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Test Bank CHAPTER 22 ACCOUNTING CHANGES AND ERROR ANALYSIS

CHAPTER 22 ACCOUNTING CHANGES AND ERROR ANALYSIS TRUE-FALSE—Conceptual Description F 1. Change in accounting estimate. T 2. Errors in financial statements. F 3. Adoption of a new principle. T 4. Retrospective application of accounting principle. F 5. Reporting cumulative effect of change in principle. T 6. Disclosure requirements for a change in principle. T 7. Indirect effect of an accounting change. T 8. Retrospective application impracticality. F 9. Reporting changes in accounting estimates. T 10. Change in principle vs. change in estimate. F 11. Accounting for change in depreciation method. F 12. Accounting for change in reporting entities. T 13. Example of a change in reporting entities. F 14. Accounting error vs. change in estimate. T 15. Accounting for corrections of errors. T 16. New principle created by FASB standard. F 17. Balance sheet errors. F 18. Definition of counterbalancing errors. T 19. Accounting for counterbalancing errors. T 20. Correcting entries for noncounterbalancing errors. MULTIPLE CHOICE—Conceptual Description b 21. Accounting changes and consistency concept. b 22. Identify changes in accounting principle. c 23. Identify a non-retrospective change. d 24. Identify a change in accounting principle. a 25. Entry to record a change in depreciation methods. c 26. Disclosures required for a change in depreciation methods. c 27. Change from percentage-of-completion to completed-contracts. d 28. Disclosures required for a change from LIFO to FIFO. b 29. Change from FIFO to LIFO. c 30. Change in accounting estimate. a 31. Change in accounting estimate. b 32. Identify a change in accounting estimate. b 33. Change in accounting estimate. c 34. Identify a change in accounting estimate. d 35. Identify a change in reporting entity. c 36. Retroactive reporting a change in reporting entity. c 37. Identify a correction of an error. b 38. Identification of counterbalancing errors. MULTIPLE CHOICE—Conceptual (cont.) Description c 39. Impact of failure to record purchase and count ending inventory. c 40. Impact of failure to record purchase and count ending inventory. MULTIPLE CHOICE—Computational Description b 41. Calculate cumulative effect of a change in depreciation method. b 42. Calculate cumulative effect of a change in depreciation method. c 43. Calculate net income with change in accounting principle with tax effects. d 44. Calculate cumulative effect of accounting change. c 45. Calculate depreciation expense after change in accounting principle. d 46. Calculate cumulative effect of a change on retained earnings. b 47. Calculate cumulative effect of a change on retained earnings. c 48. Compute depreciation expense after a change in depreciation methods. b 49. Calculate cumulative effect of a change in inventory methods. c 50. Calculate net income after a change to LIFO method. a 51. Calculate net income with change from FIFO to LIFO. b 52. Calculate depreciation after a change in estimate. a 53. Calculate net income with change in an accounting estimate. a 54. Determine depreciation expense after a change in estimated life. a 55. Compute effect of errors on income before taxes. c 56. Compute effect of errors on retained earnings. d 57. Calculate effect of errors on net income. c 58. Calculate effect of errors on working capital. c 59. Calculate effect of errors on retained earnings. a 60. Effect of errors on income and retained earnings. a 61. Calculate effect of errors on net income. b 62. Calculate effect of errors on retained earnings. c 63. Calculate effect of errors on working capital. d 64. Determine cumulative effect of error on income statement. c 65. Determine the understatement of retained earnings. a 66. Calculate effect of error on net income. c 67. Compute effect of error on retained earnings. MULTIPLE CHOICE—CPA Adapted Description b 68. Identify a change in accounting principle. c 69. Cumulative effect of a change from weighted-average to LIFO. a 70. Reporting a change to FIFO from LIFO. a 71. Balance of accumulated depreciation after a change in estimate. b 72. Determine carrying value of a patent with a change in estimate. d 73. Reporting royalty income when amount realized differs from estimate. b 74. Depreciation expense to be recorded following an error. c 75. Impact of failure to accrue insurance costs. a 76. Retained earnings balance with multiple errors. EXERCISES Item Description E22-77 Matching accounting changes to situations. E22-78 How changes or corrections are recognized. E22-79 Matching disclosures to situations. E22-80 Change in accounting principle. E22-81 Change in estimate, change in entity, corrections of errors. E22-82 Changes in depreciation methods, estimates. E22-83 Noncounterbalancing error. E22-84 Effects of errors. E22-85 Effects of errors. PROBLEMS Item Description P22-86 Accounting for changes and error corrections. P22-87 Corrections of errors. P22-88 Error corrections and adjustments. CHAPTER LEARNING OBJECTIVES 1. Identify the types of accounting changes. 2. Describe the accounting for changes in accounting principles. 3. Understand how to account for retrospective accounting changes. 4. Understand how to account for impracticable changes. 5. Describe the accounting for changes in estimates. 6. Identify changes in a reporting entity. 7. Describe the accounting for correction of errors. 8. Identify economic motives for changing accounting methods. 9. Analyze the effect of errors. SUMMARY OF LEARNING OBJECTIVES BY QUESTIONS Item Type Item Type Item Type Item Type Item Type Item Type Item Type Learning Objective 1 1. TF 2. TF 21. MC Learning Objective 2 3. TF 22. MC 24. MC 68. MC 78. E 4. TF 23. MC 25. MC 77. E Learning Objective 3 5. TF 26. MC 43. MC 46. MC 49. MC 79. E 6. TF 41. MC 44. MC 47. MC 69. MC 80. E 7. TF 42. MC 45. MC 48. MC 78. E 86. P Learning Objective 4 8. TF 28. MC 50. MC 70. MC 79. E 86. P 27. MC 29. MC 51. MC 78. E 80. E Learning Objective 5 9. TF 30. MC 33. MC 53. MC 72. MC 78. E 82. E 10. TF 31. MC 34. MC 54. MC 73. MC 79. E 86. P 11. TF 32. MC 52. MC 71. MC 77. E 81. E 88. P Learning Objective 6 12. TF 13. TF 35. MC 36. MC 77. E 78. E 81. E Learning Objective 7 14. TF 37. MC 74. MC 79. E 86. P 15. TF 55. MC 77. E 81. E 87. P 16. TF 56. MC 78. E 83. E 88. P Learning Objective 9 17. TF 38. MC 58. MC 62. MC 66. MC 84. E 18. TF 39. MC 59. MC 63. MC 67. MC 85. E 19. TF 40. MC 60. MC 64. MC 75. MC 86. P 20. TF 57. MC 61. MC 65. MC 76. MC 87. P Note: TF = True-False MC = Multiple Choice E = Exercise P = Problem TRUE-FALSE—Conceptual 1. A change in accounting principle is a change that occurs as the result of new information or additional experience. 2. Errors in financial statements result from mathematical mistakes or oversight or misuse of facts that existed when preparing the financial statements. 3. Adoption of a new principle in recognition of events that have occurred for the first time or that were previously immaterial is treated as an accounting change. 4. Retrospective application refers to the application of a different accounting principle to recast previously issued financial statements—as if the new principle had always been used. 5. When a company changes an accounting principle, it should report the change by reporting the cumulative effect of the change in the current year’s income statement. 6. One of the disclosure requirements for a change in accounting principle is to show the cumulative effect of the change on retained earnings as of the beginning of the earliest period presented. 7. An indirect effect of an accounting change is any change to current or future cash flows of a company that result from making a change in accounting principle that is applied retrospectively. 8. Retrospective application is considered impracticable if a company cannot determine the prior period effects using every reasonable effort to do so. 9. Companies report changes in accounting estimates retrospectively. 