NURS 611/ NURS611/ NURSING 611/ NURSING611/ NUR611/ NUR 611: Patho Exam 3 STUDY GUIDE - $20.49   Add to cart

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NURS 611/ NURS611/ NURSING 611/ NURSING611/ NUR611/ NUR 611: Patho Exam 3 STUDY GUIDE

NURS-611 Patho Exam 3 Review ¾ Hematologic Alterations: ❖ Blood: ➢ Erythrocytes (RBCs): ■ 1. Have a biconcave shape, optimal for gas diffusion in and out of the cell ■ 2. Have the micro capacity to be reversibly deformed ● Can squeeze through the microcirculation, and then return to normal ➢ Hemoglobin Synthesis: ■ Dependent upon nutritional state ■ Most important nutrients: ● 1. Vitamin B6 (pyridoxine) ● 2. Iron ◆ Normal female: 14g/dL ◆ Normal male: 16g/dL ❖ Iron Cycle: ➢ Made possible by plasma carrier transferrin ➢ Tissue macrophages (primarily in the spleen) break down ingested erythrocytes and return iron to the bloodstream directly or after storing it ❖ Leukocytes (WBC’s): ➢ Defend the body against microorganisms that cause infection ➢ *Remove debris, including dead or injured cells of all kinds ➢ Act primarily in the tissues, but are transported in circulation ➢ Average: 5,000-10,000 per cubic centimeter of blood ❖ Neutrophils: ➢ Immature neutrophils are bands or stabs ➢ Mature neutrophils are called segmented d/t appearance of the nucleus ➢ Premature release of bands is responsible for shift-to-the-left/leukemoid reaction phenomena ➢ Normal: neutrophils in circulation are in a segmented form ➢ Left Shift: ■ Increasing number of non-segmented neutrophils (bands/stabs), typically indicates bacterial infection ➢ Right Shift: ■ Increasing number of hypersegmented neutrophils (monocytes/eosinophils), typically indicated viral infection ❖ Anemia: ➢ Reduction in the total number of RBCs in the circulating blood/decrease in the quality or quantity of hemoglobin itself ➢ Common Causes: ■ 1. Impaired erythrocyte production ■ 2. Acute or chronic blood loss ■ 3. Increased erythrocyte destruction ■ 4. Combination of the causes listed above

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