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ANTH 200:Exam 1 Study Guide

Exam 1 Study Guide- ANTH 200 University of Arizona ANTH200: Exam 1 Study Guide- ANTH 200. Plus Questions and Answers You should know the following key concepts, mostly from Miller but some from lecture, and their significance for anthropology [any definition a person off the street who has not taken our class could give is not sufficient]. Chapter 1-6 Chapter 1 Agency- the ability of humans to make choices and exercise free will even within dominating structures. Anthropology- the study of humanity, including its prehistoric origins and contemporary human diversity Applied anthropology- the use of anthropological knowledge to prevent or solve problems or to shape and achieve policy goals Archaeology- the study of past human cultures through their material remains Biological anthropology- (physical anth) the study of humans as biological organisms, including evolution and contemporary variation Biological determinism- a theory that explains human behavior and ideas as shaped mainly by biological features such as genes and hormones Class- a way of categorizing people on the basis of their economic position in society, usually measured in terms of income or wealth Cultural anthropology- the study of living people and their culture, including variation and change Cultural constructionism- a theory that explains human behavior and ideas as shaped mainly by learning Cultural materialism- an approach to studying culture by emphasizing the material aspects of life, including peoples‘ environment, how people make a living and differences in wealth and power Cultural relativism- the perspective that each culture must be understood in terms of the values and ideas of that culture and not judged by the standards of another culture Culture- peoples learned and shared behaviors and beliefs Ethnicity- a way of categorizing people on the basis of the shared sense of identity based on history, heritage, language or culture. Ethnocentrism- judging another culture by the standards of one‘s own culture rather than by the standards of that particular culture Functionalism- the theory that a culture is similar to a biological organism, in which parts work to support the operation and maintenance of the whole Gender- A way of categorizing people based on their culturally constructed and learned behaviors and ideas as attributed to males, females or blended genders Globalization- increased and intensified international ties related to the movement of goods, information and people Holism- the view that one must study all aspects of a culture to understand it Indigenous people- People who have long-standing connection with their home territories that predates colonial or outside societies Interpretive anthropology- or a symbolic approach, seeks to understand culture by studying what people think about, their ideas and the meanings that are important to them Linguistic anthropology- the study of human communication, including its origins, history, and contemporary variation and change Localization- the transformation of global culture by local cultures into something new Micro-culture- a distinct pattern of learned shared behavior and thinking found within a larger culture The ―Noble Savage‖ ―Race‖ – a way of categorizing people into groups on the basis of supposedly homogeneous and largely superficial biological traits such as skin color or hair characteristics Structurism- a theoretical position concerning human behavior and ideas that says large forces such as the economy, social and political organization, and he media shape what people do and think Symbol- an object, word, or action with culturally defined meaning that stands for something else; most symbols are arbitrary Unilinear evolution- • Culture is not the same as nature: eating, drinking, sleeping, elimination Culture is based on symbols Culture is learned Cultures are integrated Cultures interact and change We should not compare every case because it could be for different reasons, we would be jumping to conclusions if we assume things Chapter 2 Autonomy of culture- Collaborative research- An approach to learning about culture that involved anths working with members of the study population as partners and participants rather than ―subjects‖. Members of the study population work as partners with the anths in: data collection, data analysis, and presentation of findings Culture shock- persistent feelings of uneasiness, loneliness, and anxiety that often occur when a person has shifted from one culture to a different one Emic- insiders perceptions and categories, and their explanations for why they do what they do. Seeks to understand what insiders say and understand about their culture, their categories of thinking (*Most cultural anths use a combination of emic and etic*) Ethnography- A firsthand, detailed description of a living culture, based on personal observation. Descriptive writing about a culture (the main way cultural anths present their findings) Etic- An analytical framework used by outside analysts in studying culture. Data collected according to the outsider research questions and categories, outsider‘s interest in them (westerns perspective) Fieldwork- Long-term research among a group: site selection, gaining rapport, gift giving and exchange, microculutres and fieldwork. Research in the filed, which is any place where people and culture are found (direct observation) Indigenous knowledge Informed consent- an aspect of fieldwork ethics requiring that the researcher inform the research participants of the intent, scope and possible effects of the proposed study and seek their consent to be in the