HIEU 201 Exam Answers Western Civilization Liberty University (HIEU201 History of Western Civilization 1)
HIEU 201 Exam Answers Western Civilization Liberty University (HIEU201 History of Western Civilization 1)
HIEU 201 Exam Answers
The environment of early Mesopotamia was characterized by
swamps that had to be drained before they could be cultivated
In Mesopotamia, all human activity was subordinated to religion....
and human beings believed that the people were given life in order to serve the gods.
These things reflected the sense of insecurity and apprehension felt among Mesopotamian people
The Mesopotamian gods
The environment of ancient Egypt was
was favorable for development of human civilization in a number of ways
_____ doctors were more capable than those of nerdy civilizations
The hebrews originated in
What happened after the fall of Israel to the Assyrians?
many Hebrews lost their identity as the people of God
The exile of Hebrews following the fall of Isreal to the Assyrians is known as the
One of the greatest pharaohs that is remembered by his huge temples and monuments of himself
Who was famous for siege weapons? Largest empire that the world had ever seen.
Persian leader who his son and him conquered between the Nile and Indus. Deemed absolute monarchy.
Cyrus the Great
Who was one of the influential rules of ancient Babylon. He collected all laws and put them in one place. (law of 12 tables)
What was rebuilt with magnificence, including hanging gardens.
What group was famous for iron weapons and chariots. They settled in the Asia Minor.
What is it called when you believe in only one God?
Who was the first known women leader of Egypt? Rescued Moses from the river.
Led by Sargon the Great and conquered Sumerian cities. It was the worlds first empire.
What is the belief in more than one God?
He was called Napoleon of Egypt. Most likely the Pharaoh of the exodus. He expanded Egypts territory.
Who was a gifted worrier and poet who defeated Philistine power?
Who was the son of David and wisest man who ever lived? He lead Israel to its high and prosperity.
Belief that humans, the apex of God creation, are unique and different form the rest of nature. Knowing God improved a person to be righteous.
Who brought the Hebrews out of Egypt and also received the 10 commandments by God?
What civilization was a peaceful civilization with magnificent art and architecture and Ultimately dominated by the warlike Mycenaean Greeks?
Who was the shaper of the Greek Spirit? Wrote the Iliad and the Odyssey.
Type of government ruled by landowning aristocrats
Who had a great navy and commercial leader and valued political freedom?
What was the thing that was self governing and most were less than 5,000 males and no females?
Who expands by conquering? Had a great army. Their people only learned one thing- soldering.
Who was a orator, military commander, and influential leader of Athens? Athens became a cultural center of the world.
Requires a society that accepts rational thought. Leaders were not gods but men. Rule by the people!!
What was the war between Athens and Sparta? Sparta won.
War in the Ionian Greeks of Asia Minor rebelled against Persian overlord. Turning point of imperialism. Crucial victory for Greeks.
He believed that knowledge of the individual and society was more important than the knowledge of nature. He taught that wrong thinking resulted in wrong doing.
Who claimed water was the basic element and was the first to predict and eclipse?
He used Socratic ideas to create comprehensive philosophical system. He was a student of socrates. He wanted to reform society.
He was a synthesis of Greek thought. Tutor of Alexander the great. Studied at Platos academy for 20 years.
Athenian nobleman who wrote 80 plays.
Who was most remembered for his characters? Wrote about on-going problems.
Who was the greatest writer of comedies? The plays were made of government politics and leaders.
Who were considered the father(s) of history?
Who was a greek historian who wrote about development Peloponnesian War?
Who's father died when he was 20 and he got to become king? He wanted to conquer Persians completely. Tutored by Aristotle and appreciated Greek culture. His army carved empire from Greece to India.
Alexander the Great
Who divided the earth into climate zones? He measured the Earths circumference.
Who was known as a mathematician, physicist, inventor and most known for principles of hydrostatics, estimation of pi, and geometric formulas?
