NUTRITION 10 CHAPTER QUIZZES, Graded 100%
NUTRITION 10 CHAPTER QUIZZES
**CHAPTER ONE QUIZ**
1)	Most of the enzymes responsible for the digestion of the energy nutrients come from the:
2)	What is the approximate average body water content of a young adult human expressed as a percent of body weight?
3)	List the six classes of nutrients, give a good source example and note which ones provide energy.
a.	Proteins – salmon
b.	Carbohydrates – bread
c.	Fats – butter
d.	Minerals – whole grain, meats
e.	Vitamins – spinach
f.	Water – watermelon
(PROTEINS, CARBOHYDRATES, AND FATS PROVIDE ENERGY)
4)	What are the three basic functions of nutrients
5)	Most of the body’s water occurs in extracellular fluid compartments (outside of the body cells).
6)	Define an essential nutrient.
a.	An essential nutrient is nutrients that the body cannot make or cannot make at a rate sufficient to meet needs.
7)	Define the Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) and list three factors that are taken into consideration when establishing the RDA.
a.	the daily amount of nutrient considered adequate to meet the needs of nearly all healthy people.
i.	Age groups
iii.	Physiological states
8)	Define digestion and describe the two types of digestion.
a.	Digestion – process of which food is broken down into a form that can be absorbed by the intestines.
i.	Physical digestion – moving and grinding of food (mouth esophagus stomach)
ii.	Chemical digestion – enzyme breakdown (stomach pancreas small intestine)
9)	What is absorption and where does it occur?
a.	Absorption – process of moving nutrients into body or bloodstream.
b.	Absorption occurs in the surface of the small intestine.
**CHAPTER TWO QUIZ**
List a good food source for each:
a.	A complete protein: breast milk, egg whites
b.	A protein with a low chemical score: white flour
c.	A protein with a high PER: fish
d.	An incomplete protein: rice
1)	Which of the following has the highest relative protein requirement expressed in grams of good protein per kg body weight per day?
a.	2 – year old child
b.	an adult mad
c.	a teenager
d.	all have the same protein requiremento
2)	A 60kg female eats 1 cup of vegetarian chili that provides 15 grams of protein.
a.	What is the percent of DV for protein from the 1 cup of the chili?
i.	15g/ 50g x 100 = 30%
b.	What is the percent of RDA for protein from the 1 cup of the chili for the 60kg female?
i.	60kg x 0.8 grams/kg per day = 48grams protein/day
ii.	15g/48g x 100 = 31.25%
3)	Would you expect the amino acid profile (the amount of amino acid) to be the same from protein in beef, almonds, refried beans, and a human blood cell? Why or why not?
a.	No, because food proteins (like body proteins) differ in their amino acid content. Food sources differ in the quality of protein present. Each amino acid has a different R group so the structures are different.
4)	Protein quality is primarily determined by the amount of each of the 20 amino acids.
5)	Which of the following food proteins have a limiting amino acid?
a.	Peanut butter
b.	Refriend beans
c.	Wheat bread
e.	A through C above
6)	The Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) for protein represents the average amount of “perfect” protein needed by most of the healthy population.
**CHAPTER THREE QUIZ**
1)	When looking at a Nutrition Facts food label, the energy value of a food is expressed in ________ and represents the ______ present in food.
a.	Milligrams / total potential energy
b.	Calories / total potential energy
c.	Calories / physiologically available energy
d.	Milligrams / physiologically available energy
2)	Males always have a greater basal metabolic rate than females (expressed in kcal/day).
3)	Determine the calorie content of 2 tablespoons of peanut butter (SHOW YOUR WORK).
a.	Fat 16g
b.	Carbohydrate 16g
c.	Protein 18g
d.	Fiber 2g
i.	Calculate the percent of calories coming from fat, protein, and carbohydrates
ii.	Fat 16g x 9kcal/g = 144 kcal
iii.	Carbohydrate 16g x 4kcal/g = 64 kcal
iv.	Protein 18g x 4kcal/g = 72kcal
v.	Total 	 			 = 280 kcal
1.	64kcal/280kcal x 100 = 22.86% kcal from carbs
2.	72 kcal/ 280kcal x 100 = 25.71% kcal from protein
3.	144 kcal/ 280kcal x 100 = 51.43% kcal from fat
4)	Calculate the total energy intake for the following person (SHOW YOUR WORK).