study. Interview- a research technique that involves gathering verbal data through questions or guided conversation between at least two people Multisided research- fieldwork conducted in more than one location to understand the culture of dispersed members of the culture or relationships among different levels of culture. Participant observation- basic fieldwork method in cultural anthropology that involves living in a culture for a long time while gathering data Qualitative data- NON-NUMERIC INFORMATION. Descriptive field notes, narratives, myths and stories songs (Access to meaning of things in peoples own terms) interviews, focus groups, life histories Quantitative data- NUMERIC INFORMATION. Survey‘s, census, you want to be able to convey answers into numbers (More easily converted into numbers) surveys, census, and mapping Questionnaire—A formal research instrument containing a present series of questions that the anthropologist asks in a face-to-face setting, by mail, email or telephone Rapport- a trusting relationship between the researcher and the study population Sociobiology- Human behavior as fundamentally determined by biology: genotypes attempting to maximize their reproductive success (through adaptation) *Most popular now in fields like ‗evolutionary psychology‖ and ‗behavioral ecology‘. Tasks for sociobiology: Correspond a given cultural trait to a genotype; work out the relationship between that genotype and its environment Things that I think are important to know: • NO CULTURAL ANTHS BELIEVE IN UNLINEAL EVOLUTION OF CULTURES/SOCIETIES • Race does not explain culture, races are real because people believe that they are and condition their behavior accordingly • Culture is based on symbols, it is learned, integrated, interacted and can change Chapter 3 Agriculture- a mode of livelihood that involves growing crops with the use of plowing, irrigation, and fertilizer Consumerism- a mode of consumption in which peoples demands is many and infinite and the means of satisfying them are insufficient and become depleted in the effort to satisfy these demands. Extensive strategy- a form of livelihood involving temporary use of large areas of land and a high degree of spatial mobility. Foraging- obtaining food available in nature through gathering, hunting or scavenging Generalized reciprocity- exchange involving the least conscious sense of interest in material gain or thought of what might be received in return Gift- anything exchanged NOT according to logic of immediate profit or price. Something given with no expectation or thought of a return Horticulture- a mode of livelihood based on growing domesticated crops in gardens, using simple hand tools. Industrial agriculture- a form of agriculture that is capital-intensive, sustaining machinery and purchased inputs for human and animal labor. Industrialism/informatics- a mode of livelihood in which goods are produced through mass employment in business and commercial operations and through the creation and movement of information through electronic media Intensive strategy- a form of livelihood that involves continuous use of the same land and resources Market exchange- the buying and selling of commodities under competitive conditions, in which the forces of supply and demand determine value Mode of consumption- the dominant pattern, in a culture, of using things up or spending resources to satisfy needs Mode of exchange- the dominant pattern, in a culture, of transferring goods, services, and other items between and among people and groups Mode of livelihood- the dominant way of making a living in a culture Pastoralism- a mode of livelihood based on keeping domesticated animals and using their products, such as meat and milk for most of the diet. Potlatch- a grand feast in which guests are invited to eat and to receive gifts from the hosts. Poverty- lack to access to tangible or intangible resources that contribute to life and the well being of a person, group, country, or region Trade- the formalized exchange of one thing for another according to set standards of value Use rights- a system of property relations in which a person or group has socially recognized priority in access to particular resources such as gathering, hunting and fishing areas and water whole Redistribution- a form of exchange that involved one person collecting goods or money from many members of a group, who then, at later time and at a public event, ―returns‖ that pooled goods to everyone who contributed Embeddedness of economy Chapter 4 Adolescence- a culturally defined period of maturation from the time of puberty until adulthood that is recognized in some, but not all cultures Berdache- dressing like the opposite sex but you do not consider yourself gay Couvade- customs applying to the behavior of fathers during and shortly after the birth of their children Cultural broker Demographic transition- the change from the agricultural pattern of high fertility and high morality to the industrial pattern of low fertility and high mortality. Female genital cutting- a range of practice involving partial or total removal of the clitoris and labia Gender pluralism- the existence within a culture of multiple categories of femininity, masculinity, and blurred genders that are tolerated and legitimate Hijra- in India, a blurred gender role in which a person, usually biologically male, takes on female dress and behavior Infanticide- the killing of an infant or child Menopause (including our discussions about whether it is actually universal)- the cessation menstruation Mode of reproduction- the predominant pattern, in a culture, of population change through the combined effect of fertility (births) and mortality (deaths). Personality- an individuals patterned and characteristic way of behaving, thinking and feeling. Chapter 5 Applied medical anthropology- the application of anthropological knowledge to furthering the goals of health-care providers. Community healing- healing that emphasizes the social context as a key component and that is carried out within the public domain Critical medical anthropology- an approach within medical anthropology involving the analysis of how economic and political structure shape people‘s health status, their access to health care, and the prevailing medical systems that exist in relation to them Culture-specific syndrome- a collection of signs and symptoms that is restricted to a particular culture or a limited number of cultures Disease- in the disease-illness dichotomy, a biological health problem that is objective and universal Disease of development- a health problem caused or increased by economic development activities that have detrimental effects on the environment and peoples relationship with it. Ecological/epidemiological approach- an approach within medical anthropology that considers how aspects of the natural environment interact to cause illness. Ethno-Medicine- the study of cross- cultural health systems Historical trauma- the intergeneration transfer of the detrimental effects of colonialism from parents to children Humoral healing- healing that emphasizes balance among natural elements within the body Illness- in the disease-illness dichotomy, culturally shaped perceptions and experiences of a health problem Medicalization- the labeling of a particular issue or problem as medical and requiring medical treatment when, in fact, that issue or problem is economic political Medical pluralism- the existence of more than one health system in a culture; also, a government policy to promote the integration of local healing systems into biomedical practice Placebo effect- a positive result from a healing method due to a symbolic or otherwise nonmaterial factor Somatization- the process through which the body absorbs social stress and manifest symptoms of suffering Structural suffering- human health problems caused by such economic and political factors as war, famine, terrorism, forced migration and poverty Susto- fright/shock disease, a culture-specific illness found in Spain and Portugal and among Latino people wherever they live; symptoms include back pain, fatigue, weakness, and lack of appetite Western biomedicine (WBM)- a healing approach based on modern western science that emphasizes technology for diagnosing and treating health problems related to the human body Chapter 6 Arranged marriage Bilineal descent- the tracing of descent through both parents Brideprice- the transfer of cash and goods from the groom‘s family to the brides family and to the bride Brideservice- a form of marriage exchange in which the groom works for his father in law for a certain length of time before returning home with the bride Cross-cousin- offspring of either ones father sister or ones mother‘s brother Descent- the tracing of kinship relationships through parentage Dowry- the transfer of cash and goods from the bride‘s family to the newly married couple Endogamy- marriage within a particular group or locality Exogamy- marriage outside a particular group or locality Extended household- a coresidential group that comprises more than one parent-child unit Family- a group of people who consider themselves related through a from of kinship, such as descent, marriage or sharing Household- either one person living alone or a group of people who may not be related by kinship and who share living space Incest taboo- a strongly held prohibition against marrying or having sex with particular kin Kinship system- the predominant form of kin relationship in a culture and the kinds of behavior involved Marriage- a union, usually between two people who are likely to be, but are not necessarily, coresident, sexually involved with each other, and procreative Matrilineal descent- a descent system that highlights the importance of women by tracing descent through the female line, favoring marital residence with or near the brides family, and providing for inheritance of property through the male line. Matrifocality Monogamy- marriage between two people Nuclear household- a domestic unit containing one adult couple (married or partners) with or without children Parallel cousin- offspring of either one‘s father brother or one‘s mother‘s sister Patrilineal descent- a descent system that highlights the importance of men in tracing descent, determining marital residence with or near the groom‘s family, and providing for inheritance of property through the male line Polyandry- marriage of one wife with more than one husband Polygamy- marriage involving multiple spouses Polygyny- marriage of one husband with more than one wife Sharing Unilineal descent- the tracing of descent through only one parent * * * Questions to think about These are not questions from the exam, but being able to respond to them will prepare you well for the exam. Chapter 1 1. Define general anthropology and its four fields and their goals and approaches. • Archaeology- study of material (tangible remains of people to understand how they lived and why they changed) • Biological Anth- study of human biological diversity and human evolution • Linguistic anth/Sociocultural anth- study of relationship between culture and language • Cultural Anth- Study of contemporary people 2. Explain what is distinctive about cultural anthropology compared to the other three fields of anthropology and in comparison to some other disciplines. • Cultural anthropology is dealing with living people, by spending time with those individuals not just by studying facts and bones. It is also studying the complexity of humans, because culture tells about someone. 