Was a type of government that said everyone should enjoy life and avoid things that caused distress. They thought that gods did exist but they could not effect humanity. "nothing in excess"
This was founded by Zeno. Stressed since reason was common to all, all humans were worthy of respect. Also stressed inner strength to deal with life's misfortunes.
He opened a school in Athens around the same time as Stoicism. He was the founder of stoicism. Most important philosopher in the world Hellenistic world.
Believed that nothing can be known with certainty. Suspecting judgement calms the mind and brings contentment. Saw spiritual comfort in recognizing that no beliefs were true.
This was a group of individuals who rebelled against establishing values and conventions.
What is a medieval association of craftsmen or merchants, often having considerable power?
This age saw great outpouring of literary works. Art, like philosophy, showed new awareness of the individual. Ended when the last city fell.
Who was the roman republic ruled by? They owned land and controlled army. They were aristocrats.
Which war was hard on both sides, but Rome prevailed? - Rome won
First punic war
War that sees leader Hannibal bringing 26,000 men over Alps. Carthaginian victory at Cannae (216 B.C.) shocks Romans, some Italian allies defect Finally Scipio Africanus defeats Hannibal in North Africa in 202 B.C., and Carthage surrenders.
Second punic war
War that was unnecessary and brutal, vengeful.
Third punic war
Was a city in North America that had become a prosperous commercial center. They controlled trade in the western Mediterranean. Rome feared they would take over control of Sicily.
Who was the Carthaginian general who brings his men and war elephants across Rome to attack? And at the battle of Cannane he destroyed the largest army Rome had ever had. He only had one elephant left and that was his.
Who became spokesman for land reform, moderate and traditional measures, but leading families saw him as a revolutionary? Senatorial extremists killed him and 300 of his followers
The brother of Tiberius who took up the cause when he died. He won support of the city's poor and became tribune in 123 B.C. Gained support from the Equites (plebeian businessmen) and by promising citizenship to Italians However, his murder was also ordered, and 3000 of his followers died
Who began conquest of Gaul and was a brilliant general? Pompey became jealous and urged the Senate to dismiss him. He developed strong, enlightened leadership to create order out of chaos. Lowered taxes.
What were the list of laws called that Plebeian pressure brought first? Roman code of laws
Law of Twelve Tables
Octavian crushed _____ and Cleopatra in the battle of Actium. This guy was Caesars officer.
What group was often considered the commoners?
He was a creative salesman. He ended civil wars. Who's defeat of Antony and Cleopatra (31 B.C.) finally created order? He ruled in partnership with the Senate.
Considered as a time of peace.
Who wrote the history of Rome? Also praised Augustus for trying to restore tradition.
He was a Stoic philosopher and chose his megalomaniacal son Commodus to succeed him. He did not follow smart practice of designating a competent successor.
Who invented a system that said motionless earth in center of universe, all suns and planets circling? One of the most prominent Greco-Roman scientists. He was mathematician, geographer, astronomer. Wrote Algamest.
Why did Rome fall?
Various factors included military anarchy, Germanic raids, economic dislocations, new Eastern religions challenging Greco-Roman rationalism
He weakened municipal institutions. He raised taxes. Tightened central government. Who divided the empire into 2 halves? Him and Constantine prevented the Empire from collapsing by imposing order. Tried to contain disintegration
Did prevent Empire from collapsing by imposing order. He built a new capitol at Constantinople which further divided Empire. Tried to contain disintegration.
Who committed suicide because he lost all confidence in his people? He watched Rome burn.
His crucifixion was during the reign of Tiberus. Son of God.
Strict interpretation of mosaic law. No resurrection of the dead or after life.
Sadducees,, They were sad because they did not believe in the resurrection.
These people had a more liberal view of law. Thought traditions had authority as well. Believed in life after death. They had the support of most Jews.
This man changed his name from Saul. Knew Greek well and persecuted Jesus' followers as Saul.
Who established semimonastic community near Dead Sea?