a.	Female; 68 kg; light activity; losing 1lb every 2 weeks
i.	BMR: 0.9 kcal/kg x hour x 68kg x 24 hours/day = 1468.8 kcal/day
ii.	Activity: 50% BMR 0.5 (1468.8 kcal/day) = 734.4 kcal
iii.	Loss: 3500 kcal/ 1 lb x 1 lb/ 2 weeks x 1 week/ 7 days = 3500 kcal/14 days = -250 calories per day
iv.	TEF: 5% (BMR Activity – Loss) 0.05 (1468.8 kcal 734.4 kcal – 250 kcal) = 97.66 kcal/day
v.	Total energy intake: BMR Activity – Loss TEF) (1468.8 kcal 734.4 kcal – 250 kcal 97.66 kcal) = 2050.86 kcal/day
5)	List and define the three compounds of your energy requirements. List approximate values for each component.
a.	Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR) the amount of heat/energy/calories needed to keep basic body functions going btw 1,000 – 2,000 kcal daily
b.	Activity energy needed to perform any activity above the BMR usually equal or less thank your BMR
c.	Thermic Effect of Food (TEF) amount of energy needed to digest & assimilate food fall between 50 to 200 kcal
6)	Describe three factors that affect your BMR.
a.	Age older you get, BMR drops b/c loss of muscle mass
b.	Fasting BMR drops 10-20% within 24 hours
c.	Exercise boosts your BMR
7)	What is a calorie?
a.	The heat needed to raise 1 liter (about 4 cups) of water 1 degree Celsius; a measure of heat energy.
**CHAPTER FOUR QUIZ**
List good food sources of
Insoluble fiber: wheat, grains, vegetables
Glycogen: NO FOOD SOURCES/
Lactose: milk, yogurt, cheese
Polysaccharide: potato, grain, vegetables, bread, pasta
Disaccharide: cookies, candy, soda
Simple sugar: sucrose, candy, soda, fruits
Water-soluble fiber: fruits, beans (kidney, black, pinto, & others), oats
1)	The major monosaccharide found in the body is:
2)	The storage form of carbohydrates in the body is:
3)	What is the percent Daily Value for fiber in 1 bean burrito with 8 grams of fiber?
a.	8 grams/ 25 grams x 100 = 32% DV
4)	Describe the two types of fiber, give their actions in the intestine, health benefits, and list a food source for each.
a.	Water-insoluble fiber: “water-holding” in intestinal tract & swells up. Speeds passage and “works-out” muscles of intestinal tract.
i.	Health benefits: low fiber hemorrhoids and diverticulitis; High fiber lower risk of developing hemorrhoids, diverticulitis, & colon cancer.
ii.	Food source: celery, vegetables
b.	Water-soluble fiber: comes in contact with water and other liquids forms a gel; intestinal tract gel property slows the emptying of your stomach
i.	Health benefits: reduce hunger, lower cholesterol, lowers heart disease, lower type two diabetes
5)	What is lactose intolerance?
a.	People who lack the enzyme lactase or have very little and the inability to digest milk sugar.
6)	Describe what happens when carbohydrate is eaten in excess of energy needs.
a.	When carbohydrate is eaten in excess of energy needs is converted to and stored as fat. Liver takes the C2 units and builds a fat. Fat is sent off for storage in fat cells.
7)	How many calories are released during the aerobic energy metabolism of carbohydrate?
a.	2 calories/g
b.	4 calories/g
c.	6 calories/g
d.	9 calories/g
8)	What is diabetes?
a.	Diabetes is the lack of insulin and some people do not make insulin. Must take a replacement of insulin via an injection and that puts insulin directly into the circulation.