10. When it is impossible to determine whether a change in principle or change in estimate has occurred, the change is considered a change in estimate. 11. Companies account for a change in depreciation methods as a change in accounting principle. 12. When companies make changes that result in different reporting entities, the change is reported prospectively. 13. Changing the cost or equity method of accounting for investments is an example of a change in reporting entity. 14. Accounting errors include changes in estimates that occur because a company acquires more experience, or as it obtains additional information. 15. Companies record corrections of errors from prior periods as an adjustment to the beginning balance of retained earnings in the current period. 16. If an FASB standard creates a new principle, expresses preference for, or rejects a specific accounting principle, the change is considered clearly acceptable. 17. Balance sheet errors affect only the presentation of an asset or liability account. 18. Counterbalancing errors are those that will be offset and that take longer than two periods to correct themselves. 19. For counterbalancing errors, restatement of comparative financial statements is necessary even if a correcting entry is not required. 20. Companies must make correcting entries for noncounterbalancing errors, even if they have closed the prior year’s books. True-False Answers—Conceptual Item Ans. Item Ans. Item Ans. Item Ans. 1. F 6. T 11. F 16. T 2. T 7. T 12. F 17. F 3. F 8. T 13. T 18. F 4. T 9. F 14. F 19. T 5. F 10. T 15. T 20. T MULTIPLE CHOICE—Conceptual 21. Accounting changes are often made and the monetary impact is reflected in the financial statements of a company even though, in theory, this may be a violation of the accounting concept of a. materiality. b. consistency. c. conservatism. d. objectivity. 22. Which of the following is not treated as a change in accounting principle? a. A change from LIFO to FIFO for inventory valuation b. A change to a different method of depreciation for plant assets c. A change from full-cost to successful efforts in the extractive industry d. A change from completed-contract to percentage-of-completion 23. Which of the following is not a retrospective-type accounting change? a. Completed-contract method to the percentage-of-completion method for long-term contracts b. LIFO method to the FIFO method for inventory valuation c. Sum-of-the-years'-digits method to the straight-line method d. "Full cost" method to another method in the extractive industry 24. Which of the following is accounted for as a change in accounting principle? a. A change in the estimated useful life of plant assets. b. A change from the cash basis of accounting to the accrual basis of accounting. c. A change from expensing immaterial expenditures to deferring and amortizing them as they become material. d. A change in inventory valuation from average cost to FIFO. 25. A company changes from straight-line to an accelerated method of calculating depreciation, which will be similar to the method used for tax purposes. The entry to record this change should include a a. credit to Accumulated Depreciation. b. debit to Retained Earnings in the amount of the difference on prior years. c. debit to Deferred Tax Asset. d. credit to Deferred Tax Liability. 26. Which of the following disclosures is required for a change from sum-of-the-years-digits to straight-line? a. The cumulative effect on prior years, net of tax, in the current retained earnings statement b. Restatement of prior years’ income statements c. Recomputation of current and future years’ depreciation d. All of these are required. 27. A company changes from percentage-of-completion to completed-contract, which is the method used for tax purposes. The entry to record this change should include a a. debit to Construction in Process. b. debit to Loss on Long-term Contracts in the amount of the difference on prior years, net of tax. c. debit to Retained Earnings in the amount of the difference on prior years, net of tax. d. credit to Deferred Tax Liability. 28. Which of the following disclosures is required for a change from LIFO to FIFO? a. The cumulative effect on prior years, net of tax, in the current retained earnings statement b. The justification for the change c. Restated prior year income statements d. All of these are required. 29. Stone Company changed its method of pricing inventories from FIFO to LIFO. What type of accounting change does this represent? a. A change in accounting estimate for which the financial statements for prior periods included for comparative purposes should be presented as previously reported. b. A change in accounting principle for which the financial statements for prior periods included for comparative purposes should be presented as previously reported. c. A change in accounting estimate for which the financial statements for prior periods included for comparative purposes should be restated. d. A change in accounting principle for which the financial statements for prior periods included for comparative purposes should be restated. 30. Which type of accounting change should always be accounted for in current and future periods? a. Change in accounting principle b. Change in reporting entity c. Change in accounting estimate d. Correction of an error 31. Which of the following is (are) the proper time period(s) to record the effects of a change in accounting estimate? a. Current period and prospectively b. Current period and retrospectively c. Retrospectively only d. Current period only 32. When a company decides to switch from the double-declining balance method to the straight-line method, this change should be handled as a a. change in accounting principle. b. change in accounting estimate. c. prior period adjustment. d. correction of an error. 33. The estimated life of a building that has been depreciated 30 years of an originally estimated life of 50 years has been revised to a remaining life of 10 years. Based on this information, the accountant should a. continue to depreciate the building over the original 50-year life. b. depreciate the remaining book value over the remaining life of the asset. c. adjust accumulated depreciation to its appropriate balance, through net income, based on a 40-year life, and then depreciate the adjusted book value as though the estimated life had always been 40 years. d. adjust accumulated depreciation to its appropriate balance through retained earnings, based on a 40-year life, and then depreciate the adjusted book value as though the estimated life had always been 40 years. 34. Which of the following statements is correct? a. Changes in accounting principle are always handled in the current or prospective period. b. Prior statements should be restated for changes in accounting estimates. c. A change from expensing certain costs to capitalizing these costs due to a change in the period benefited, should be handled as a change in accounting estimate. d. Correction of an error related to a prior period should be considered as an adjustment to current year net income. 35. Which of the following describes a change in reporting entity? a. A company acquires a subsidiary that is to be accounted for as a purchase. b. A manufacturing company expands its market from regional to nationwide. c. A company divests itself of a European branch sales office. d. Changing the companies included in combined financial statements. 36. Presenting consolidated financial statements this year when statements of individual companies were presented last year is a. a correction of an error. b. an accounting change that should be reported prospectively. c. an accounting change that should be reported by restating the financial statements of all prior periods presented. d. not an accounting change. 