus.
~Can also be transferred from mother's breast milk.
~During infancy, antibodies provide temporary protectionuntil childhood.
Artificially Acquired: Immunization that is given in recent outbreaks or emergency situations. Provides quick and short-lived protection to disease by the use of antibodies that can come from another person/animal.
Structures: Bone and Cartilage.
>200 Bones: Divided into 2 parts
~Axial: Includes skull, sternum, ribs, and vertebral column (spine).
~Appendicular: Includes bones in arms, feet, hands, legs, hips, and shoulders.
Protects vital organs including the brain, heart, and lungs
Consist of 80 Bones and includes vertebral column (spine), rib cage, sternum, skull, and hyoid bone.
-Spine: Consist of 33 vertebae (cervical, thoracic, lumbar, and sacral).
-Rib Cage: 12 Paired ribs, 10 pairs of true ribs and 2 pairs of floating ribs and the sternum.
-Sternum: Consists of the manubrium, corpus sterni, and xiphoid process.
-Transfers weight from upper body to the lower appendages.
Cranium and Facial Bones
-Ossicles:Bones in the middle ear.
-Hyoid: Provides an attachment point and support for the tongue muscles.
~Only bones in the body not connected to other bones, but rather held in place by muscle.
Consist of 126 Bones and includes the pectoral girdle, pelvic girdle, and appendages.
-Pectoral Girdle: Consist of scapular (shoulders) and clavicles (collar bone).
-Pelvic Girdle: Consists of 2 pelvic (hip) bones, which attach to the sacrum.
-Upper Appendages: Armsinclude the humerus, radius, ulna, carpals, metacarpals, and phalanges.
-Lower Appendages: Legsincludes femur, patella, fibula, tibia, tarsals, metatarsals, and phalanges.
Functions of Skeletal System
Providing structural support, Providing movement, Providing Protection, Producing Blood Cells, and Storing substances (fat and minerals).
~Provides the body with structure and support for the muscles and organs.
~Provides movement with joints and muscular system.
~Provides reservoir to store the minerals calcium and phosphorus.
-Bones: Provide attachment points for muscles.
-Joints: Include Hinge, Ball-and-Socket, Pivot, Ellipsoid, Gliding, and Saddle Joints. Each bone is attached to two bones: The Origin and Insertion.
-Origin: Remains immobile.
-Insertion: Bone that moves as the muscle contracts and relaxes.
~Serves to protect the body.
-Cranium: Protects the Brain. -Vertebrae: Protects spine.
-Rib Cage: Protects heart and lungs.
-Pelvis: Protects reproductive organs.
-Red Marrow: Manufactures red and white blood cells.
~All bone marrow is red at birth, but adults have about one-half red bone marrow and one- half yellow bone marrow
-Yellow Marrow: Stores fat Bone
Classified as long. short, flat, irregular
-Connective tissue with a base of pulp containing collagen and living cells.
-Red Marrow: RBC Production, fills spongy tissue of bones
-Bone Tissue: Constantly regenerating itself as the mineral composition changes. Allows for special needs during growth period and maintains calcium level for the body.
-Bone Regeneration: Deteriorate in old age, particularly among women, leading to Osteoporosis
-Bones are articulated to other bones through ligaments and to muscle through tendons.
-Hyaline Cartilage: Covering articulating surfaces of bones. Prevents bones from grinding against each other.
-Covered by fibrous sheath called Periosteum(contains nerves and blood vessels)
-Synthesized in tubular structures (Osteon- Composed of calcium and phosphate-rich Hydroxyapatite) embedded in a collagen matrix.
Diseases of Bone
-Excess Withdrawal of minerals from bone can cause Osteoporosis (rigidity of bone lost).
-Arthritis: Cartilage that articulates between joints is damaged.
-Brittle Bone Disease: Genetic Defect in the collagen matrix and cause bones to break easily. 4 Bone Types
-Long: Long compact hollow shafts containing marrow. Ends are usually made of spongy bone with air pockets.
~Humerus, ulna, radius, femur, tibia, and fibula.
-Short: Wider than they are long.
~Bones of the toes (metatarsals) and collarbone.
-Flat:Not hollow but contain marrow.
~Scapula, ribs, and sternum.
~Bones of the skull, knee, and elbow.
2 Types of Bone cells
-Multinucleate Osteoclasts:Remove Bone
-Mononucleate Osteoblasts: Make Bone
Flexible and Curved Backbone: Supported by muscles and ligaments.
-Intervertebral Discs: Stacked one above another and provide cushioning for the backbone.
-Sensitive Spine: Enclosed in a cavity which is protected by the bones of the vertebrae.
*Trauma or shock may cause discs to Herniate and cause pain.
Area of contact adjacent to bones
-Synovial Joints: Most common, and are freely moveable. May be found at the shoulders and knees
-Cartilaginous Joints: Fills the spaces between some bones and restrict movement. Found between Vertebrae
-Fibrous Joints: Has fibrous tissue connecting bones and no cavity is present. 2 Types of Connective Bone Tissue
Include Spongy and Compactbone.
--Have thin outside layer of compact bone, which gives them their characteristic smooth, white appearance.
-Compact: Tightly packed cells, is strong, dense, and rigid. Running vertically throughout compact bone are the Haversian Canals, which are surrounded by concentric circles of bone tissue called Lamellae. Spaces between lamellae are lacunae. Lamellae and canals along with their associated arteries, veins, lymph vessels, and nerve endings are referred tocollectively as the Haversian System.
~Haversian System: Provides a reservoir for calcium and phosphorus for the blood.
-Spongy (cancellous): Consists of Trabeculae which are a network of firders with open spaces fillled with Red Bone Marrow. Light-weight and porous, which helps reduce bones overall weight. Red marrow menufactures RBC/WBC.
~Long Bones (Diaphysis): Consist of compact bone surrounding marrow cavity and spongy bone containing red marrow in the Epiphyses.
All cells contain 3 things. These three things are? DNA, RNA, and synthesize proteins
The cell is filled with a fluid called? cytoplasm or cytosol
A membrane is composed of?
Each cell consists of? (3)
nucleic acids, cytoplasm, and cell membrane
What is the one thing that all cells have in common? They have a cell membrane
small structure that contains chromosomes and regulates the cell What is the nucleus responsible for?
the passing on genetic traits between pores, chromatic, and ribosomes Chromosomes
These are highly condensed, threadlike rods of DNA What does DNA stand for?
deoxyribonucleic acid DNA
genetic material that stores information about the plant or animal Chromatin
This consists of the DNA and protein that make up chromosomes Nucleolus
This structure contained within the nucleus consists of protein. Synthesizes and stores RNA (ribonucleic acid)
Encloses the structures of the nucleus. Consists of inner and outer membranes made of lipids Nuclear pores
involved in the exchange of material between the nucleus and the cytoplasm Nucleoplasm
liquid within the nucleus, and is similar to cytoplasm What are the parts of the cell membranes? (8)
•	Peripheral membrane protein
•	Phospholipid bilayer
•	Protein channel
•	Filaments of cytoskeleton
•	Integral membrane protein Glycoprotein
protein with carbohydrate attached Glycolipid
lipid with carbohydrate attached
What has selective permeability with regard to size, charge, and solubility? cell membrane or plasma membrane
allows what goes in and outside of the cell
Which two small molecules typically can pass through the cell membrane? oxyge