9)	How long do glycogen stores last for a person who is inactive but not eating?
a.	1 hour
b.	12 hours
c.	24-36 hours
**CHAPTER FIVE QUIZ**
1)	List a good food source for each of the following.
a.	Monounsaturated fat: olive oil
b.	Polyunsaturated fat: corn oil
c.	Saturated fat: butter
d.	Cholesterol: beef
e.	Trans fat: margarine (hydrogenated veggie oil)
f.	LDL: NO FOOD SOURCE
g.	18:2 (linoleic): soybean oil
h.	18:3 (linolenic): flaxseed oil
2)	Fat is transported through the circulation system to various to tissues, such as muscle and adipose, as:
a.	Small droplets made exclusively of triglyceride
b.	Lipoproteins, composed primarily of triglyceride, cholesterol, and protein
c.	Cholesterol droplets, which can accumulate on arterial walls to form fatty deposits
d.	Separate droplets containing either cholesterol, triglyceride, or phospholipids and coated with protein
e.	C and D above
3)	Hydrogenation is a process that makes unsaturated fats:
a.	More solid
b.	Have a higher cholesterol content
c.	More resistant to oxidation
d.	A and B
e.	A and C
4)	Bile is made from and functions in:
a.	Calcium/ fat digestion
b.	Cholesterol / fat digestion
c.	Prostaglandins / carbohydrate digestion
d.	Cholesterol / carbohydrate digestion
e.	Prostaglandins / fat digestion
5)	If you eat more protein than you need at any given time, in an otherwise adequate diet, the excess amino acids are largely converted to:
i.	Energy nutrients in food	ii.	Basic units in body	iii.	Stored as
iv.	carbohydrate	v.	glucose	vi.	glycogen (muscle & liver)
vii.	fat	viii.	triglyceride, fatty acid	ix.	body fat stores (draw arrow that says excess from glucose to this)
x.	protein	xi.	amino acids	xii.	arrow going to body fat stores, another arrow for nitrogen in urine, and last arrow goes to protein replacement needs first
b.	Fatty acids
d.	Muscle protein
6)	The end products of fat energy metabolism are:
a.	Fatty acids plus glycerol
c.	CO2, H2O plus energy
d.	Same as carbohydrate energy metabolism (aerobic)
e.	C and D above
7) You’ve just finished stuffing yourself at an all-you-can-eat buffet. Describe energy metabolism following this large meal (use Figure 5.27).
FOLLOWING A MEAL, ENERGY NUTRIENTS ARE PUT AWAY INTO STORAGE.
8)	Describe energy metabolism during a 24- to -36 hour fast (use Figure 5.29).
a.	WITH FASTING, GLYCOGEN STORES IN BOTH THE LIVER AND MUSCLE HAVE RUN OUT.
Energy source	Basic unit in body	Used for
Body protein	Amino acids	Glucose, brain energy
Arrow from amino acids to nitrogen in urine, and another arrow from amino acids to energy
Fat stores	Fatty acid	Arrow to Energy (body use), and another arrow to ketones
**CHAPTER SIX QUIZ**
1)	List a good food source of
a.	Cholesterol: beef
b.	Polyunsaturated fat: safflower oil
c.	HDL: NO FOOD SOURCE
d.	Fat type that raises blood cholesterol levels: saturated fat (beef)
2)	Which of the following statement (s) concerning dietary fats and cholesterol is/are true?
a.	Consumption of diets containing a high level of saturated fatty acids is associated with a high level of blood cholesterol.
b.	All food fats that contain a high proportion of saturated fatty acids (40 percent or more), either naturally occurring or produced by hydrogenation, are major sources of dietary cholesterol.
c.	Reducing the proportion of dietary energy (calories) provided as fat and reducing the saturated fatty acid content of the diet will tend to reduce the blood cholesterol level.
d.	A C are true.
e.	All the above (a through c) are true.
3)	Which lipoprotein is thought to protect against cardiovascular disease?
a.	Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL)
b.	Very Low Density Lipoproteins (VLDL)
c.	High Density Lipoproteins (HDL)
d.	Triglycerides (TG)
4)	Your friend has asked you if his daily fat intake of 92 grams and saturated fat intake of 33 grams meet recommendations to reduce risk of heart disease. His daily intake is 2400 kcal. Is he following recommendations? (SHOW WORK).
a.	Recommendations: <35% of kcal as fat, <7% kcal saturated fat
b.	2400 kcal x 0.35 = 840 kcal
i.	840 kcal/ 9 kcal/gram = 93.3 grams of fat; not following recommendations
c.	2400 kcal x 0.07 = 168 kcal
i.	168 kcal/ 9 kcal/gram = 18.7 grams of saturated fat, not following recommendations
5)	What specific recommendations would you give to someone interested in lowering his or her risk for cardiovascular disease?