This religion offered comforting solutions to problems like what happens when we die. It offered hope. Also offered a personal relationship with God.
the appeal of Christianity
Who demanded Jews not pay Roman tax or acknowledge emperor? Engaged in acts of resistance to Rome.
Who was a merchant of Mecca and claimed to have seen angle Gabriel that gave him the message that he was a prophet? Founder of Islam.
Was monotheist and had 5 pillars of faith that were essential to the practice. Koran is the holy bible.
Who is the first great Byzantine emperor? Major achievement was codifying Rome's ancient laws and commentaries.
This was are essential to Islamic practice. Accept that "there is no God but Allah, and Muhammad is his prophet" Pray five times a day facing Mecca Give alms to the poor Fast during the month of Ramadan Pilgrimage to Mecca once in a lifetime
The Five Pillars of the Faith
He was Muhammad's closest companion and adviser, who succeeded to the Prophet's political and administrative functions.
What was the minority supported descendents of Ali, Muhammad's cousin? They believed that Caiph should be a dependent of Muhammad.
These people believed that the rulers should follow Muhammads example. Who was the majority traditional and based on established practices?
Who translated John's gospel into Anglo-Saxon? Wrote the Ecclesiastical History of the English People, one of the finest medieval historical works.
Who formed new power of the papacy, brilliant administrator? Is considered the father of the Latin Church.
Pope Gregory I the Great
Who continued policy of expanding Frankish kingdom? Pope Leo III crowned him Emperor of the Romans in Rome in 800
Empire was divided in 843 among the three surviving sons. What was this treaty called?
Treaty of Verdun
What was it called when nobles exercise public power formerly held by kings?
Who united Frankish tribes and converted to Roman Christianity?
Who was a Saxon king who founded schools, studied Latin, read Gregory I and Boethius. Was ruler of Wessex. He defeated the Danes and extended his rule over southern England (laid the foundation for a unified English monarchy).
Alfred the Great
What provided uniform laws for all of England?
Philip tried to take land from English kings Henry II and Richard I and succeeded with ______.
This was supposed to guarantee feudal rights and became one of the most important documents in English history because it established the principle that the king's power is limited.
The 1st of the Norman line of kings of England. He brought centralized feudalism to England, declaring himself the feudal lord of the entire country.
William the Conqueror
Kings needed an amount of money but was unable to levy new taxes with approval of the _____. _____ used this control over money matters to enhance its power.
Feudal lords chose him as king.
A religious act that grants grace based on the recipient's right intentions. The Roman Catholic Church says they are necessary for salvation. There are seven of them.
Of all crusades, it was the most successful. Broke Muslim resistance and captured Jerusalem
Which crusade? Frederick Barbarossa, Philip Augustus and Richard the Lionhearted all went Frederick drowned, Philip returned to France because of fights with Richard Richard defeated Saladin (Muslim leader) but did not succeed in taking Jerusalem.
The Kings' Crusade (3rd)
Abandoned the ideal of the first crusades and openly pursued political and economic goals Never reached the Holy Land. Instead they attacked the Byzantines (who had requested their help). Constantinople fell to the crusaders who pillaged the city.
The "diverted" crusade (4th)
Organizations of merchants and craftsmen to protect themselves and regulate the business activity in a town.
What was the reformation concerned with?
The Church was overly concerned with power & protecting their own interests
Who was known as "Morningstar of the Reformation" Proclaimed the papacy to be "full of poison" and called the pope "the antichrist" Believed that every Christian should study the Bible for himself, and initiated the translation of the Bible He was the first to translate the complete Bible into English.
Who was a Bohemian reformer who taught the same as Wycliffe? He was summoned to the Council of Constance to defend his beliefs, but he was placed on trial for heresy, imprisoned, and condemned to die at the stake.
What did mystics want to do?
Wanted to have immediate and personal communication with God and renew the church's spirituality.
What was the Millenarianism?
belief in a coming millennial reign of Christ
The reform movement needed a leader who understood the people. What was this revolt called?
