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[Solved] CHAPTER 5 MEMORY: MODELS AND RESEARCH METHODS

CHAPTER 5 MEMORY: MODELS AND RESEARCH METHODS Basic Questions 1. For which type of stimuli was your memory span the longest? For which was it the shortest? 2. What three types of mistakes could one make in recalling the stimulus sequence that would lead to it being scored as incorrect? 3. Approximately how many items can the average person hold in short-term memory? Advanced Questions 1. Typically, when the stimulus sequence consists of long words, one’s memory span is shorter than when the stimulus sequence consists of short words. Why might this be the case? 2. Typically, when the stimulus sequence consists of similar sounding letters, one’s memory span is shorter than when the stimulus sequence consists of dissimilar sounding letters. Why might this be the case? 3. You have a friend who is taking Biology, Anatomy and Physiology, Comparative Politics, and American Government and he/she has tests in all of these classes on the same day, this upcoming Friday. Your friend decided to study for two of the exams on Wednesday and two of the exams on Thursday. Based on what you have learned about memory span, which classes would you advise him/her to study for on each of these days? Why? Discussion Question 1. Memory span has been linked to intelligence. Suppose two individuals from different parts of the world were given the same memory test (in their respective native languages) and one individual showed a much longer memory span than the other. Using what you have learned from this demonstration, why is it unfair to say that the individual with the longer memory span is most likely more intelligent than the individual with the shorter memory span?  Test Bank Multiple Choice Questions 1. A person with a large memory span is likely to do well on … a. a reading comprehension test. b. an intelligence test. c. a problem solving test. d. All of the above Answer: . 2. Approximately how many items can the average person hold in working memory? a. 2 b. 4 c. 7 d. 10 Answer: . 3. Which of the following lists of letters would you least likely be able to remember? a. d, g, e, p, t, c, and b b. a, b, c, d, e, f, and g c. q, l, m, r, s, n, and y d. h, j, u, o, w, k, and c Answer: . 4. According to the predictions of the memory span demonstration, for which of the following types of material should a participant have the shortest memory span? a. digits b. long words c. letters that sound different d. short words Answer: . 5. Memory-span is a measure of … a. long-term memory capacity. b. working memory capacity. c. how long one can think about a given memory. d. None of the above Answer: . True/False Question 1. ___ According to the predictions of the memory span demonstration, one’s memory span for numbers should be longer than their memory span for letters that sound similar. Answer: True Short Answer Question 1. Describe the two major properties of working memory. Essay Question 1. How do the predicted results of the memory span demonstration support that claim that a person’s working memory capacity is related to a verbal process? This essay is worth 6 points. Point 1: longer for short words than for long words. Point 2 and 3: process because it takes longer to verbalize long words then in does to verbalize short words. Point 4: belonger for different sounding letters than for similar sounding letters. Point 5 and 6: process because similar sounding letters are more likely to interfere with one - PARTIAL REPORT -  Student Manual Answers Basic Questions 1. In this experiment, how would one measure the interstimulus interval (ISI)? 2. At what ISI did you show the most accurate recall? At what ISI did you show the least accurate recall? 3. In general, participant’s recall accuracy decreases as ISI increases. Explain why this relationship exists. Advanced Questions 1. In a partial report experiment like the one in this demonstration, you are shown a 4 x 4 matrix of letters and are cued to report the letters from the first row. Assuming you recalled three of the four letters in the cued row, how many of the letters in the matrix were available in your sensory memory at the offset of the letter matrix? 2. Using your personal data, what would you predict your recall accuracy would be with a 700ms ISI? Using the global data, make a prediction for someone’s recall accuracy with a 700ms ISI. 3. You only briefly see a holiday shopping list for your family members before it gets taken away by a gust of wind. What strategy should you employ to maximize your accuracy in remembering what was on the list? Discussion Question 1. Say you’re watching television with a group of friends and something happens that makes everyone laugh but you. Afterward, everyone is talking about what made them laugh, but you do not remember seeing it at all. Is it that you did not see it or that you do not remember it? Explain. Multiple Choice Questions 1. In an experiment like the one in the partial report demonstration, from which matrix row should participants be able to recall the most letters from? a. The first row b. The second row c. The last row d. All of the rows should be recalled equally well 2. Which of the following best describes one’s perceptual span? a. The range of visual stimuli that our visual system is sensitive to b. The maximum number of items a one can hold in long term memory c. The amount of information that one get from a single glance d. None of the above 3. If you briefly glance at a picture, what limits your ability to report what you had seen? a. Your ability to recall the items seen b. Your ability to perceive the items seen c. Your ability to process the items seen d. None of the above   4. The partial report demonstration predicts that participants will correctly remember more letters when the delay from the offset of the letter matrix until the onset of the tone is ________. a. short b. intermediate c. long d. The delay should not affect the number of letters correctly remembered 5. You see an advertisement on the side of a bus for a product you would like to purchase. You only briefly see the phone number you need to order this product before the bus drives away. Approximately how long do you have to rehearse and/or write down this phone number? a. Less than a second b. Three to five seconds c. Twenty seconds d. As long as you need True/False Question 1. ___ In the partial report demonstration an arrow cued the participant as to which row of the letter matrix they were to report on. Short Answer Question 1. What is the main prediction of the partial report demonstration? Essay Question 1. Describe Sperling’s (1960) partial report procedure. What did his original experiment teach us about perceptual span and the capabilities of our perceptual system? This essay is worth 6 pointsPoint 1:Point 2:Point 3:Point 4:Point 5:Point 6: - ABSOLUTE IDENTIFICATION -  Student Manual Answers Basic Questions 1. In what dimension did the tones in this demonstration vary? 2. If you were given extensive training on this task, how would your results change? 3. Which tones were you most accurately able to identify? Which tones did you have the most difficulty identifying? Advanced Questions 1. Using the global data, graph the results of this demonstration by plotting the tones presented (1-9) on the x-axis and the average number of times each tone was correctly identified on the y-axis. What is the general shape of the curve you just plotted? 2. Identify a category of items for which you are good at distinguishing among its members. Why is your identification performance of items within this category so good? 3. You are designing an interface for a control room at a factory. One of the factory employees shows you the interface they currently use. One of the features of the old interface is a light indicator that goes off multiple times a day. Its flashing rate indicates one of 7 responses that the control-room operator needs to make. Why is this aspect of the current interface design problematic? What could you do to make it better? Discussion Question 1. In what ways are the predicted results of this demonstration similar to the typical results from an ordered serial recall task?  