37. An example of a correction of an error in previously issued financial statements is a change a. from the FIFO method of inventory valuation to the LIFO method. b. in the service life of plant assets, based on changes in the economic environment. c. from the cash basis of accounting to the accrual basis of accounting. d. in the tax assessment related to a prior period. 38. Counterbalancing errors do not include a. errors that correct themselves in two years. b. errors that correct themselves in three years. c. an understatement of purchases. d. an overstatement of unearned revenue. 39. A company using a perpetual inventory system neglected to record a purchase of merchandise on account at year end. This merchandise was omitted from the year-end physical count. How will these errors affect assets, liabilities, and stockholders' equity at year end and net income for the year? Assets Liabilities Stockholders' Equity Net Income a. No effect Understate Overstate Overstate. b. No effect Overstate Understate Understate. c. Understate Understate No effect No effect. d. Understate No effect Understate Understate. 40. If, at the end of a period, a company erroneously excluded some goods from its ending inventory and also erroneously did not record the purchase of these goods in its accounting records, these errors would cause a. the ending inventory and retained earnings to be understated. b. the ending inventory, cost of goods sold, and retained earnings to be understated. c. no effect on net income, working capital, and retained earnings. d. cost of goods sold and net income to be understated. Multiple Choice Answers—Conceptual Item Ans. Item Ans. Item Ans. Item Ans. Item Ans. Item Ans. Item Ans. 21. b 24. d 27. c 30. c 33. b 36. c 39. c 22. b 25. a 28. d 31. a 34. c 37. c 40. c 23. c 26. c 29. b 32. b 35. d 38. b MULTIPLE CHOICE—Computational 41. On January 1, 2010, Neal Corporation acquired equipment at a cost of $900,000. Neal adopted the sum-of-the-years’-digits method of depreciation for this equipment and had been recording depreciation over an estimated life of eight years, with no residual value. At the beginning of 2013, a decision was made to change to the straight-line method of depreciation for this equipment. The depreciation expense for 2013 would be a. $46,875. b. $75,000. c. $112,500. d. $180,000. 42. On January 1, 2010, Knapp Corporation acquired machinery at a cost of $500,000. Knapp adopted the double-declining balance method of depreciation for this machinery and had been recording depreciation over an estimated useful life of ten years, with no residual value. At the beginning of 2013, a decision was made to change to the straight-line method of depreciation for the machinery. The depreciation expense for 2013 would be a. $25,600. b. $36,572. c. $50,000. d. $71,428. 43. On January 1, 2010, Piper Co., purchased a machine (its only depreciable asset) for $450,000. The machine has a five-year life, and no salvage value. Sum-of-the-years'-digits depreciation has been used for financial statement reporting and the elective straight-line method for income tax reporting. Effective January 1, 2013, for financial statement reporting, Piper decided to change to the straight-line method for depreciation of the machine. Assume that Piper can justify the change. Piper's income before depreciation, before income taxes, and before the cumulative effect of the accounting change (if any), for the year ended December 31, 2013, is $375,000. The income tax rate for 2013, as well as for the years 2010-2012, is 30%. What amount should Piper report as net income for the year ended December 31, 2013? a. $90,000 b. $136,500 c. $231,000 d. $262,500 Use the following information for questions 44 and 45. Ventura Corporation purchased machinery on January 1, 2012 for $840,000. The company used the sum-of-the-years’-digits method and no salvage value to depreciate the asset for the first two years of its estimated six-year life. In 2013, Ventura changed to the straight-line depreciation method for this asset. The following facts pertain: 2012 2013 Straight-line $140,000 $140,000 Sum-of-the-years’-digits 240,000 200,000 44. Ventura is subject to a 40% tax rate. The cumulative effect of this accounting change on beginning retained earnings is a. $180,000. b. $160,000. c. $96,000. d. $0. 45. The amount that Ventura should report for depreciation expense on its 2014 income statement is a. $160,000. b. $140,000. c. $100,000. d. none of the above. 46. During 2013, a construction company changed from the completed-contract method to the percentage-of-completion method for accounting purposes but not for tax purposes. Gross profit figures under both methods for the past three years appear below: Completed-Contract Percentage-of-Completion 2011 $ 475,000 $ 700,000 2012 625,000 950,000 2013 700,000 1,050,000 $1,800,000 $2,700,000 Assuming an income tax rate of 40% for all years, the affect of this accounting change on prior periods should be reported by a credit of a. $540,000 on the 2013 income statement. b. $330,000 on the 2013 income statement. c. $540,000 on the 2013 retained earnings statement. d. $330,000 on the 2013 retained earnings statement. Use the following information for questions 47 and 48. On January 1, 2010, Nobel Corporation acquired machinery at a cost of $800,000. Nobel adopted the straight-line method of depreciation for this machine and had been recording depreciation over an estimated life of ten years, with no residual value. At the beginning of 2013, a decision was made to change to the double-declining balance method of depreciation for this machine. 47. Assuming a 30% tax rate, the cumulative effect of this accounting change on beginning retained earnings, is a. $89,600. b. $0. c. $105,280. d. $150,400. 48. The amount that Nobel should record as depreciation expense for 2013 is a. $80,000. b. $112,000. c. $160,000. d. none of the above. 49. On December 31, 2013 Dean Company changed its method of accounting for inventory from weighted average cost method to the FIFO method. This change caused the 2013 beginning inventory to increase by $630,000. The cumulative effect of this accounting change to be reported for the year ended 12/31/13, assuming a 40% tax rate, is a. $630,000. b. $378,000. c. $252,000. d. $0. 50. Heinz Company began operations on January 1, 2012, and uses the FIFO method in costing its raw material inventory. Management is contemplating a change to the LIFO method and is interested in determining what effect such a change will have on net income. Accordingly, the following information has been developed: Final Inventory 2012 2013 FIFO $640,000 $ 712,000 LIFO 560,000 636,000 Net Income (computed under the FIFO method) 980,000 1,030,000 Based on the above information, a change to the LIFO method in 2013 would result in net income for 2013 of a. $1,070,000. b. $1,030,000. c. $ 954,000. d. $ 950,000. 51. Lanier Company began operations on January 1, 2012, and uses the FIFO method in costing its raw material inventory. Management is contemplating a change to the LIFO method and is interested in determining what effect such a change will have on net income. Accordingly, the following information has been developed: Final Inventory 2012 2013 FIFO $320,000 $360,000 LIFO 240,000 300,000 Net Income (computed under the FIFO method) 500,000 550,000 Based upon the above information, a change to the LIFO method in 2013 would result in net income for 2013 of a. $490,000. b. $550,000. c. $570,000. d. $610,000. 