a.	Total dietary intake of fat should be less than 25-35 percent of total calories
b.	Saturated fat intake should be less than 7 percent of total calories (trans fat included).
c.	Dietary cholesterol intake should be less than 300 milligrams per day.
d.	Meet the Daily Value for fiber of 25 grams per day.
e.	Sodium intake should be less than 1,500 milligrams of sodium
f.	Limit alcohol intake
g.	Achieve a healthy weight
h.	Physical activity – 30 minutes or more most days a week
6)	What is metabolic syndrome?
a.	Three out of five of the following clinical measurements. Abdominal obesity: waist circumference for women >35 inches and men >40 inches, insulin resistance (blood glucose), hypertension (high blood pressure), low HDL levels, high fasting blood triglyceride levels.
7)	A blood cholesterol level of 245 mg/dL is considered healthy.
8)	A dietary intake of 245 mg/day for cholesterol is in keeping with recommendations.
9)	Low HDL levels (<40 mg/dL) reflect a greater risk for heart disease.
a.	True (low levels high risk)
**CHAPTER SEVEN QUIZ**
1)	What time period(s) during the life span of humans are fat cell numbers normally increasing?
a.	Third trimester of fetal development through the first year of life
b.	Adolescent growth spurt (12-14 years of age)
c.	20-25 years of age
d.	A and C above
2)	Body fat distribution as measured by _________ is used as an indicator of abdominal obesity and subsequent health risks.
a.	Height – to – weight ration
b.	Percent body fat
c.	Waist circumference
d.	Desirable body weight
3)	With weight loss resulting in a decrease of body fat, fat cell size _______ and fat cell number ________.
a.	Increases / decreases
b.	Decreases / decreases
c.	Unchanged / decreases
d.	Decreases / unchanged
4)	The Body Mass Index (BMI) can be used as an indicator of obesity. The BMI is:
a.	A ratio of body fat to age
b.	A ratio of weight to height (kg/m2)
c.	A ratio of waist to hip measurement
d.	A ratio of body fat to body weight
e.	None of the above
5)	A sound weight loss program should include:
a.	Reduced energy diet
b.	Behavior modification
c.	Physical activity or exercise
6)	Choose one of the components in question 5 and describe why this should be included in a weight loss program (include how this component contributes to weight loss and its benefits).
a.	Behavior modification changing current eating behavior leads to decreased calorie intake & the establishment of new eating behavior conducive to weight loss & maintenance changing eating behavior understanding response to environmental cues cognitive restructuring.
7)	There are several theories for the cause of obesity. Describe how each of the following theories may lead to obesity in an individual.
a.	Inactivity: expending fewer calories due to a decline of physical activity while caloric intake stays constant results in excess calories converted to and stored as fat.
b.	Fat cell size (fat mass): fat cells prefer to be filled to a certain size (fat cells designed to serve as energy reserves and not shrink away to nothing), people with high adipose cell number is doomed to be obese.
c.	Genetic Predisposition: To put away fat more efficiently or to burn fewer calories (BMR or TEF) while not adjusting caloric intake results in excess calories that are converted and stored as fat.
8)	What is bulimia? How does dieting (restrictive eating) contribute to the development of this condition?
a.	Bulimia is binge eating and purging, or other methods to rid the excess calories. Loss of potassium due to heavy vomiting, loss of fat-soluble vitamins when laxatives are abused, and erosion of teeth enamel due to acid in vomit.
9)	List of internal factor and one external factor that influences food intake control.
a.	Internal: hunger
b.	External: time of day
**CHAPTER EIGHT QUIZ**
1)	List a good food source for each nutrient
a.	Sodium: table salt
b.	Calcium (nondairy): cooked broccoli, fortified orange juice
c.	Non-heme iron: leafy greens
d.	Zinc: oysters
2)	Which of the following statements about iron is NOT true?
a.	The RDA for iron is lower for women that for men.
b.	Iron absorption increases in a deficiency state.
c.	Iron is absorbed more effectively from animal flesh.
d.	Vitamin C, ascorbic acid, taken at the same time as iron, will increase iron absorption.