Test Bank Answers Multiple Choice Questions 1. In a typical absolute-identification experiment, what can an individual do to achieve perfect performance? a. Complete an extensive session of trials b. Use distributed practice c. Practice in a number of different contexts d. None of the above Answer: . 2. Which of the following would be most difficult? a. Identifying a number of stimuli that vary along one dimension b. Identifying a number of stimuli that vary along two dimensions c. Identifying a number of stimuli that vary along three dimensions d. All would be equally difficult Answer: . 3. You are given a five blocks. The blocks are all identical except that they all have different weights. When you got the blocks you were able to hold each of them and get a feel for their relative weights. The blocks weigh three, four, five, six, and seven pounds respectively. If you were given each of the blocks separately and had to identify each of them, which of the following would be easiest to identify? a. The three pound block b. The four pound block c. The five pound block d. The six pound block Answer: . 4. The absolute-identification demonstration predicts that participants will be better at correctly identifying the ________ line/s than the ________ line/s. a. medium length, shortest b. shortest, medium length c. longest, shortest d. shortest, longest Answer: . 5. In the absolute-identification experiment, when a participant makes an error what type of error is usually made? a. Participants confuse lines that are paired opposites b. Participants confuse lines that are presented one after the other c. Participants confuse lines of similar length d. None of the above Answer: . True/False Question 1. ___ Identifying a large number of stimuli that vary on more than one dimension is typically very easy. Short Answer Question 1. What are the predicted results of the absolute-identification demonstration? Essay Question 1. Describe a typical absolute-identification experiment. How do the typical results of these types of experiments support the idea that people are limited in the number of items they can identify? This essay is worth 6 points. Point 1:Point 2:Point 3: its respective label. Points 4 and 5: stimuli only vary along one dimension. Absolute-Identification experiments have shown that stimuli are difficult to identify when they only vary along one dimension. Point 6: - OPERATION SPAN -  Student Manual Answers Basic Questions 1. Operation span correlates with other tasks involving working memory. What does it mean if two variables have a positive correlation? What does it mean if they have a negative correlation? 2. How is operation span calculated in this demonstration? 3. How is operation span different from what is typically described as memory span? Advanced Questions 1. Operation-span experiments provide evidence that we have a general pool of resources for working memory. What implications does this have for multi-tasking? 2. While you are driving, your roommate reads you a list of items you need to get at the store. Why might it be difficult for you to effectively remember these items? 3. Name a job that would require someone with a high operation span. Explain your answer. Discussion Question 1. In this demonstration, the math problems typically impair one’s ability to remember the list words. Why do you think this is the case?  Test Bank Answers Multiple Choice Questions 1. You notice you have trouble driving when you are also talking on the phone. This observation would be consistent with which of the following. a. People have one general resource pool b. People have a number of specific resource pools c. People have at least two types of working memory d. None of the above Answer: . 2. Our operation span reflects our ability to ________ information. a. store b. manipulate c. process d. All of the above Answer: . 3. In the operation span demonstration participants were asked to … a. recall a list of numbers b. recall a list of words. c. recall a list of math problems. d. None of the above Answer: . 4. In the operation span demonstration, the math problems seem to ... a. use some of the same resources that are need to remember the list words. b. use different resources than the one’s needed to remember the list words. c. play no role in one’s ability to remember a the list of words. d. None of the above Answer: . 5. What does one’s operation span predict? a. Verbal ability b. Reading completion c. Memory span d. All of the above Answer: . True/False Question 1. ___ One’s operation span is a good predictor of one’s performance on a memory task. Answer: True Short Answer Question 1. What do the general findings concerning operation span suggest about the resources utilized by working memory? Operation span findings suggest that working memory uses a general pool of resources rather than a number of specific resource pools. Essay Question 1. Compare and contrast operation span and memory span? Describe the primary difference in how each of these spans is calculated? This essay is worth 6 points. Point 1: Point 2: Point 3 & 4: stored, and manipulated. Point 5: presented in sequence that one can correctly remember after the presentation of the list. Point 6: - IMPLICIT LEARNING -  Student Manual Answers Basic Questions 1. What is the main difference between explicit and implicit learning? 2. While doing this demonstration did you feel as though you were learning a pattern of responses? Were you surprised to find out you participated in the version (random/pattern) of the experiment you did? 3. Using the graph from the demonstration’s global data, determine if implicit learning is taking place? Explain why you drew the conclusion that you did. Advanced Questions 1. You have just received you driver’s license and the first place you drive to on your own is to your music lesson. When you get to your lesson, your instructor asks you what driving route you took to get there. You have a great deal of trouble describing your driving route to your instructor, but obviously you had no problem getting there. Explain how this could happen. 2. You just finished taking a mid-term exam in your hardest class of the semester. Despite it being a multiple-choice test (there were only four options to choose from for each question), you know you did not do very well. You can honestly say that you did not know the answer to one question; in fact, you could not even eliminate any of the multiple-choice options. When you get your test back, you are pleasantly surprised to see you received a 60%. How could you have thought you did so much worse than you did? 3. Name three activities that are typically learned implicitly. Discussion Question 1. In a complex implicit-learning task, sometimes people are better off just paying attention to the task instead of trying to figure out the underlying pattern or structure. Why do you think this is the case?  Test Bank Answers Multiple Choice Questions 1. The implicit learning demonstration predicts that you will learn the rule for the presentation of the dots … a. but only if you consciously try to learn the rule. b. but you won’t be able to consciously identify the rule. c. but it won’t be evident by looking at your reaction times to the dots d. None of the above Answer: . 2. In the pattern condition of the implicit learning demonstration, typically participant’s reaction times decrease over the first few trials. What is done to see if the participant is truly learning to pattern or if they are just getting better because of practice with the task? a. A transfer test b. An implicit memory test c. An explicit memory test d. An implicit learning test Answer: . 