3. Define the concept of cultural relativism and assess its strengths and limitations. • Cultural relativism: the perspective that each culture must be understood in terms of the values and ideas of that culture and not judged by the standards for another culture. • Strengths- • Limitations- 4. Discuss approaches to defining the concept of culture. • Culture is not the same as nature • Eating • Drinking • Sleeping • Eliminating • Culture is based on symbols • Culture is learned • Cultures are integrated • Cultures interact and change 5. Define what microcultures are and on what bases they are formed; provide examples. • Micro-cultures: a distinct pattern of learned and shared behavior and thinking found within a larger culture. Example: Lila Abu-Lughod coming to a tribe in Egypt from the outside being introduced to the community by her father. Good family relations, he was a member of that tribes decent, social power. 6. Discuss the relevance of cultural anthropology for the contemporary world. • Sustaining cultural diversity in a culture that is constantly changing 7. What kinds of careers do cultural anthropologists have? • Law, criminal justice, medicine, health services, social services, education, humanitarian assistance, international development programs and business 8. What was the place of ―race‖ in early 19th century discussions of ―cultural evolution‖? • Western cultures, (races are ‗real‘ because people believe that they are and condition their behavior accordingly) 9. What do most cultural anthropologists today think about cultural evolution? • Misleading to always first approach culture through lens of adaptation (looking at the culture through the peoples point of view) Better: first seek cultural reasons for cultural change 10. Who was Franz Boas, and what is his significance for cultural anthropology? What then prominent approaches did he reject, and what approaches did he encourage in the discipline? • Considered the founder of North American cultural anthropology • Moved from Germany, brought with him skepticism toward western science gained from a year‘s study with Inuit, indigenous people (Canada). He learned that people in different cultures have different perceptions of things • Recognized that individuality and validity of different cultures • Believe that no culture is better than another • He encourages us to not compare every case because it could be for different reasons, understand them in the context in which they are found, only then would we know the reason (Spending time with people is required for this research) Chapter 2 1. Explain how the research goals of cultural anthropology influence the selection of methods for data gathering and analysis. • Fieldwork: Site selection, gaining rapport, gift giving and exchange, micro cultures and fieldwork • Participant observation 2. Recognize the difference between etics and emics. Etics: data collected according to the outsider researcher questions and categories, outsider‘s interest in them (western perspective) Emics: seeks to understand what insiders say and understand about their culture, their categories of thinking (most anths use a combination) 3. Define participant observation, what it involves, and why it is the central research method in cultural anthropology. The basic fieldwork method in cultural anthropology that involves living in a culture for a long time while gathering data Because you want to spend your time with you‘re observant to learn first hand what they doing and why they are doing it. 4. Explain how microcultural differences affect research in cultural anthropology. Micro-cultures: a distinct pattern of learned and shared behavior and thinking found within a larger culture. By the different ways cultures react to foreign researches coming into their home. 5. Name several special types of data gathered by cultural anthropologists and provide an example of what they reveal. Field notes Stories Myths Surveys Census 6. Describe key differences between qualitative and quantitative data, how the two types of data are analyzed, and what they reveal about culture. Qualitative: Access to meaning of things in people‘s own term, reveal things about the history Quantitative: More easily converted into numbers 7. Discuss ethical issues in cultural anthropology research and how anthropologists face them. Do no harm, protect people over politics 8. List major safety issues in cultural anthropology research and know how they can be better addressed. Physical environment Disease Political violence 9. Who is Marshall Sahlins? What approaches to culture does Sahlins critique, and what approach does he endorse? How does Sahlins respond to the notion that war in human history is an effect of human aggression in the individual? What does he propose instead? 