3)	Which of the following statements does NOT describe the role of minerals in the body?
a.	They are important for growth.
b.	They make possible the transfer of nerve impulses.
c.	They are constituents of important body compounds.
d.	They provide 4 kcalories per gram.
e.	They help maintain water balance.
4)	Sodium and potassium work closely together to regulate fluid balance.
5)	Trace minerals, such as iron and zinc, are necessary in small amounts, approximately 10 grams daily (less than one-third of an ounce).
6)	What organ plays a role in the homeostasis of most minerals?
a.	Gall bladder
7)	Define minerals and describe their path through the food chain.
a.	Minerals are inorganic and are elemental substances other than carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen.
b.	Their path through the food chain are water/soil plants animals humans.
8)	Define osteoporosis. List two factors that increase your risk and two factors that will decrease your risk for developing osteoporosis.
a.	Osteoporosis means “porous” bones and is characterized by weak bones with low mineral content.
b.	Two increasing risk factors:
i.	Inactive people
ii.	Smoking & heavy alcohol consumption.
c.	Two decreasing risk factors:
i.	Weight-bearing exercises
ii.	High intake of Vitamin D
9)	Define bioavailability and list factors that affect bioavailability.
a.	The amount of proportion (percentage) of a nutrient & mineral that is available for absorption.
b.	Factors that affect bioavailability:
vi.	Components in food
vii.	Form of mineral in food
**CHAPTER NINE QUIZ**
1)	List a good food source for each vitamin
a.	Vitamin C (non-citrus): broccoli
b.	Niacin (B3): fish
c.	Beta-carotene: carrots
d.	Vitamin B6: whole grain breads
e.	Folate: citrus fruits
f.	Vitamin B12: eggs
g.	Vitamin E: Avocado
h.	Thiamin (B1): pork
2)	During the milling process of grain products, such as wheat, portions of the kernel are removed, which decreases the content of:
a.	B vitamins only
b.	B vitamins and zinc only
c.	B vitamins, iron, zinc, and fiber
d.	Fiber and iron only
3)	Therefore, grain products are enriched with
a.	B vitamins and fiber
b.	Vitamin B6, iron and fiber
c.	Thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, and folate
e.	C and D above
4)	Eating a diet deficient in water-soluble vitamins will result in clinical signs of vitamin deficiency in several weeks rather than years.
5)	The effects of a deficiency of Vitamin D are most readily observed in the
a.	Muscular system
b.	Epithelial tissue
c.	Nervous system
d.	Digestive system
e.	Skeletal system
6)	Which of the following micronutrients function as antioxidants protecting unsaturated fatty acids from oxidations?
a.	Zinc and fluoride
b.	Vitamin B6, vitamin B12, and folic acid
c.	Calcium, potassium, and vitamin C
d.	Vitamin C, vitamin E, and beta-carotene
e.	Vitamin D, vitamin K, and vitamin E
7)	This vitamin is needed for cell replication and a deficiency causes anemia. Adequate intake of this vitamin during pregnancy may help prevent birth defects.
a.	Vitamin C
b.	Vitamin B12
c.	Folate (folic acid)
d.	Niacin (B3)
8)	Define vitamins and describe their function (include both categories).
a.	Vitamins are organic substances and function in all body cells, but don’t work together as a “complex.”
b.	Water-soluble vitamins
i.	found in watery parts of cells
ii.	fast turnover
iii.	excess, from diet or supplement then filtered from blood into urine
iv.	functions as coenzymes
c.	fat-soluble vitamins
i.	not soluble in water, found in fatty parts of body and cells
ii.	turnover slow, need is less frequent
iii.	excess, from diet or supplement not excreted in urine
iv.	not coenzymes, function in more general roles
9)	Describe three ways the vitamin categories differ.
a.	Water-soluble vitamins are found in watery parts of the cells and fat-soluble vitamins are NOT soluble in water.
b.	Water-soluble vitamins turnover fast and fat-soluble vitamins turnover is slow.
c.	Water-soluble vitamins acts as coenzymes and fat-soluble vitamins are not coenzymes.