3. At the end of the implicit learning demonstration, if a participant correctly identified the pattern of the stimuli then they experienced … a. no learning b. implicit learning c. explicit learning d. serial learning Answer: . 4. Which of the following best describes implicit learning? a. Learning that occurs without one’s conscious knowledge b. Learning that requires conscious intent and effort c. Learning that utilizes multiple levels of processing d. Learning that takes place while teaching another Answer: . 5. In the patterned condition of the implicit learning demonstration, implicit learning occurred if a. the participant is not be able to identify the stimulus pattern at the end of the experiment. b. the participant’s reaction times decrease over the course of the experiment. c. the participant’s reaction times were slowed in the transfer test block. d. All of the above Answer: . True/False Question 1. ___ Implicit learning usually occurs after short but effortful study periods. Answer: False Short Answer Question 1. In an implicit serial-pattern learning experiment reaction times can be used to see if learning has occurred, but even if learning has occurred how can experimenters find out if the learning has been implicit? Essay Question 1. In a typical implicit serial-pattern learning experiment, what is a transfer test and why does it play an important in determining if a participant is implicitly learning the serial-pattern? This essay is worth 7 points. Point 1: with a pattern of stimuli and is asked to make responses based upon each stimulus they are presented with. Point 2:Point 3: participant often starts making their responses to each stimulus more quickly. Point 4: Point 5: Point 6: Point 7: - MODALITY EFFECT –  Student Manual Answers Basic Questions 1. Describe your personal data. For which list position was your recall performance the highest? For which was it the lowest? 2. Does your data show the modality effect? Why or why not? 3. What is sensory memory? Advanced Questions 1. Using what you have learned from this demonstration, what study tips would you give to a friend who has an important exam coming up? 2. When looking up a phone number in the yellow pages, what can you do to improve your recall of that phone number later? 3. What occupations might be able to use the findings from experiments on the modality effect in their work? Explain. Discussion Question 1. Why does the modality effect only show up for the last one or two items in the list?  Test Bank Multiple Choice Questions 1. When a list of items is heard people tend to remember the ________ list items better than if the list of items was read silently to oneself. a. early b. middle c. late d. All of the list items are better remembered Answer: . 2. People have sensory memory for … a. auditory information. b. olfactory information. c. tactile information. d. All of the above Answer: . 3. In the Modality Effect demonstration, the auditory presentation of the list leads to better recall of the last few items in the lest than the visual presentation of the list because … a. you have information about how the list sounds. b. people like listening more than they like reading. c. the presentation of the items on the list was slower. d. the presentation of the items on the list was faster. Answer: . 4. Sensory memory has a ________ capacity for information. Sensory memory holds information for a ________ amount of time. a. large, short b. large, long c. small, short d. small, long Answer: . 5. If a list is ________ there is an advantage in remember the last items on the list as compared to when the list is read silently to oneself. a. lip-read b. mouthed silently c. heard d. All of the above Answer: . True/False Question 1. ___ Information presented in multiple modalities is often remembered better than information presented in one modality Answer: True Short Question 1. What is the independent and dependent variable in the Modality Effect demonstration? Essay Question 1. What is sensory memory and how is it related to the Modality Effect? This essay is worth 6 points. Point 1: Point 2: Point 3:Point 4: Point 5: Point 6: - POSITION ERROR –  Student Manual Answers Basic Questions 1. When trying to recall a list of items in order, what are the two most common position errors? 2. What does a position error analysis tell about memory as compared to an overall performance analysis? 3. What target position did you most accurately recall? What target position did you have the most trouble with at recall? Advanced Questions 1. Look at your data as well as the global data. What items in the list seem to have related response patterns? 2. If you plotted item number on the x-axis and percent correct on the y-axis, what would the graph look like (assuming the errors follow the predicted pattern)? 3. Imagine you’re completing a history assignment and one of the questions asks you to complete a timeline for the prominent historical events discussed in class. You know you have all the important events down, but your instructor tells you you’ve made one error. The good news is your instructor allows you to correct your error if you can find it. Where is the best place to look for your error? What type of errors should you keep an eye out for? Discussion Question 1. Many people report that it is easier to recall the number sequences for the early trials of the experiment as compared to the trials that occur toward the end of the experiment. Why do you think this might be the case?  Test Bank Multiple Choice Questions 1. If you are shown a seven-item list in order and asked to recall the list items in order, typically what list item will you most commonly remember as being the item in the forth position. a. The first list item b. The third list item c. The forth list item d. The last list item Answer: . 2. In the position error demonstration, which of the following list positions is likely to be remembered best? a. Second position b. Forth position c. Fifth position d. Last position Answer: . 3. Suppose you were given the sequence of words dog, cat, fish, rabbit, and mouse then asked to repeat the sequence in the same order it was received. Using what you learned from the position error demonstration, which of the following word orders would you most likely give? a. Dog, cat, rabbit, fish, mouse b. Dog, cat, mouse, rabbit, fish c. Fish, cat, dog, rabbit, mouse d. Mouse, cat, fish, rabbit, dog Answer: . 4. What advantage does a position error analysis have over looking at one’s percent correct? a. It tells you how many errors are being made b. It tells you what types of errors are being made c. It tells you why certain errors are being made d. All of the above Answer: . 5. In the position error demonstration, the response pattern for the first item in similar to the response pattern for … a. the second item on the list. b. last item on the list. c. the fourth item on the list. d. all the items on the list. Answer: True/False Question 1. ___ The errors that people make when the try to recall a list in its given order are random. Answer: False Short Answer Question 1. In the position error demonstration, which list positions are typically recalled the best? Which list positions are typically recalled the worst? Essay Question 1. In the position error demonstration, what information can you get from a participant’s position error graph that you cannot get from knowing their percent correct for each list position? Why is this information important? What are the most common errors people make in this demonstration? This essay is worth 5 points. Point 1: Point 2:Point 3:Point 4: Point 5: - IRRELEVANT SPEECH EFFECT -  Student Manual Answers Basic Questions 1. In this demonstration, did you show the Irrelevant Speech Effect? Explain how you know. 2. How is visual information stored in working memory, and how might this explain the Irrelevant Speech Effect? 