52. Equipment was purchased at the beginning of 2010 for $340,000. At the time of its purchase, the equipment was estimated to have a useful life of six years and a salvage value of $40,000. The equipment was depreciated using the straight-line method of depreciation through 2012. At the beginning of 2013, the estimate of useful life was revised to a total life of eight years and the expected salvage value was changed to $25,000. The amount to be recorded for depreciation for 2013, reflecting these changes in estimates, is a. $20,625. b. $33,000. c. $38,000. d. $39,375. Use the following information for questions 53 and 54. Swift Company purchased a machine on January 1, 2010, for $500,000. At the date of acquisition, the machine had an estimated useful life of six years with no salvage. The machine is being depreciated on a straight-line basis. On January 1, 2013, Swift determined, as a result of additional information, that the machine had an estimated useful life of eight years from the date of acquisition with no salvage. An accounting change was made in 2013 to reflect this additional information. 53. Assume that the direct effects of this change are limited to the effect on depreciation and the related tax provision, and that the income tax rate was 30% in 2010, 2011, 2012, and 2013. What should be reported in Swift's income statement for the year ended December 31, 2013, as the cumulative effect on prior years of changing the estimated useful life of the machine? a. $0 b. $33,000 c. $50,000 d. $175,000 54. What is the amount of depreciation expense on this machine that should be charged in Swift's income statement for the year ended December 31, 2013? a. $ 50,000 b. $ 62,500 c. $100,000 d. $125,000 Use the following information for questions 55 and 56. Armstrong Inc. is a calendar-year corporation. Its financial statements for the years ended 12/31/12 and 12/31/13 contained the following errors: 2012 2013 Ending inventory $20,000 overstatement $32,000 understatement Depreciation expense 8,000 understatement 16,000 overstatement 55. Assume that the 2012 errors were not corrected and that no errors occurred in 2011. By what amount will 2012 income before income taxes be overstated or understated? a. $28,000 overstatement b. $12,000 overstatement c. $28,000 understatement d. $12,000 understatement 56. Assume that no correcting entries were made at 12/31/12, or 12/31/13. Ignoring income taxes, by how much will retained earnings at 12/31/13 be overstated or understated? a. $32,000 overstatement b. $28,000 overstatement c. $40,000 understatement d. $12,000 understatement Use the following information for questions 57 through 59. Langley Company's December 31 year-end financial statements contained the following errors: Dec. 31, 2012 Dec. 31, 2013 Ending inventory $15,000 understated $22,000 overstated Depreciation expense 4,000 understated An insurance premium of $36,000 was prepaid in 2012 covering the years 2012, 2013, and 2014. The prepayment was recorded with a debit to insurance expense. In addition, on December 31, 2013, fully depreciated machinery was sold for $19,000 cash, but the sale was not recorded until 2014. There were no other errors during 2013 or 2014 and no corrections have been made for any of the errors. Ignore income tax considerations. 57. What is the total net effect of the errors on Langley's 2013 net income? a. Net income understated by $29,000. b. Net income overstated by $15,000. c. Net income overstated by $26,000. d. Net income overstated by $30,000. 58. What is the total net effect of the errors on the amount of Langley's working capital at December 31, 2013? a. Working capital overstated by $10,000 b. Working capital overstated by $3,000 c. Working capital understated by $9,000 d. Working capital understated by $24,000 59. What is the total effect of the errors on the balance of Langley's retained earnings at December 31, 2013? a. Retained earnings understated by $20,000 b. Retained earnings understated by $9,000 c. Retained earnings understated by $5,000 d. Retained earnings overstated by $7,000 60. Accrued salaries payable of $51,000 were not recorded at December 31, 2012. Office supplies on hand of $34,000 at December 31, 2013 were erroneously treated as expense instead of supplies inventory. Neither of these errors was discovered nor corrected. The effect of these two errors would cause a. 2013 net income to be understated $85,000 and December 31, 2013 retained earnings to be understated $34,000. b. 2012 net income and December 31, 2012 retained earnings to be understated $51,000 each. c. 2012 net income to be overstated $17,000 and 2013 net income to be understated $34,000. d. 2013 net income and December 31, 2013 retained earnings to be understated $34,000 each. Use the following information for questions 61 through 63. Bishop Co. began operations on January 1, 2012. Financial statements for 2012 and 2013 con- tained the following errors: Dec. 31, 2012 Dec. 31, 2013 Ending inventory $132,000 too high $166,000 too low Depreciation expense 84,000 too high — Insurance expense 60,000 too low 60,000 too high Prepaid insurance 60,000 too high — In addition, on December 31, 2013 fully depreciated equipment was sold for $28,800, but the sale was not recorded until 2014. No corrections have been made for any of the errors. Ignore income tax considerations. 61. The total effect of the errors on Bishop's 2013 net income is a. understated by $386,800. b. understated by $254,800. c. overstated by $137,200. d. overstated by $269,200. 62. The total effect of the errors on the balance of Bishop's retained earnings at December 31, 2013 is understated by a. $338,800. b. $278,800. c. $194,800. d. $146,800. 63. The total effect of the errors on the amount of Bishop's working capital at December 31, 2013 is understated by a. $410,800. b. $326,800. c. $194,800. d. $134,800. Use the following information for questions 64 and 65. Link Co. purchased machinery that cost $1,350,000 on January 4, 2011. The entire cost was recorded as an expense. The machinery has a nine-year life and a $90,000 residual value. The error was discovered on December 20, 2013. Ignore income tax considerations. 64. Link's income statement for the year ended December 31, 2013, should show the cumulative effect of this error in the amount of a. $1,210,000. b. $1,070,000. c. $930,000. d. $0. 65. Before the correction was made, and before the books were closed on December 31, 2013, retained earnings was understated by a. $1,350,000. b. $1,210,000. c. $1,070,000. d. $930,000. Use the following information for questions 66 and 67. Ernst Company purchased equipment that cost $1,500,000 on January 1, 2012. The entire cost was recorded as an expense. The equipment had a nine-year life and a $60,000 residual value. Ernst uses the straight-line method to account for depreciation expense. The error was discovered on December 10, 2014. Ernst is subject to a 40% tax rate. 66. Ernst’s net income for the year ended December 31, 2012, was understated by a. $804,000. b. $900,000. c. $1,340,000. d. $1,500,000. 67. Before the correction was made and before the books were closed on December 31, 2014, retained earnings was understated by a. $664,000. b. $672,000. c. $708,000. d. $900,000. Multiple Choice Answers—Computational Item Ans. Item Ans. Item Ans. Item Ans. Item Ans. Item Ans. Item Ans. 41. b 45. c 49. b 53. a 57. d 61. a 65. c 42. b 46. d 50. c 54. a 58. c 62. b 66. a 43. c 47. b 51. a 55. a 59. c 63. c 67. c 44. d 48. c 52. b 56. c 60. a 64. d MULTIPLE CHOICE—CPA Adapted 68. Which of the following should be reported as a prior period adjustment? Change in Change from Estimated Lives Unaccepted Principle of Depreciable Assets to Accepted Principle a. Yes Yes b. No Yes c. Yes No d. No No 69. On December 31, 2013, Grantham, Inc. appropriately changed its inventory valuation method to FIFO cost from weighted-average cost for financial statement and income tax purposes. The change will result in a $2,000,000 increase in the beginning inventory at January 1, 2013. Assume a 30% income tax rate. The cumulative effect of this accounting change on beginning retained earnings is a. $0. b. $600,000. c. $1,400,000. d. $2,000,000. 