10. Does Sahlins see humans as really ―naturally and universally‖ cost-benefit analyzing, profit maximizing, autonomy seeking individuals? Where does he argue we got this notion from? There is no one universal motivation that would be the same for every person wanting to go to war. Dispositions do exist Aggression does not emerge at the same time/place for all cultures. culture channels dispositions and emotions to emerge in a given cultural context. We LEARN the things we like/don‘t like 11. Does Sahlins subscribe to a biological determinism? If not, what does he think motivates people? Chapter 3 1. Explain how cultural anthropology approaches the subject matter of economics, especially how people make a living. Modes of livelihood: Foraging, Horticulture, pastoralism, agriculture, industrialism and information age 2. Describe the five modes of livelihood and their differing labor roles, property relations, and degrees of sustainability. Look at notes 3. Recognize that the modes of livelihoods are ―types‖ that they overlap, that some cultures have mixed modes of livelihood, and those modes of livelihoods change. Know this 4. Explain what cultural anthropologists say are some of the drawbacks of agriculture and industrialism/informatics. More leisure time, high costs, social inequality, disease, despotism, destruction of the environment 5. Differentiate between categories of exchange and how they vary in non-market and market societies. Reciprocity, redistribution, exchange 6. Provide examples of things that people exchange cross-culturally. Gifts/trade 7. Be aware of changing patterns of consumption and exchange and what the causes of these changes might be. 8. Is ―the economy‖ a distinct sphere in every culture, in all times and places? Or is it characteristic of ONE of the modes of exchange? What does it mean to say that in most cultures throughout history the economy has been ―embedded‖ in social relations? Illustrate this through the example of food in New Guinea. The economy is a distinct, separate sphere, there is only a separate sphere is it deals market exchange. Economy is embedded in social relations in contexts of reciprocity 9. If the logic of market exchange is not naturally universal, why is it arguably nonetheless spreading around the world? High-income countries are exploiting the market of lower income countries. Than the lower income countries try and match and are using the same practices, like exploiting labor and extract material resources. Chapter 4 1. Explain the differences among the three modes of reproduction. 2. Describe the different cultural patterns of sexual intercourse frequency and how they relate to fertility. 3. Discuss why cultural anthropologists think that "family planning" is as old as humanity. 4. Review examples of cross-cultural techniques of fertility control. Indirect means (suppresses ovulation) Women‘s low fat diet and work/exercise Prolonged breast-feeding Direct means Induced abortion Infanticide (killing after birth) 5. Recognize how different cultures shape personality and a sense of identity during childhood and how these differences relate to the mode of production. 6. Describe how homosexuality is variably defined cross-culturally and often accepted without stigma. 7. Discuss the concept of gender pluralism and identify some contexts where it exists. 8. Explain how parent roles differ and resemble each other cross-culturally. 9. Describe how elders are treated in various cultures and how attitudes toward death vary cross-culturally. 10. Consider women dress and its connection to the issue of their domination by men. What differences and what similarities do you see in, say, skimpy womens clothing and Muslim womens veils? Whose gaze is behind the logic of each? Chapter 5 1. Compare the three major theoretical approaches within medical anthropology and explain how they each contribute to understanding health and illness cross- culturally. 2. Explain how culture interacts with ecology to shape disease patterns. 3. Explain how ethnomedical systems variously define the body, perceive of the relationship between the body and disease, and define symptoms. 4. Provide examples of ethnomedical variation in preventing, diagnosing, and treating disease. 5. Discuss the role of poverty, gender inequality, and other forms of structural violence in the distribution of disease/illness. 6. Describe what critical medical anthropology research reveals about Western biomedical training. 7. List examples of how cultural anthropology can contribute to improved health care delivery. 8. Discuss the complexities involved in cultural change in the area of health care, especially medical pluralism and health communication in multicultural contexts. 9. What is the difference between the changes Japanese women‘s bodies go through and ―menopause‖? As it is defined in the US, do Japanese women experience menopause? What symptoms do they complain about? 10. What is ―medicalization‖ and what impact does it have on how people think about themselves and who they are? What kinds of problems does medicalization tend to tell people they have, who tells them this, and what kinds of treatments are usually prescribed? Chapter 6 1. Why is the study of kinship important for anthropologists, even if their focus is on other aspects of culture? 2. Define kinship and its three bases (descent, marriage and sharing). 3. Explain how unilineal and bilineal descent correspond with different modes of production and some factors of production involved. 4. Describe how patrilineality and matrilineality work, and name the implications for male and female status in society. 5. What is sharing, as a basis of kinship, and what are examples? 6. Define family and household. 7. Discuss problems in finding a universal definition of marriage. 8. Distinguish cross-cultural variations of spouse selection. 9. Know major types of exchanges made at marriages and how they are related to the cultural context. 10. Consider the US cultural preference for ―love matches‖ as the basis of marriage. What other aspects of US culture is this preference related to? 11. Drawing on readings about India and Japan, discuss marriage. What is the difference between an arranged marriage and a forced marriage? Why are arranged marriages rarely ―forced‖ marriages? What effects does not dating have on many Indian girls‘ sense of confidence?

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