3. Irrelevant Speech is thought to impair one’s ability to recall list items and/or impair one’s ability to recall list items in the correct order. Based on your experience with this demonstration, which of these two hypotheses do you think is most accurate? Why? Advanced Questions 1. You have an important exam tomorrow and your roommates ask you if they can have people over for a small party. They promise that you can have the whole upstairs to yourself so no one will bother you. Will this allow you to effectively study for your exam? Why or why not? 2. If you get a phone call while watching television, you always make a point to mute the television. You have always thought this allowed you to hear the person you were talking to more clearly. After having done this demonstration, can you think of another reason why muting the television allows you to communicate on the phone more effectively? 3. In this demonstration, if you were presented with auditory tones instead of irrelevant speech when being shown the sequence of numbers, do you think your recall performance would be improved, further impaired, or the same? Why? Discussion Question 1. How might attention play a role in the Irrelevant Speech Effect? Attention is needed to fully process information. To remember a sequence of numbers a participant needs to attend to each of the numbers. Irrelevant speech may grab and/or divide a participant’s attention and therefore not allow the participant to process the number sequence to the level necessary for maximal performance. Attention is selective in that it is able to process certain information while ignoring other information. Attention does not seem to be able to completely ignore irrelevant speech in this context.  Test Bank Multiple Choice Questions 1. What type of speech can cause the Irrelevant Speech Effect? a. Speech in your native language b. Speech in a foreign language c. Nonsense speech d. All of the above Answer: . 2. What is the independent variable in the Irrelevant Speech Effect demonstration? a. The presence or absence of irrelevant speech b. The percentage of correctly recalled letters c. The number of letters presented in the list d. All of the above Answer: . 3. One explanation for the Irrelevant Speech Effect presented in the demonstration suggests that irrelevant speech … a. is translated into visual information and then interferes with the visual presentation of the list. b. makes the order of the list items difficult to remember. c. activates memories associated with the speech sounds that are heard. d. None of the above Answer: . 4. One explanation for the Irrelevant Speech Effect presented in the demonstration suggests that the visually presented items … a. never enter short-term memory, but instead go directly to long-term memory. b. end up being stored in the same part of memory that auditory information is stored. c. are stored indefinitely in iconic memory until called upon. d. None of the above Answer: . 5. You are watching a movie for your film class. Which of the following could be most detrimental to your ability to remember various details of the movie? a. Listening to classical music b. The noise from your dryer c. Listening to your favorite rock station d. All of the above would be equally detrimental Answer: . True/False Question 1. ___ The Irrelevant Speech Effect can only be caused by speech that listener can understand. Answer: False Short Answer Question 1. What is the primary prediction of the Irrelevant Speech Effect demonstration? Essay Question 1. Describe the three explanations of the Irrelevant Speech Effect that are stated in the Irrelevant Speech Demonstration. This essay is worth 6 points. Points 1 and 2:Points 3 and 4:Points 5 and 6: - PHONOLOGICAL SIMILARITY -  Student Manual Answers Basic Questions 1. In the phonological loop model, what is the phonological store? 2. What is the purpose of saying numbers aloud on half of the trials in this demonstration? 3. Did you show the phonological similarity effect? Explain. A Advanced Questions 1. Would it be harder to recall the word sequence of house, mouse, and spouse or the word sequence house, cabin, and mansion? Why? 2. In this demonstration, on half of the trials you were asked to count to four aloud over and over throughout the presentation of the sequence of letters. What other tasks could have taken the place of the counting task? 3. Using your trial-by-trial data, evaluate the types of errors you made on your first 10 trials. How many times did you fail to report a letter from the original list? How many times did you make an error in the order that you recalled the letters? Where did most of your errors occur (beginning, middle, or end of the list)? Discussion Question 1. In a demonstration similar to this one, do you think you would be more likely to report seeing an item not on the original list in the similar quiet condition or in the dissimilar quiet condition? Explain. Multiple Choice Questions 1. The phonological similarity effect is often observed when trying to remember a list of items that … a. are look the same. b. are presented close to one another in time. c. sound alike. d. None of the above Answer: . 2. In the phonological similarity effect demonstration, on some trials participants are asked to say “one, two, three, four” over and over again out loud during the presentation of the list items. What was the purpose of counting to four out loud? a. To keep the participant’s articulatory control process busy b. To prime the participant’s phonological store for verbal information c. To fill up the participant’s phonological store with verbal information d. None of the above Answer: . 3. Which of the following visually presented sequences of letters would be easiest to remember? a. c, f, j, l, r, and u b. b, e, g, p, and t c. b, e, g, p, and t, but the sequence was given while engaging in articulatory suppression d. None of the above Answer: 4. Which of the following is a prediction of the phonological similarity effect demonstration? a. Your recall performance for the dissimilar letters should be worse than when you did not engage in articulatory suppression b. Your recall performance for the similar letters should be worse than when you did not engage in articulatory suppression c. Your recall performance for the dissimilar and similar letters should be similar d. All of the above Answer: . 5. What is the purpose of the phonological store in the phonological loop model? a. To store visual information b. To store speech-based information c. To store all sound-based information d. All of the above Answer: . True/False Question 1. ___ The phonological similarity effect can occur when the list of items that needs to be recalled is read silently. Answer: True Short Answer Question 1. According to the phonological loop model, how can you prevent the phonological similarity effect when given a list of similarly sounding items? Essay Question 1. Describe Baddeley’s (1986) phonological loop and how it relates to the phonological similarity effect? This essay is worth 6 points Point 1:Point 2:Point 3:Point 4:Point5: - LEVELS OF PROCESSING -  Student Manual Answers Basic Questions 1. In this demonstration, how are you asked to evaluate words to induce a shallow level of processing? How are you asked to evaluate words to induce a deep level of processing? 2. What is incidental learning? How do researchers typically study incidental learning? 