70. On January 1, 2013, Frost Corp. changed its inventory method to FIFO from LIFO for both financial and income tax reporting purposes. The change resulted in a $900,000 increase in the January 1, 2013 inventory. Assume that the income tax rate for all years is 30%. The cumulative effect of the accounting change should be reported by Frost in its 2013 a. retained earnings statement as a $630,000 addition to the beginning balance. b. income statement as a $630,000 cumulative effect of accounting change. c. retained earnings statement as a $900,000 addition to the beginning balance. d. income statement as a $900,000 cumulative effect of accounting change. 71. On January 1, 2010, Lake Co. purchased a machine for $1,056,000 and depreciated it by the straight-line method using an estimated useful life of eight years with no salvage value. On January 1, 2013, Lake determined that the machine had a useful life of six years from the date of acquisition and will have a salvage value of $96,000. An accounting change was made in 2013 to reflect these additional data. The accumulated depreciation for this machine should have a balance at December 31, 2013 of a. $584,000. b. $616,000. c. $640,000. d. $704,000. 72. On January 1, 2010, Hess Co. purchased a patent for $714,000. The patent is being amortized over its remaining legal life of 15 years expiring on January 1, 2025. During 2013, Hess determined that the economic benefits of the patent would not last longer than ten years from the date of acquisition. What amount should be reported in the balance sheet for the patent, net of accumulated amortization, at December 31, 2013? a. $428,400 b. $489,600 c. $504,000 d. $523,650 73. During 2012, a textbook written by Mercer Co. personnel was sold to Roark Publishing, Inc., for royalties of 10% on sales. Royalties are receivable semiannually on March 31, for sales in July through December of the prior year, and on September 30, for sales in January through June of the same year. • Royalty income of $162,000 was accrued at 12/31/12 for the period July-December 2012. • Royalty income of $180,000 was received on 3/31/13, and $234,000 on 9/30/13. • Mercer learned from Roark that sales subject to royalty were estimated at $2,430,000 for the last half of 2013. In its income statement for 2013, Mercer should report royalty income at a. $414,000. b. $432,000. c. $477,000. d. $495,000. 74. On January 1, 2012, Janik Corp. acquired a machine at a cost of $800,000. It is to be depreciated on the straight-line method over a five-year period with no residual value. Because of a bookkeeping error, no depreciation was recognized in Janik's 2012 financial statements. The oversight was discovered during the preparation of Janik's 2013 financial statements. Depreciation expense on this machine for 2013 should be a. $0. b. $160,000. c. $200,000. d. $320,000. 75. On December 31, 2013, special insurance costs, incurred but unpaid, were not recorded. If these insurance costs were related to work in process, what is the effect of the omission on accrued liabilities and retained earnings in the December 31, 2013 balance sheet? Accrued Liabilities Retained Earnings a. No effect No effect b. No effect Overstated c. Understated No effect d. Understated Overstated 76. Black, Inc. is a calendar-year corporation whose financial statements for 2012 and 2013 included errors as follows: Year Ending Inventory Depreciation Expense 2012 $162,000 overstated $135,000 overstated 2013 59,000 understated 45,000 understated Assume that purchases were recorded correctly and that no correcting entries were made at December 31, 2012, or at December 31, 2013. Ignoring income taxes, by how much should Black's retained earnings be retroactively adjusted at January 1, 2014? a. $149,000 increase b. $41,000 increase c. $14,000 decrease d. $13,000 increase Multiple Choice Answers—CPA Adapted Item Ans. Item Ans. Item Ans. Item Ans. Item Ans. 68. b 70. a 72. b 74. b 76. a 69. c 71. a 73. d 75. c DERIVATIONS — Computational No. Answer Derivation 41. b [(8 7 6) ÷ 36] × $900,000 = $ 525,000 (AD) ($900,000 - $ 525,000) ÷ 5 = $ 75,000. 42. b {$500,000 – [($500,000 × .2) ($400,000 × .2) ($320,000 × .2)]} ÷ 7 = $36,572. DERIVATIONS — Computational (cont.) No. Answer Derivation 43. c [(5/15 4/15 3/15) × $450,000] = $360,000 (AD) ($450,000 – $360,000) = $90,000 (BV) [$375,000 – ($90,000 ÷ 2)] × (1 – .3) = $231,000. 44. d $0, No cumulative effect; handle prospectively. 45. c [$840,000 – ($240,000 $200,000)] ÷ 4 = $100,000. 46. d [($700,000 $950,000) – ($475,000 $625,000)] × (1 – .40) = $330,000. 47. b $0, No cumulative effect; handle prospectively. 48. c {($800,000 – [($800,000 ÷ 10) × 3]} ÷ 7 × 2 = $160,000. 49. b $630,000 × (1 – .40) = $378,000. 50. c $1,030,000 – ($712,000 – $636,000) = $954,000. 51. a $550,000 – ($360,000 – $300,000) = $490,000. 52. b $340,000 – {[($340,000 – $40,000) ÷ 6] × 3} = $190,000 ($190,000 – $25,000) ÷ (8 – 3) = $33,000. 53. a $0, no cumulative effect, handle prospectively (change in estimate). 54. a ($500,000 ÷ 6) × 3 = $250,000 $250,000 ÷ 5 = $50,000. 55. a $20,000 $8,000 = $28,000 overstatement. 56. c $32,000 $8,000 = $40,000 understatement. 57. d $15,000 (o) $22,000 (o) $12,000 (o) – $19,000 (u) = $30,000 (o). 58. c $22,000 (o) – $12,000 (u) – $19,000 (u) = $9,000 (u). 59. c $4,000 (o) $22,000 (o) – $12,000 (u) – $19,000 (u) = $5,000 (u). 60. a 2013 NI = $51,000 (u) $34,000 (u) = $85,000 (u). 2013 RE = $34,000 (u) [The 2012 $51,000 (o) is offset by 2013 $51,000 (u)]. 61. a $132,000 (u) $166,000 (u) $60,000 (u) $28,800 (u) = $386,800 (u). 62. b $166,000 (u) $84,000 (u) – $60,000 (o) $60,000 (u) $28,800 (u) = $278,800 (u). 63. c $166,000 (u) $28,800 (u) = $194,800 (u). 64. d CE = $0, correction of error. DERIVATIONS — Computational (cont.) No. Answer Derivation 65. c $1,350,000 – = $1,070,000 66. a ($1,500,000 – [($1,500,000 – $60,000) ÷ 9]) × (1 – .40) = $804,000. 67. c $1,500,000 – [($1,500,000 – $60,000) ÷ 9 × 2] = $1,180,000. $1,180,000 × (1 – .40) = $708,000. DERIVATIONS — CPA Adapted No. Answer Derivation 68. b Conceptual. 69. c $2,000,000 × (1 – .3) = $1,400,000. 70. a $900,000 × (1 – .3) = $630,000. 71. a $1,056,000 × 3/8 = $396,000 $396,000 [($1,056,000 – $396,000 – $96,000) × 1/3] = $584,000. 72. b $714,000 × 3/15 = $142,800 $714,000 – $142,800 – [($714,000 – $142,800) × 1/7] = $489,600. 73. d ($180,000 – $162,000) $234,000 ($2,430,000 × .10) = $495,000. 74. b $800,000 ÷ 5 = $160,000. 75. c Conceptual. 76. a $59,000 (u) $135,000 (u) – $45,000 (o) = $149,000 (u). EXERCISES Ex. 22-77—Matching accounting changes to situations. The four types of accounting changes, including error correction, are: Code a. Change in accounting principle. b. Change in accounting estimate. c. Change in reporting entity. d. Error correction. Instructions Following are a series of situations. You are to enter a code letter to the left to indicate the type of change. 1. Change from presenting nonconsolidated to consolidated financial statements. 2. Change due to charging a new asset directly to an expense account. 3. Change from expensing to capitalizing certain costs, due to a change in periods benefited. 4. Change from FIFO to LIFO inventory procedures. 5. Change due to failure to recognize an accrued (uncollected) revenue. 6. Change in amortization period for an intangible asset. 7. Changing the companies included in combined financial statements. 8. Change in the loss rate on warranty costs. 9. Change due to failure to recognize and accrue income. 10. Change in residual value of a depreciable plant asset. 11. Change from an unacceptable to an acceptable accounting principle. 12. Change in both estimate and acceptable accounting principles. 13. Change due to failure to recognize a prepaid asset. 14. Change from straight-line to sum-of-the-years'-digits method of depreciation. 15. Change in life of a depreciable plant asset. 16. Change from one acceptable principle to another acceptable principle. 17. Change due to understatement of inventory. 