The Lutheran Revolt
Who planned to become a lawyer like his father wanted, but he had a near-death experience during which he promised St. Anne he would become a monk
Sola fide -justification by faith alone Sola gratia—justification is by God's grace alone, not by any works of men Sola scriptura—Scripture alone is necessary, sufficient, authoritative and clear for man Solus Christus—Man is justified by the finished work of Christ alone Soli deo gloria- Glory to God alone. ------ sort of memorize
Who need money so he sent out agents to sell indulgences??
Who sold the indulgences near Luther's parish at Wittenberg?
What was the 95 theses? And who posted it to the church wall?
It was a list of 95 statements concerning the sale of indulgences proposed as topics to debate. Luther posted it.
What is the idea that God is all-knowing and eternal?
What debate widened the gap forming between Luther and the church? Before this debate, Luther had considered himself a good Roman Catholic who only wanted to point out a few corrupt practices.
The Leipzig Debate
Who summoned Luther to Worms to appear before the German diet on the charge of heresy?
Luther stood at the ___________ (a meeting of the emperor, princes, and bishops of the Holy Roman Empire) to defend his teachings
Diet of Worms
Who translated the Bible into German and helped create a standard German language?
By 1525, the revolts were crushed and thousands were homeless. Which revolt was this?
Who became the priest of the largest church in Zurich? He made significant changes in his church that drew opposition from Rome but he had the support of the city council.
Zwingli in Zurich
Who was French scholar and theologian wrote The Institutes of the Christian Religion, one of the most significant and influential books on theology ever written?
Who were Huguenots?
Who was the leader of the Huguenots, won the throne of France, and became Henry IV?
Henry of Navarre
Two factors influenced the English Reformation. What were they?
- The publication of the Bible in English - The involvement of English rulers. Under the Tudor rulers, England broke with the papacy
Henry VI 1st wife. Daughter of Ferdinand and Isabella of Spain.
Catherine of Aragon
Henry VI second wife. She was beheaded.
Said to be Henry's only true love Lady-in-waiting for Catherine and Anne.
Who did Henry appoint the new archbishop of Canterbury?
-His advisors were sympathetic to the Reformation - He also sponsored the statement of faith known as the Forty-Two Articles that became the creed of the English church.
Daughter of Catherine of Aragon, succeeded him. She was a devout Catholic. Henry VI's only daughter that was catholic.
Who succeeded her sister and reigned 45 years? It was one of the greatest periods of English history. She was called "Good Queen Bess" by her people.
The Reformation never took off in Italy or Spain due to this.
Who was the largest group of radicals?
What group believed that Only believers should be members of the local church The state should not interfere in the church A Christian should not take up arms against anyone, even in war (Pacifism)
Society of Jesus
The Catholic Reformation is often called the .....
What church established the Index of Prohibited Books to help regulate what its members read.
The Catholic Church
Who was called for it on the demand of Charles V of Holy Roman Empire?
Pope Paul III
This consul condemned many of the biblical principles on which Protestantism was based (justification by faith and authority of Scripture) and set forth a complete doctrinal position for the church and abolished indulgences?
The Council of Trent
What was the New intellectual movement called? It was based in a renewed interest in theology.
Who was the archbishop of Canterbury? Realized that faith in God's revelation is essential to proper understanding.
Who Promoted asking questions as the first key to wisdom. Did not attempt to answer the questions, but to get his students to search for truth.
Who was The "prince of Schoolmen"? He taught that philosophy of ancient Greeks could be used to help understand theological ideas , but when they disagreed, the church was right and Aristotle was wrong.
Who believed that there were 2 types of truth? Beliefs that can be proven by reason and beliefs that reason cannot prove.
What was one of the most important developments of the middle ages?
Universities- The teacher was the most important factor—men would travel all over Europe to find the best teacher
Teachers formed educational guilds. What were they called?
What was science known as in chapter 11?