3. Was your recall performance affected by your level of processing at study? Explain. Advanced Questions 1. A friend reads you a phone number to put in your cell phone’s phonebook. Approximately how long do you have to put this number into your phonebook before you forget it? 2. Suppose you slept in on Saturday, read a book, drove to your parents’ house, made your parents dinner, ate, drove home, and went to bed. On Monday, according to levels of processing theory, are you more likely to remember if you were stopped by a traffic light on your way to your parents’ house or what you had for dinner? Why? 3. What methods, other than the one used in this demonstration, could be used to induce a deep level of processing for a given word? Discussion Question 1. Describe a situation in which a shallow level of processing might be preferred over a deeper level of processing.  Test Bank Multiple Choice Questions 1. Using the processing view, how would you encode something that you want to remember for a long time? a. By using a literal copy b. Acoustically c. Semantically d. Both a. and b. 2. According to the predictions of the levels of processing demonstration which of the following processing strategies should result in the best recall? a. deciding if a word has a particular pattern of consonants and vowels b. deciding if a word rhymes with another given word c. deciding if a word has similar meaning to another given word d. All should result in similar recall performance Answer: . 3. According to the levels of processing view, rehearsal … a. is more important than the level of processing b. is not as important as the level of processing. c. is only important for shallow levels of processing. d. is only important for deeper levels of processing. Answer: . 4. If you are given an important password that you need to remember later, what should you try to do? a. Think about the meaning of the word b. Think about how the word sounds c. Think about what the word looks like d. All should result in similar recall performance Answer: . 5. Why do levels of processing experiments use incidental learning? a. To make sure participants are trying to learn the material they are supposed to b. To prevent participants from engaging in a level of processing different from the one they are asked to engage in c. To see what level of processing participants engage in d. To allow participants to engage in any level of processing they see fit Answer: . True/False Question 1. ___ All else being equal, the shallower the level of processing a person uses to learn something the more likely that person is going to be able to remember it later. Answer: False Short Answer Question 1. What is the difference between incidental learning and intentional learning? Essay Question 1. In the processing view, what are the three ways information can be encoded? For each of these encoding formats, identify its storage capacity and how long information can be held. This essay is worth 7 points. Point 1:Points 2 and 3: Points 4 and 5:Points 6 and 7: USEFUL WEBSITES Aging and Cognition Unit (formerly the Amnesia and Cognition Unit) This site, maintained by the amnesia research group at the University of Arizona, describes ongoing research dedicated to looking at the effects of aging and brain injury on memory function. A number of references to the research are also provided. It also provides links to other sites that deal with memory and brain function. Memory and Aging Research Center The site provides a wealth of information on age-related memory loss and other cognitive functions, with a particularly thorough FAQ on Alzheimer’s for the layperson. It also features a variety of useful links. Memory Disorders Research Center The site provides an extensive bibliography of memory-related articles as well as an overview of current research. Many of the articles are related to various memory disorders (e.g., amnesia, Alzheimer’s, brain lesions). Human Memory Models This site from the Applied Knowledge Research Institute briefly introduces the various issues for different types of memories (e.g., autobiographical, episodic, semantic, short term, long term, etc.). Memory Models This site provides links to a number of different mathematical memory models (e.g., MINERVA 2, SAM, TODAM …) which contain a description and a demonstration of the model. Issues Related to Memory This website from the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy discusses various types of memory systems as well as discusses a number of issues related to memory (e.g., issues of representation, empirical evidence, philosophical issues) Long-Term Working Memory This article, by Ericsson and Kintsch (originally published in Psychological Review in 1995), presents a view of working memory in which it is divided into short-term working memory (ST-WM) and long-term working memory (LT-WM). Models of Working Memory This site provides the abstracts from the various chapter in the book Models of Working Memory (edited by Miyake and Shah). The abstracts provide an overview of the various working memory models in addition to the emphasis of each and how the models differ. TEST BANK Multiple Choice 1. __________ refers to the means by which people draw on past knowledge in order to use such knowledge in the present; it refers to the dynamic mechanisms associated with the retention and retrieval of information. a. Implicit store b. A network c. Memory d. Sensory store ANS: REF: Memory Defined DIF: Easy MSC: TYPE: Factual 2. __________ refers to a process of memory often employed in memory tasks, in which the person is asked to produce a fact, a word, or other item from memory. a. Recall b. Recognition c. Identification d. Production ANS: REF: Recall DIF: Easy MSC: TYPE: Factual NOT: WWW 3. __________ refers to a process of memory often employed in memory tasks, in which the person may be asked to identify from among several choices a fact, a word, or other item from memory. a. Recall b. Recognition c. Retrieval d. Assimilation ANS: REF: Recognition DIF: Easy MSC: TYPE: Factual NOT: WWW 4. Fill-in-the-blank tests can be memory tasks, which require that students employ primarily the memory process of a. recall. b. recognition. c. access. d. production. ANS: . REF: Recall DIF: Easy MSC: TYPE: Application 5. Multiple-choice exams can be memory tasks, which require that students employ primarily the memory process of a. recall. b. recognition. c. access. d. production. ANS: REF: Recognition DIF: Easy MSC: TYPE: Application 6. __________ recall refers to a type of recall task used in experiments in which the participant recalls items in the exact order in which they were presented. a. Ordered b. Serial c. Ordinal d. Free ANS: REF: Serial Recall DIF: Easy MSC: TYPE: Factual 7. __________ recall refers to a type of recall task used in experiments in which the participant recalls items in any order he or she chooses. a. Arbitrary b. Serial c. Disordered d. Free ANS: REF: Free Recall DIF: Easy MSC: TYPE: Factual 8. __________ recall refers to a type of recall task used in experiments in which items are presented in pairs, and during recall, the participant is cued with one member of each pair and is asked to recall the mate of each cued item. a. Serial b. Free c. Dyadic d. Cued ANS: REF: Cued Recall DIF: Easy MSC: TYPE: Factual 9. Max is a volunteer for a psychological experiment. He has been asked to listen carefully to a list of words. He has been instructed to try to remember as many of these words as possible in any order and to write them down after a signal. Max is participating in a __________ recall task. a. serial- b. free- c. paired-associates d. structured- ANS: REF: Free Recall DIF: Moderate MSC: TYPE: Application 10. Melissa volunteered to participate in a psychological experiment. She has been instructed to listen carefully to a list of words, because later she will have to remember as many of these words as possible in the exact order in which they were presented. Melissa is participating in a __________ recall task. a. serial- b. free- c. paired-associates d. structured- ANS: REF: Serial Recall DIF: Moderate MSC: TYPE: Application 11. After a