18. Change in expected recovery of an account receivable. Solution 22-77 1. c 4. a 7. c 10. b 13. d 16. a 2. d 5. d 8. b 11. d 14. b 17. d 3. b 6. b 9. d 12. b 15. b 18. b Ex. 22-78—How changes or corrections are recognized. For each of the following items, indicate the type of accounting change and how each is recognized in the accounting records in the current year. (a) Change from straight-line method of depreciation to sum-of-the-years'-digits (b) Change from the cash basis to accrual basis of accounting (c) Change from FIFO to LIFO method for inventory valuation purposes (retrospective application impractical) (d) Change from presentation of statements of individual companies to presentation of consolidated statements (e) Change due to failure to record depreciation in a previous period (f) Change in the realizability of certain receivables (g) Change from LIFO to FIFO method for inventory valuation purposes Solution 22-78 (a) Change in accounting estimate; currently and prospectively. (b) Correction of an error; restatement of financial statements of all prior periods presented; adjustment of beginning retained earnings of the current period. (c) Change in accounting principle; no restatement; base inventory is the opening inventory of the period of change. (d) Change in accounting entity; retrospective restatement of financial statements of all prior periods presented; adjustment of beginning retained earnings of the current period. (e) Correction of an error; restatement of financial statements of the period affected; prior period adjustment; adjustment of beginning retained earnings of the first period after the error. (f) Change in accounting estimate; currently and prospectively. (g) Change in accounting principle; retrospective restatement of all affected prior financial statements; adjustment of beginning retained earnings of the current period. Ex. 22-79—Matching disclosures to situations. In the blank to the left of each question, fill in the letter from the following list which best describes the presentation of the item on the financial statements of Helton Corporation for 2013. a. Change in estimate b. Prior period adjustment (not due to change in principle) c. Retrospective type accounting change with note disclosure d. None of the above 1. In 2013, the company changed its method of recognizing income from the completed-contract method to the percentage-of-completion method. 2. At the end of 2013, an audit revealed that the corporation's allowance for doubtful accounts was too large and should be reduced to 2%. When the audit was made in 2012, the allowance seemed appropriate. 3. Depreciation on a truck, acquired in 2010, was understated because the service life had been overestimated. The understatement had been made in order to show higher net income in 2011 and 2012. 4. The company switched from a LIFO to a FIFO inventory valuation method during the current year. 5. In the current year, the company decides to change from expensing certain costs to capitalizing these costs, due to a change in the period benefited. 6. During 2013, a long-term bond with a carrying value of $3,600,000 was retired at a cost of $4,100,000. 7. After negotiations with the IRS, income taxes for 2011 were established at $42,900. They were originally estimated to be $28,600. 8. In 2013, the company incurred interest expense of $29,000 on a 20-year bond issue. 9. In computing the depreciation in 2011 for equipment, an error was made which overstated income in that year $75,000. The error was discovered in 2013. 10. In 2013, the company changed its method of depreciating plant assets from the double-declining balance method to the straight-line method. Solution 22-79 1. c 3. b 5. a 7. a 9. b 2. a 4. c 6. d 8. d 10. a Ex. 22-80—Change in accounting principle. In 2013, Fischer Corporation changed its method of inventory pricing from LIFO to FIFO. Net income computed on a LIFO as compared to a FIFO basis for the four years involved is: (Ignore income taxes.) LIFO FIFO 2010 $78,200 $81,700 2011 84,500 88,100 2012 87,000 91,400 2013 92,500 96,700 Instructions (a) Indicate the net income that would be shown on comparative financial statements issued at 12/31/13 for each of the four years, assuming that the company changed to the FIFO method in 2013. (b) Assume that the company had switched from the average cost method to the FIFO method with net income on an average cost basis for the four years as follows: 2010, $80,400; 2011, $86,120; 2012, $90,300; and 2013, $93,600. Indicate the net income that would be shown on comparative financial statements issued at 12/31/13 for each of the four years under these conditions. (c) Assuming that the company switched from the FIFO to the LIFO method, what would be the net income reported on comparative financial statements issued at 12/31/13 for 2010, 2011, and 2012? Solution 22-80 (a) 2010, $81,700; 2011, $88,100; 2012, $91,400; 2013, $96,700, (Retrospective restatement). (b) 2010, $81,700; 2011, $88,100; 2012, $91,400; 2013, $96,700, (Retrospective restatement). (c) 2010, $81,700; 2011, $88,100; 2012, $91,400. (retrospective application impractical) Ex. 22-81—Change in estimate, change in entity, correction of errors. Discuss the accounting procedures for and illustrate the following: (a) Change in estimate (b) Change in entity (c) Correction of an error Solution 22-81 (a) Accounting estimates will change as new events occur, as more experience is acquired, or new information is obtained. Examples of changes in estimate are: (a) collectibility of receivables, (b) inventory obsolescence, (c) estimated lives or residual values, and (d) warranty costs. Changes in estimates are handled prospectively; that is, in current and future periods. No restatement of previous financial statements is made. Solution 22-81 (cont.) (b) A change in accounting entity results in financial statements of a different entity. Examples of changes in entity are: (a) consolidated statements replacing individual statements, (b) different subsidiaries in the group for which consolidated statements are presented, (c) different companies included in combined financial statements, and (d) a pooling of interests. The financial statements of all prior periods presented should be restated to show the financial information for the new reporting entity for all periods. (c) Examples of accounting errors are: (a) a change from an accounting principle that is not generally accepted to an accounting principle that is accepted, (b) mathematical mistakes, (c) changes in estimates that occur because the estimates are not made in good faith, (d) an oversight, (e) a misuse of facts, and (f) misclassification of an asset as an expense or vice versa. Corrections of errors are recorded in the year discovered, are treated as prior period adjustments, and the beginning balance of retained earnings is adjusted. Prior financial statements are restated. Ex. 22-82—Changes in depreciation methods, estimates. On January 1, 2008, Powell Company purchased a building and machinery that have the following useful lives, salvage value, and costs. Building, 25-year estimated useful life, $5,000,000 cost, $500,000 salvage value Machinery, 10-year estimated useful life, $700,000 cost, no salvage value The building has been depreciated under the straight-line method through 2012. In 2013, the company decided to switch to the double-declining balance method of depreciation for the building. Powell also decided to change the total useful life of the machinery to 8 years, with a salvage value of $35,000 at the end of that time. The machinery is depreciated using the straight-line method. Instructions (a) Prepare the journal entry necessary to record the depreciation expense on the building in 2013. (b) Compute depreciation expense on the machinery for 2013. Solution 22-82 Computation of 2013 depreciation expense on the building: Cost of building $5,000,000 Accumulated depreciation [($5,000,000 – $500,000) ÷ 25] × 5 years 900,000 Book value, 1/1/13 $4,100,000 2013 Depreciation expense: $4,100,000 × 10% = $410,000 Depreciation Expense 410,000 Accumulated Depreciation—Building 410,000 Solution 22-82 (cont.) Computation of 2013 depreciation expense on machinery: Cost of machinery $700,000 Accumulated depreciation [($700,000 – $0) ÷ 10] × 5 years 350,000 Book value, 1/1/13 $350,000 2013 Depreciation expense: ($350,000 – $35,000) ÷ (8 – 5) = $315,000 ÷ 3 = $105,000 Ex. 22-83—Noncounterbalancing error. Quigley Co. bought a machine on January 1, 2011 for $1,050,000. It had a $90,000 estimated residual value and a ten-year life. An expense account was debited on the purchase date. Quigley uses straight-line depreciation. This was discovered in 2013. Instructions Prepare the entry or entries related to the machine for 2013. Solution 22-83 Machine 1,050,000 Retained Earnings 858,000 Accumulated Depreciationmachinery (2 × $96,000) 192,000 Depreciation Expense 96,000 Accumulated Depreciationmachinery 96,000 Ex. 22-84—Effects of errors. Show how the following independent errors will affect net income on the Income Statement and the stockholders' equity section of the Balance Sheet using the symbol (plus) for overstated, – (minus) for understated, and 0 (zero) for no effect. 