Little attention given to science. It was a "secondary source of knowledge"
Who was an english scientist who promoted scientific observation and experimentation?
What was the language of the educated?
What became popular in the 12th century and was written in vernacular? They were long narrative poems that celebrated the adventures of legendary heroes: Beowulf, Song of Roland, El Cid.
He was an Italian poet who's Divine Comedy takes an imaginary journey through hell, purgatory, and paradise.
Who was the english poet who wrote Canterbury tales?
What was collection of stories told by a group of pilgrims on their way to visit the tomb of Thomas a Becket?
What was the most prominent form of medieval art?
What had Thick walls to support stone vaults and ceilings Rounded arches Heavy columns Small doors & windows Dark, gloomy interior????
What had Higher ceilings, thinner walls Larger windows and doors Used flying buttresses to support the heavy ceilings??
What are sometimes called a time of ignorance and superstition? But in reality it was an age of creativity and genius of spirit.
What were developed urban centers that the citizens still considered themselves to be Roman?
How were Italian city states different from Europe?
1. Thriving commercial banking and trade centers 2. Feudal nobility had less power than in other parts of Europe.
Politically, the city states went from republicanism to _______
Why did the city states turn from Republicanism?
They were unstable. Class wars economic disasters
Why was marring older men good for young women?
If they married older men, they would have greater personal freedom. And it was good for the women when the men died.
Why did Patrons give funds?
To support promising artists
What belief had to compete with wrong concerns? This life was more exciting.
what was where the people that were free from restraints the church and feudalism?
What is a overemphasis on human worth and ability?
What did humanists use to feed their interests in a worldly life?
Who was the father of humanism?
This emerged due to class war between rich merchants and nobles.
What endured due to diplomacy, alliances, new balance of power?
Peace of Lodi
When does the Peace of Lodi end?
When King Charles VIII invaded northern Italy
What was the belief that generally insisted that women should be obedient, not educated?
He argued, in his work On the Nobility and Excellence of Women, for full equality of the sexes.
Who wrote The Book of the Courtier?
Who wrote the era's most important advice book, The Prince? He was the first modern political thinker. He was a secularist who did not draw on Christian teachings.
What lead to the spread of the Renaissance?
1. Growing prosperity 2. printing press
Who invented the first metal movable printing press?
Who made Renaissance humanism international? He said true religion is revealed in the Bible and accessible to all.
Who believed that reason cannot be trusted in matters of religions? advanced skepticism, Christian faith, but also tolerance
Michel de Montaigne
This church hierarchy in Spain monopolized humanist learning and applied it.
He was a Lawyer, civil servant, member of Parliament His book Utopia was first major utopian treatise since Plato's Republic
Sir Thomas More
Why was Sir Thomas More executed?
He refused to accept Henry VIII as head of the church.
What was Spread by flees on rats May have killed as much as 1/3 of Europe's population Led to widespread terror and hysteria?
What was the war called that was between England and France? Was fought due to English lands in France.
The Hundred Years' War
Why did the English win so many battles?
strategies and weapons The longbow was a major reason for their success.
Who was a simple girl who said she heard voices telling her to go to battle? She helped the French win the battle.
Joan of Arc
Who tried to control Europe the way Innocent III had? French king Philip IV resisted his demands.
What did Boniface issue saying that it is necessary for salvation for everyone to be subject to the pope?
Who defied the pope Taxed the church in France to raise money for war Tried and jailed a French bishop?
What was also called the papal exile? Philip elected a new French pope.
What , under threat, elected an Italian pope? A few months later they declared the election invalid and elected a new pope who ruled from Avignon.
College of Cardinals
For 40 years, this divided the nations of Europe.
the Great Schism
The church, at one time, had how many popes?
The Great Schism was finally resolved at the _______ _______ ______ deposing the other popes and securing Martin V as pope.
consul of constance
Why is October 31, 1517 so important?
It was the date that the reformation started.
Who precipitated a situation that led to another step in the political development of Rome?