test, Jill identified and then learned the information that she had forgot for the test. She noted that there was a “saving” in that the information was learned faster the second time. Jill has discovered the concept of ____. a. relearning b. partial-report method c. subsequent refinement d. permastore ANS: REF: 178 DIF: Easy MSC: TYPE: Application 12. Jacoby suggests that both implicit and explicit memory play a role in every response. His model is called a. process-dissociation model. b. memory synthesis model. c. levels of processing model. d. multi-store model of memory. ANS: REF: Process-Dissociation Model DIF: Hard MSC: TYPE: Factual 13. __________ memory refers to a form of memory retrieval in which a person consciously acts to recall or recognize particular information. a. Episodic b. Semantic c. Explicit d. Implicit ANS: REF: Explicit Memory DIF: Moderate MSC: TYPE: Factual 14. __________ memory refers to a form of memory retrieval in which a person uses recalled or recognized information without consciously being aware of doing so. a. Episodic b. Semantic c. Explicit d. Implicit ANS: REF: Implicit Memory DIF: Moderate MSC: TYPE: Factual 15. Participants in an experiment read over a list of words. A second unrelated task (a filler task) is then completed. For the final task, participants rate letter strings as words or non-words. The results indicate that participants in general were faster at identifying words from the first list. This facilitation in response to those items from the first task is an example of a. priming. b. synesthesia. c. levels of processing. d. phonological processing. ANS: REF: Priming DIF: Moderate MSC: TYPE: Application 16. Anytime we read, we unconsciously and effortlessly remember the meanings of particular words and even how to read. These are examples of everyday tasks that primarily involve __________ memory. a. episodic b. semantic c. explicit d. implicit ANS: REF: Implicit Memory DIF: Moderate MSC: TYPE: Application NOT: WWW 17. Recall memory is to _____ as recognition memory is to _____. a. receptive knowledge; expressive knowledge b. implicit memory; explicit memory c. expressive knowledge; receptive knowledge d. explicit memory; implicit memory ANS: REF: Recall versus Recognition Memory DIF: Moderate MSC: TYPE: Conceptual 18. Culture-relevant tests employ skills and knowledge that a. are not relevant to the cultural experiences of the test-takers. b. are relevant to the cultural experiences of the test-takers. c. are fixed at birth. d. can derive from any culture. ANS: REF: Cultural Testing DIF: Easy MSC: TYPE: Factual NOT: WWW 19. The design of test items __________ is not an example of a basic strategy for attempting to create culture-relevant tests. a. based on content and procedures that are novel to almost anyone, regardless of cultural context, b. based on content and procedures that are familiar to almost anyone, regardless of cultural context, c. that can be translated into the cultural context of the test-takers, while taking into account the culture-based knowledge and skills of the test-takers, d. that are translated from one language to another ANS: REF: Cultural Testing DIF: Moderate MSC: TYPE: Factual 20. According to Atkinson and Shiffrin (1968), __________ is/are structures and __________ is/are the information stored in the structures. a. network; nodes b. nodes; network c. stores; memory d. memories; store ANS: REF: Traditional Memory Models DIF: Hard MSC: TYPE: Conceptual 21. __________ refers to a concept that cannot be directly measured or observed but that may be used as a mental representation for understanding the workings of a psychological phenomenon. a. Declarative knowledge b. A node c. A hypothetical construct d. A prime ANS: . REF: Hypothetical Construct DIF: Moderate MSC: TYPE: Factual 22. According to Atkinson and Shiffrin (1968), the __________ store refers to the memory store characterized as having the shortest duration for memory storage. a. sensory b. short-term c. fleeting d. episodic ANS: REF: Sensory Memory DIF: Easy MSC: TYPE: Factual 23. The __________ store refers to a sensory register for the fleeting storage of discrete visual images, usually resembling whatever is being represented. a. echoic b. visual c. episodic d. iconic ANS: REF: Iconic Memory DIF: Easy MSC: TYPE: Factual 24. Louise put a light bulb on a lamp, turned it on, and looked at it directly. Immediately after that, she looked away and she could still “see” the bulb shining brightly. This visual persistence is an example of the type of information held in the __________ store. a. echoic b. visual c. episodic d. iconic ANS: REF: Iconic Memory DIF: Moderate MSC: TYPE: Application 25. The initial discovery of the existence of the iconic store came from a Ph.D. dissertation by a. Donald Norman. b. Richard Shiffrin. c. Richard Atkinson. d. George Sperling. ANS: REF: Iconic Memory: Sperling DIF: Hard MSC: TYPE: Factual 26. During his experiments studying iconic store, Sperling would flash an array of stimuli (e.g., letters and/or numbers) for approximately 50 milliseconds on a screen. Asked to recall all symbols presented would be an example of the a. backward visual masking. b. forward visual masking. c. partial-report procedure. d. whole-report procedure. ANS: REF: Iconic Memory: Sperling DIF: Moderate MSC: TYPE: Factual 27. During his experiments studying iconic store, Sperling would flash an array of stimuli (e.g., letters and/or numbers) for approximately 50 milliseconds on a screen. Asked to recall just the symbols presented on the third line would be an example of the a. backward visual masking. b. forward visual masking. c. partial-report procedure. d. whole-report procedure. ANS: REF: Iconic Memory: Partial Report DIF: Moderate MSC: TYPE: Factual 28. A second stimulus is presented shortly after the first item in the same location and “erases” the original stimulus. This is called a. stimulus blocking. b. synesthesia. c. visuospatial sketchpad. d. backward visual masking. ANS: REF: Backward Masking DIF: Moderate MSC: TYPE: Factual 29. According to Atkinson and Shiffrin (1968), the __________ store refers to the memory store characterized as having a modest capacity (about seven items) for storing information and a duration for memory storage of only a few seconds. a. sensory b. short-term c. fleeting d. episodic ANS: REF: Short-Term Memory DIF: Easy MSC: TYPE: Factual 30. As tested by a psychologist, the capacity of Jerry’s short-term store for a wide range of items appears to be 11 items. Jerry’s short-term memory capacity is a. below average. b. average. c. above average. d. Cannot be established on the basis of this limited information. ANS: REF: Short-Term Memory Capacity DIF: Moderate MSC: TYPE: Application NOT: WWW 31. The capacity of our immediate, short-term store for a wide range of items appears to be __________, plus or minus 2 items. a. 5 b. 6 c. 7 d. 8 ANS: REF: Short-Term Memory Capacity DIF: Easy MSC: TYPE: Factual 32. According to Atkinson and Shiffrin (1968), the __________ store refers to the memory store characterized as having the greatest capacity for storing information and the longest duration for memory storage. a. secondary b. short-term c. long-term d. lasting ANS: REF: Long-Term Memory DIF: Easy MSC: TYPE: Factual NOT: WWW 33. How long does unrehearsed material typically remain in the short-term store? a. 1 second b. 5 seconds c. 30 seconds d. 5 minutes ANS: REF: Short-Term Memory DIF: Moderate MSC: TYPE: Factual 34. People’s names, where we keep things, and humorous incidents from our childhood are all examples of information held in our __________ store. a. short-term b. long-term c. working d. stable ANS: REF: Long-Term Memory DIF: Moderate MSC: TYPE: Application 35. According to Bahrick, __________ refers to a very long-term storage of information. The information contained in this store may include, for