2012 2013 Income Balance Income Balance Statement Sheet Statement Sheet 1. Ending inventory in 2012 overstated. 2. Failed to accrue 2012 interest revenue. 3. A capital expenditure for factory equipment (useful life, 5 years) was erroneously charged to maintenance expense in 2012. Ex. 22-84 (cont.) 2012 2013 Income Balance Income Balance Statement Sheet Statement Sheet 4. Failed to count office supplies on hand at 12/31/12. Cash expenditures have been charged to a supplies expense account during the year 2012. 5. Failed to accrue 2012 wages. 6. Ending inventory in 2012 understated. 7. Overstated 2012 depreciation expense; 2013 expense correct. Solution 22-84 2012 2013 Income Balance Income Balance Statement Sheet Statement Sheet 1. Ending inventory in 2012 overstated. 2. Failed to accrue 2012 interest reve-nue. 3. A capital expenditure for factory equipment (useful life, 5 years) was erroneously charged to maintenance expense in 2012. 4. Failed to count office supplies on hand at 12/31/12. Cash expenditures have been charged to Supplies Expense during the year 2012. 5. Failed to accrue 2012 wages. 6. Ending inventory in 2012 understated. 7. Overstated 2012 depreciation ex- pense; 2013 expense correct Ex. 22-85—Effects of errors. Joseph Co. began operations on January 1, 2012. Financial statements for 2012 and 2013 contained the following errors: Dec. 31, 2012 Dec. 31, 2013 Ending inventory $80,000 too high $114,000 too high Depreciation expense 48,000 too low — Accumulated depreciation 48,000 too low 48,000 too low Insurance expense 42,000 too high 42,000 too low Prepaid insurance 36,000 too low In addition, on December 26, 2013 fully depreciated equipment was sold for $53,000, but the sale was not recorded until 2014. No corrections have been made for any of the errors. Instructions Ignoring income taxes, show your calculation of the total effect of the errors on 2013 net income. Solution 22-85 2012 ending inventory $ (80,000) 2013 ending inventory 114,000 Insurance expense 42,000 Unrecorded gain (53,000) Overstatement of 2013 income $ 23,000 Note: The error in depreciation expense has no effect on 2013 income. The error in prepaid insurance is related to the error in insurance expense. PROBLEMS Pr. 22-86—Accounting for changes and error corrections. Dyke Company's net incomes for the past three years are presented below: 2014 2013 2012 $480,000 $450,000 $360,000 During the 2014 year-end audit, the following items come to your attention: 1. Dyke bought equipment on January 1, 2011 for $294,000 with a $24,000 estimated salvage value and a six-year life. The company debited an expense account and credited cash on the purchase date for the entire cost of the asset. (Straight-line method) 2. During 2014, Dyke changed from the straight-line method of depreciating its cement plant to the double-declining balance method. The following computations present depreciation on both bases: 2014 2013 2012 Straight-line 36,000 36,000 36,000 Double-declining 46,080 57,600 72,000 Pr. 22-86 (cont.) The net income for 2014 was computed using the double-declining balance method, on the January 1, 2014 book value, over the useful life remaining at that time. The depreciation recorded in 2014 was $72,000. 3. Dyke, in reviewing its provision for uncollectibles during 2014, has determined that 1% is the appropriate amount of bad debt expense to be charged to operations. The company had used 1/2 of 1% as its rate in 2013 and 2014 when the expense had been $18,000 and $12,000, respectively. The company recorded bad debt expense under the new rate for 2014. The company would have recorded $6,000 less of bad debt expense on December 31, 2014 under the old rate. Instructions (a) Prepare in general journal form the entry necessary to correct the books for the transaction in part 1 of this problem, assuming that the books have not been closed for the current year. (b) Compute the net income to be reported each year 2012 through 2014. (c) Assume that the beginning retained earnings balance (unadjusted) for 2012 was $1,260,000. At what adjusted amount should this beginning retained earnings balance for 2012 be stated, assuming that comparative financial statements were prepared? (d) Assume that the beginning retained earnings balance (unadjusted) for 2014 is $1,800,000 and that non-comparative financial statements are prepared. At what adjusted amount should this beginning retained earnings balance be stated? Solution 22-86 (a) Equipment 294,000 Depreciation Expense 45,000 Accumulated Depreciation (4 years, 11-14) 180,000 Retained Earnings 159,000 (b) 2012: $360,000 – $45,000 = $315,000. 2013: $450,000 – $45,000 = $405,000. 2014: $480,000 – $45,000 = $435,000. (c) Retained earnings (unadjusted) $1,260,000 Correction of 2011 error ($294,000 – $45,000) 249,000 Retained earnings (adjusted) $1,509,000 (d) Retained earnings (unadjusted) $1,800,000 Correction of error ($294,000 – $135,000) 159,000 Retained earnings (adjusted) $1,959,000 Pr. 22-87—Correction of errors. Vance Company reported net incomes for a three-year period as follows: 2011, $191,000; 2012, $199,000; 2013, $180,000. In reviewing the accounts in 2014 after the books for the prior year have been closed, you find that the following errors have been made in summarizing activities: 2011 2012 2013 Overstatement of ending inventory $42,000 $51,000 $29,000 Understatement of accrued advertising expense 6,600 12,000 7,200 Instructions (a) Determine corrected net incomes for 2011, 2012, and 2013. (b) Give the entry to bring the books of the company up to date in 2014, assuming that the books have been closed for 2013. Solution 22-87 (a) 2011 2012 2013 Net income (unadjusted) $191,000 $199,000 $180,000 Overstatement of ending inventory—2011 (42,000) 42,000 Overstatement of ending inventory—2012 (51,000) 51,000 Overstatement of ending inventory—2013 (29,000) Understatement of accrued advertising expense—2011 (6,600) 6,600 Understatement of accrued advertising expense—2012 (12,000) 12,000 Understatement of accrued advertising expense—2013 (7,200) Net income (corrected) $142,400 $184,600 $206,800 (b) Retained Earnings 36,200 Advertising Expense 7,200 Inventory 29,000 Pr. 22-88—Error corrections and adjustments. The controller for Haley Corporation is concerned about certain business transactions that the company experienced during 2013. The controller, after discussing these matters with various individuals, has come to you for advice. The transactions at issue are presented below. 