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NUR 265 Comprehensive 2 Review with Answers

NUR 265 Comprehensive 2 Review with Answers • autonomy the degree to which a job gives an employee the freedom and discretion needed to schedule different tasks and decide how to carry them out • cardiac glycosides drugs used to improve heart output by increasing the muscular contraction • digoxin toxicity s/s: heart rhythm disturbances. bradycardia/heart block. N&V, anorexia, blurred vision, mental status changes • Therapeutic levels: Digoxin 0.5 - 2.0 • antianginal drugs - nitrates - calcium channel blockers and beta blockers • Isosorbide Mononitrate Imdur Antianginal • Cardioselective Beta 1-blockers Atenolol, acebutolol, and metoprolol • calcium channel blockers avoid in CHF avoid grapefruit juice • ACE Inhibitors Captopril , Enalapril , Lisinopril • How do ACE-Inhibitors work? ACE-Inhibitors inhibit the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) needed to change angiotensin I (inactive) to angiotensin II (active). Angiotensin II is a potent vasoconstrictor, so less angiotensin II means less vasoconstriction. • ARBs Angiotensin II receptor antagonists -no effect on bradykinin metabolism -less cough and angioedema Use in patients with ACEI contraindications Recent, increased risk of cancer They appear as effective as ACEI in hypertension, chronic renal failure, and CHF -ACEI and ARBS may be used together for more complete blockade of RAAS in CKD • sodium cha • nnel which nitrate is used for tx of HTN? isosirbide dinitrate • ANA Code of Ethics a standard for ethical conduct in patient care (moral guidelines) emphasis on patient advocacy, patient autonomy, patient rights, health care as a basic right • sodium channel blockers - Quinidine - cardiac depressant, decreases myocardial contractions, anticholinergic and alpha blocking. - Procainamide - less anticholinergic/alpha blocking than quinidine. Most frequently used - Disopyramide - Decrease in conduction and prolongation of refractory period. Only used for ventricular arrhythmias. • Ma • Mannitol increase ICP • Mannitol Osmotic Diuretic (Osmitrol) • Mannitol interaction lithium and dig • Statutory law State or Federal Law • Case Law when an appellate court endorses a rule to be used in deciding court cases • Constitutional law The body of law derived from the U.S. Constitution and the constitutions of the various states • Beneficence An ethical principle stating that one should do good and prevent or avoid doing harm. • Nonmaleficence avoidance of harm to others • Veracity the duty to tell the truth • Fidelity The duty to be faithful to commitments. (to whom do we owe our fidelity - client, family, physician, institution, or profession) • Crossing the Quality Chasm o released by IOM o intent was to improve systems of healthcare o 6 major aims in providing health care: safe, effective, patient-centered, timely, efficient, equitable • "Crossing the Quality Chasm" Six areas of quality improvement: 1.Safety 2.Effectiveness 3.Patient-Centeredness 4.Timelines 5.Efficiency 6.Equity • Clinical pathways sets forth time-specific goals, key elements, and sequence of care • patient-focused care delivery model that brings all services and care providers to the client • Primary nursing Primary nursing: The nursing practice system in which the entire nursing care of a patient is managed and coordinated by one nurse for a 24-hr period • Functional nursing a nursing care pattern focusing on tasks and jobs. each nursing team member has certain tasks and jobs to do • Pharmacokinetic phase 1. Absorption (drug enters body) 1. distribution (drug reaches the site of action) 2. metabolism (bio transformation) 3. excretion (exits the body) • Pharmacodynamic phase What the drug does to the body • protein bound drugs no secreted through kidneys • Pharmaceutic Phase disintegration and dissolution the drug becomes a solution so that it can cross the biological membrane when a drug is administered parenterally (outside of GI tract), subQ, IM, or IV, there is not a pharmaceutic phase • hyperthyroid drug of choice PTU tetralogy of fallot pulmonary stenosis ventricular septal defect overriding aorta right ventricular hypertrophy Birth weight Doubles  6 months Birth weight Triples 12 months Develops Social Smile 2 months Posterior fontanelle closes by 6 - 8 weeks Moro reflex disappears by 4 months Rolls over5 - 6 months Peek - a – boo 6 months Transfer object from hand to hand  7 months Develops stranger anxiety  7 - 9 months Sits up unsupported 8 months Crawl 10 months Waves bye-bye 10 months Walks with assistance 10 - 12 months Growth spurt girls 10 years old Kicks ball 24 months Ties shoes 5 years old Uses scissors 4 years old Sits unsupported 8 months Daytime toilet training starts 24 months Anterior fontanelle closes 12 - 18 months Tricycle 3 years old Rides bicycle 5 years old Vocalizes 1 - 2 words 10 months Rattle is an appropriate toy  5 - 6 months Push pull toys appropriate 9 - 12 months Noise maker toys appropriate 6 - 9 months Encephalitis inflammation of the brain tissue and meninges that affects the cerebrum, brain stem, and cerebellum Pupura Red or purple discoloration of the skin that does not blanche with pressure Avolition  Lack of drive to perform activities or pursue meaningful goals LEukocyctosis Increase in WBC Paralytic ileus Absence of peristalsis Condyloma Acuminata Genital Warts caused by HPV Kyphoscoliosis combination of outward curvature and lateral curvature Thrombocytopenia  low platelet count Nihilism belief that traditional morals, ideas and beliefs have no worth or value Diverticulosis  sacs resulting from the herniation of the mucosa and submucosa of the colon Blepharitis inflammation of the eyelids Granulation  formation of scar tissue for wound healing Decorticate posturing arms, wr

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