example, knowledge of a foreign language and of mathematics acquired years or even decades earlier. a. permanent store b. permastore c. longest-term store d. infinite store ANS: REF: Permastore DIF: Moderate MSC: TYPE: Factual 36. The __________ refers to a way of looking at memory storage, which postulates that memory comprises a continuous dimension in which the depth to which information is encoded predicts the ease of retrieving an item. a. levels-of-processing framework b. working-memory framework c. parallel-processing model d. continuous-dimension model ANS: REF: Levels of Processing DIF: Moderate MSC: TYPE: Factual 37. According to the levels-of-processing framework, as originally proposed, if you were shown semantically related words (e.g., dog and animal), rhyming words (e.g., dog and log), as well as unrelated words, the words most easily recalled would be the a. semantically related words. b. words concretely connected. c. unrelated words. d. All words would be recalled about equally. ANS: REF: Levels of Processing DIF: Moderate MSC: TYPE: Application 38. According to the levels-of-processing framework, the deeper the level of processing of information, a. the more that recall of the information depends on other cognitive events. b. the less that recall of the information depends on other cognitive events. c. the lower the probability that the information will be retrieved. d. the higher the probability that the information will be retrieved. ANS: REF: Levels of Processing DIF: Moderate MSC: TYPE: Conceptual 39. Participants were asked to judge whether words describe them or not. Recall was highest for the items that described the individual. The setup of this experiment demonstrates a. self induced schema (SIS). b. personal word identification. c. partial-report procedure. d. self-reference effect. ANS: REF: Self-Reference Effect DIF: Moderate MSC: TYPE: Application 40. __________ memory refers to a portion of memory that may be viewed as a specialized part of long-term memory, which holds only the most recently activated portion of long-term memory, and which moves these activated elements into and out of short-term memory. a. Moving b. Activated c. Working d. Utility ANS: REF: Working Memory DIF: Hard MSC: TYPE: Conceptual 41. This model of memory consists of four main elements: central executive, phonological loop, visuospatial sketchpad, and the episodic buffer (plus additional subsidiary slave systems). This model is known as a. primary memory & secondary memory. b. three-store model. c. levels-of-processing framework. d. working memory. ANS: REF: Working Memory DIF: Moderate MSC: TYPE: Factual NOT: WWW 42. This component of the working memory model is important for processing both spatial information and images. a. central executive b. episodic buffer c. phonological loop d. visuospatial sketchpad ANS: REF: Working Memory: Visuospatial Sketchpad DIF: Moderate MSC: TYPE: Factual 43. This part of the working memory model is well suited for handling verbal information and for rehearsing information. a. central executive b. episodic buffer c. phonological loop d. visuospatial sketchpad ANS: REF: Working Memory: Phonological Loop DIF: Moderate MSC: TYPE: Factual 44. This component of the working memory model is responsible for coordinating attentional activities and regulating the flow of information. a. central executive b. episodic buffer c. phonological loop d. visuospatial sketchpad ANS: REF: Working Memory: Central Executive DIF: Moderate MSC: TYPE: Factual 45. This part of the working memory model allows for an interface that can integrate different types of information from various systems. a. central executive b. episodic buffer c. phonological loop d. visuospatial sketchpad ANS: REF: Working Memory: Episodic Buffer DIF: Moderate MSC: TYPE: Factual 46. Sophie’s working memory is having difficulty integrating information from its various parts so that the information makes sense to Sophie. What component is not properly functioning? a. her visuospatial sketchpad b. her phonological loop c. her working memory d. her episodic buffer ANS: REF: Working Memory: Episodic Buffer DIF: Moderate MSC: TYPE: Application 47. John participates in an experiment in which he is presented with letters on a screen. Every time he sees an “X” he is supposed to report the letter that appeared three letters earlier. This is an example of which type of task? a. temporal order b. retention-delay c. n-back d. serial ANS: REF: n-back Task DIF: Moderate MSC:TYPE: Application 48. Verifying whether a sentence is true or not and having to remember the last word for each sentence is an example of testing _____ which is viewed as an important component in intelligence that is reflected by the ability to actively manipulate and maintain information. a. working memory b. componential analysis c. choice reaction time d. means-ends analysis ANS: REF: Working Memory and Intelligence DIF: Moderate MSC: TYPE: Factual 49. The difference between semantic and episodic knowledge is that a. semantic knowledge includes all “general truths,” whereas episodic knowledge must be gained from experience. b. semantic knowledge must be gained from experience, whereas episodic knowledge includes all “general truths.” c. semantic knowledge is what we know about experiences linked to particular time referents, whereas episodic knowledge is what we know in the way of facts. d. semantic knowledge is what we know in the way of facts, whereas episodic knowledge is what we know about experiences linked to particular time referents. ANS: REF: Semantic versus Episodic Memory DIF: Hard MSC: TYPE: Conceptual 50. __________ memory refers to encoding, storage, and retrieval of facts that do not describe the unique temporally coded experiences of the person recalling the facts. a. Episodic b. Semantic c. Factual d. Declarative ANS: REF: Semantic Memory DIF: Moderate MSC: TYPE: Factual 51. __________ memory refers to encoding, storage, and retrieval of events that the one who is remembering experienced personally at a particular time and place. a. Episodic b. Semantic c. Time-bound d. Personal ANS: REF: Episodic Memory DIF: Moderate MSC: TYPE: Factual 52. According to Endel Tulving, if you needed to remember that you saw a friend yesterday at the library, you would be drawing on a(n) __________ memory. a. episodic b. semantic c. time-bound d. working ANS: REF: Episodic Memory DIF: Moderate MSC: TYPE: Application 53. According to Endel Tulving, if you needed to remember the name of the friend that you saw yesterday at the library, you would be drawing on a(n) __________ memory. a. episodic b. semantic c. time-bound d. working ANS: REF: Semantic Memory DIF: Moderate MSC: TYPE: Application 54. This model, based on neuroscientific results, suggests that episodic and semantic memories are in fact distinct from one another given that they activate different parts of the brain. a. Hemispheric Specialization Model b. Asymmetrical Hemispheric Specialization (AHS Model) c. Hemispheric Encoding/Retrieval Asymmetry (HERA Model) d. Intrahemispheric Activation Model ANS: REF: HERA Model DIF: Hard MSC: TYPE: Conceptual 55. As applied to a model of memory, a __________ is a set of labeled relations between nodes. a. network b. prime c. schema d. concept ANS: REF: Network Models DIF: Moderate MSC: TYPE: Factual 56. This memory system is often called implicit memory and includes memory for how to do various tasks or operations. a. nondeclarative memory b. episodic memory c. semantic memory d. episodic buffer ANS: REF: Nondeclarative Memory DIF: Moderate MSC: TYPE: Conceptual 57. The __________ refers to a conceptual model of memory in which the cognitive manipulation of multiple operations occurs simultaneously. a. levels-of-processing framework b. parallel-distributed processing model c. three-store model d. working-memory model ANS: REF: PDP Model DIF: Moderate