1. The company has decided to switch from the direct write-off method in accounting for bad debt expense to the percentage-of-sales approach. Assume that Haley Corporation has recognized bad debt expense as the receivables have actually become uncollectible in the following way: 2012 2013 From 2012 sales 31,800 15,000 From 2013 sales 45,000 The controller estimates that an additional $65,400 will be charged off in 2014: $11,400 applicable to 2012 sales and $54,000 to 2013 sales. Pr. 22-88 (cont.) 2. Inventory has been shipped on consignment. These transactions have been recorded as ordinary sales and billed as such on account. At December 31, 2013, inventory billed and in the hands of consignees amounted to $450,000. The percentage markup on selling price is 20%. Assume that consigned inventory is sold the following year. The company uses the perpetual inventory system. 3. During the current year, the company sold $600,000 of goods on the installment basis. The cost of sales associated with these goods sold is $420,000. The company inadvertently handled these sales and related costs as part of the regular sales transactions. Cash of $172,000, including a down payment of $60,000, was collected on these installment sales during the current year. Due to questionable collectibility, the installmentsales method was considered appropriate. Instructions (a) Assume that Haley Corporation reported net income of $1,200,000 for 2013. Present a schedule showing the corrected net income after reviewing the above transactions. (b) Prepare the journal entries necessary at December 31, 2013, assuming that the books have been closed. Solution 22-88 (a) Reported net income $1,200,000 1. Additional charge for bad debts 2012 debts written off in 2013 $ 15,000 2013 debts to be written off in 2014 (54,000) (39,000) 2. Consignment—(20% × $450,000) (90,000) 3. Gross profit— Recognized 180,000 Should be (30% × $172,000) (51,600) (128,400) Corrected net income $942,600 (b) 1. Retained Earnings 65,400 Allowance for Doubtful Accounts 65,400 2. Consignment Out (Inventory) 360,000 Retained Earnings 90,000 Accounts Receivable 450,000 3. Retained Earnings 128,400 Deferred Gross Profit 128,400 IFRS QUESTIONS True/False 1. IFRS requires that changes in estimate be accounted for using the retrospective method. 2. IFRS requires that any indirect effect of a change in accounting policy, such as increased royalty payments, be recognized in income in the year of the change in policy. 3. IFRS requires that companies with equity method investments conform the accounting policies of their investees to their accounting policies prior to applying the equity method of accounting. 4. Both IFRS and U.S. GAAP allow that if determining the effect of a change in accounting principle is considered impracticable, then a company should report the effect of the change in the period in which it believes it practicable to do so. 5. U.S. GAAP does not specifically address how companies should account for the indirect effects of changes in accounting principle. Answers to True/False: 1. False 2. False 3. True 4. True 5. False Multiple Choice 1. Is the following exception applicable to IFRS or U.S. GAAP? “If determining the effect of a change in accounting principle is considered impracticable, then a company should report the effect of the change in the period in which it believes it practicable to do so.” IFRS U.S. GAAP a. Yes Yes b. Yes No c. No Yes d. No No 2. Is the following exception applicable to IFRS or U.S. GAAP? “If determining the effect of a correction of an error is considered impracticable, then a company should report the effect of the error correction in the period in which it believes it practicable to do so.” IFRS U.S. GAAP a. Yes Yes b. Yes No c. No Yes d. No No 3. Detailed guidance regarding the accounting and reporting for the indirect effects of changes in accounting principle is available under a. both U.S. GAAP and IFRS. b. neither U.S. GAAP nor IFRS. c. U.S. GAAP only. d. IFRS only. 4. Ben, Inc. follows IFRS for its external financial reporting. Ben, Inc. owns 25% of the outstanding stock of Black, Inc. and accordingly uses the equity method to account for its investment. Which of the following is true regarding Ben, Inc.’s policies related to Black, Inc.? a. Ben, Inc. will increase the investment account for its pro-rata share of Black, Inc.’s net loss for the year. b. Ben, Inc. will increase the investment account for its pro-rata share of the dividends paid out by Black, Inc. for the year. c. Ben, Inc. will conform the accounting policies of Black, Inc. to its own accounting policies. d. None of the above is true regarding how Ben, Inc. accounts for its investment in Black, Inc. 5. Ben, Inc. follows U.S. GAAP for its external financial reporting. Ben, Inc. owns 25% of the outstanding stock of Black, Inc. and accordingly uses the equity method to account for its investment. Which of the following is true regarding Ben, Inc.’s policies related to Black, Inc.? a. Ben, Inc. will increase the investment account for its pro-rata share of Black, Inc.’s net loss for the year. b. Ben, Inc. will increase the investment account for its pro-rata share of the dividends paid out by Black, Inc. for the year. c. Ben, Inc. will conform the accounting policies of Black, Inc. to its own accounting policies. d. None of the above is true regarding how Ben, Inc. accounts for its investment in Black, Inc. 6. Haystack, Inc. owns 30% of the outstanding stock of Hallmark, Inc. and accordingly uses the equity method to account for its investment. The stock was purchased on January 1, 2013 for $780,000. During the year ended December 31, 2013, Hallmark, Inc. reported the following: Dividends declared and paid $ 400,000 Net income 2,400,000 Haystack, Inc. uses the FIFO method for costing its inventories, while Hallmark, Inc. uses the LIFO method to conform with other companies in its industry. Haystack, Inc. determines that if Hallmark, Inc. had used the FIFO method, its income would have been $350,000 higher during 2013. What is the balance in the Investment in Hallmark, Inc. that will be reported on Haystack, Inc.’s balance sheet at December 31, 2013 assuming Haystack, Inc. follows IFRS for its external financial reporting? a. $1,725,000 b. $1,380,000 c. $1,485,000 d. $1,275,000 7. Haystack, Inc. owns 30% of the outstanding stock of Hallmark, Inc. and accordingly uses the equity method to account for its investment. The stock was purchased on January 1, 2013 for $780,000. During the year ended December 31, 2013, Hallmark, Inc. reported the following: Dividends declared and paid $ 400,000 Net income 2,400,000 Haystack, Inc. uses the FIFO method for costing its inventories, while Hallmark, Inc. uses the LIFO method to conform with other companies in its industry. Haystack, Inc. determines that if Hallmark, Inc. had used the FIFO method, its income would have been $350,000 higher during 2013. What is the balance in the Investment in Hallmark, Inc. that will be reported on Haystack, Inc.’s balance sheet at December 31, 2013 assuming Haystack, Inc. follows U.S. GAAP for its external financial reporting? a. $1,725,000 b. $1,380,000 c. $1,485,000 d. $1,275,000 8. Ridge, Inc. follows IFRS for its external financial reporting, and Cannon Company follows U.S. GAAP for its external financial reporting. During 2013, both companies changed depreciation methods, from double-declining balance to straight-line. Compared to double-declining balance, for Ridge, Inc. the change resulted in a decrease in reported depreciation expense of $60,000, and for Cannon Company the change resulted in a reported decrease in depreciation expense of $70,000. The remaining useful lives of the assets impacted by the change in depreciation method is 10 years for both companies. How would this change impact the net income reported by Ridge, Inc. and Cannon Company for the year ended December 31, 2013? Ridge, Inc. Cannon Company a. Decrease $60,000 Decrease $70,000 b. Increase $6,000 Increase $7,000 c. Increase $60,000 Increase $70,000 d. Increase $60,000 Increase $7,000 9. Mars, Inc. follows IFRS for its external financial reporting. On January 1, 2013, Mars, Inc. purchased 25% of the outstanding stock of Jerome Company (w

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