MSC: TYPE: Factual 58. A __________ refers to a juncture within a memory network, which may be seen as representing a concept. a. prime b. node c. schema d. dyad ANS: REF: Network Architecture DIF: Moderate MSC: TYPE: Factual 59. Many cognitive psychologists have asserted that the __________ effect refers to the activation of a node by a prime to which the node is connected in a network, due to the process of spreading activation. a. activating b. priming c. recall d. recognition ANS: REF: Priming in Networks DIF: Hard MSC: TYPE: Conceptual 60. This model of memory, which consists of nodes and links between the nodes, suggests that knowledge is represented in the connections between the nodes. a. Correspondence model of memory b. HERA model of memory c. Permastore d. Connectionist model of memory ANS: REF: Connectionist Memory Models DIF: Moderate MSC: TYPE: Factual 61. A(n) __________ refers to a node that activates a connected node in a network. a. schema b. dyad c. activating locus d. prime ANS: REF: Network Architecture DIF: Moderate MSC: TYPE: Factual 62. Debbie participated in a memory experiment and performed exceptionally well. When asked how she could recall long strings of material such as rows and columns of numbers, she said that she memorized numbers by transforming them into dates, and then thinking about what she had done that day. Debbie seems to be a a. photographic thinker. b. parallel processor. c. mnemonist. d. genius. ANS: REF: Mnemonics DIF: Easy MSC: TYPE: Application 63. Allison is a peculiar thinker. She can remember a great amount of information, in large part because she converts sounds and words into visual impressions and because she experiences a word’s taste and weight. Allison seems to make use of a. episensation. b. metasensation. c. synesthesia. d. metaesthesia. ANS: REF: Synesthesia DIF: Moderate MSC: TYPE: Application 64. __________ are persons who use memory-enhancing techniques for greatly improving their memory or who have a distinctive sensory or cognitive ability to remember information. a. Mnemonists b. Geniuses c. Parallel-processors d. Photographic thinkers ANS: REF: Mnemonics DIF: Easy MSC: TYPE: Factual NOT: WWW 65. __________ refers to the experiencing of a sensation in a sensory modality different from the sense that is physically stimulated. a. Episensation b. Metasensation c. Synesthesia d. Metaesthesia ANS: REF: Synesthesia DIF: Moderate MSC: TYPE: Factual 66. This process involves using a number of different retrieval cues in order to retrieve memories that appear to have been forgotten. a. hypermnesia b. retroactive recall c. proactive recall d. double dissociations ANS: REF: Hypermnesia DIF: Moderate MSC: TYPE: Factual 67. __________ amnesia refers to an inability to recall events that occur after whatever trauma caused the memory loss. a. Semantic b. Infantile c. Anterograde d. Retrograde ANS: REF: Anterograde Amnesia DIF: Moderate MSC: TYPE: Factual 68. __________ amnesia refers to an inability to recall events that occur before the trauma that causes the memory loss. a. Semantic b. Infantile c. Anterograde d. Retrograde ANS: REF: Retrograde Amnesia DIF: Moderate MSC: TYPE: Factual 69. In retrograde amnesia, the memories that return typically do so starting a. from the more distant past and progressing up to the time of the trauma. b. from the time of the trauma and progressing back to the more distant past. c. with the more meaningful experiences, regardless of their chronological time. d. with the less meaningful experiences, regardless of their chronological time. ANS: REF: Retrograde Amnesia DIF: Moderate MSC: TYPE: Conceptual 70. Retrograde amnesia may be viewed as a problem in __________ information in (from) memory. a. encoding new b. retrieving old c. encoding and storing new d. encoding and storing old ANS: REF: Retrograde Amnesia DIF: Moderate MSC: TYPE: Conceptual 71. __________ amnesia refers to the inability to recall events that happened during early development of the brain. a. Developmental b. Infantile c. Anterograde d. Retrograde ANS: REF: Infantile Amnesia DIF: Easy MSC: TYPE: Factual 72. __________ refers to the severe loss of explicit memory, usually affecting semantic memory more than procedural memory. a. Aphasia b. Dyslexia c. Amnesia d. Agnosia ANS: REF: Amnesia DIF: Moderate MSC: TYPE: Factual 73. __________ knowledge refers to the understanding and awareness of how to perform particular tasks or skills (i.e., “knowing how”). a. Procedural b. Declarative c. Episodic d. Semantic ANS: REF: Procedural Knowledge DIF: Easy MSC: TYPE: Factual 74. Jimmy knows how to ride a bicycle. This is an example of a task that involves __________ knowledge. a. procedural b. declarative c. episodic d. semantic ANS: REF: Procedural Knowledge DIF: Easy MSC: TYPE: Application NOT: WWW 75. __________ memory refers to a discrete memory system for knowledge of how to perform particular tasks or skills. a. Episodic b. Semantic c. Procedural d. Declarative ANS: REF: Procedural Knowledge DIF: Easy MSC: TYPE: Factual 76. __________ knowledge refers to a recognition and understanding of factual information (i.e., “knowing that”). a. Procedural b. Declarative c. Episodic d. Semantic ANS: REF: Declarative Knowledge DIF: Easy MSC: TYPE: Factual NOT: WWW 77. Jennifer has an excellent understanding of geography. This is an example of __________ knowledge. a. procedural b. declarative c. episodic d. ecphoric ANS: REF: Declarative Knowledge DIF: Moderate MSC: TYPE: Application 78. Raphael is an amnesia patient. When specifically asked to remember a particular set of information, Raphael does poorly. When indirectly measured on the same information he shows signs of learning. This show that ____ is impaired by amnesia while ____ is not impaired. a. implicit memory; explicit memory b. recognition memory, recall memory c. explicit memory; implicit memory d. recall memory, recognition memory ANS: REF: Amnesia DIF: Moderate MSC: TYPE: Application 79. It is difficult to draw cause-and-effect statements from an interruption of function due to a lesion in a particular part of the brain since other parts of the brain may also be involved with that function. In evaluating hypotheses about neuropathologies, scientists look for ______ or different neuropathologies in which the individuals demonstrate an opposite pattern of deficits. a. hypermnesia b. intrahemispheric activation c. paired-associates d. double dissociations ANS: REF: Double Dissociation DIF: Hard MSC: TYPE: Conceptual 80. The only definitive test for Alzheimer’s disease involves a. an analysis of brain tissue. b. a memory test. c. an fMRI. d. a CT scan. ANS: REF: Alzheimer’s Diagnosis DIF: Easy MSC: TYPE: Factual 81. The encoding of declarative information seems to depend primarily on the a. basal ganglia. b. hippocampus. c. cerebellum. d. peripheral nervous system. ANS: REF: Declarative Memory Formation DIF: Hard MSC: TYPE: Factual 82. The consolidation of encoded information in the long-term store seems to depend primarily on the a. basal ganglia. b. hippocampus. c. cerebellum. d. cerebral cortex. ANS: REF: Declarative Memory Formation DIF: Hard MSC: TYPE: Factual NOT: WWW 83. A person who has suffered some sort of brain injury affecting only his or her hippocampus is most likely to show difficulty with a. encoding of declarative information. b. encoding of procedural information. c. retrieval of semantic information. d. retrieval of episodic information. ANS: REF: Declarative Memory Formation DIF: Hard MSC: TYPE: Factual 84. A person who has suffered some sort of brain injury affecting only his or her hippocampus is most likely to show difficulty with a. the consolidation of encoded information in the long-term store. b. encoding of procedural information. c. retrieval of semantic information. d. retrieval of episodic information. ANS:

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