HIEU 201 Exam Answers Western Civilization Liberty University (HIEU201 History of Western Civilization 1) - $0   Add to cart

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HIEU 201 Exam Answers Western Civilization Liberty University (HIEU201 History of Western Civilization 1)

HIEU 201 Exam Answers Western Civilization Liberty University (HIEU201 History of Western Civilization 1) HIEU 201 Exam Answers Western Civilization Liberty University The environment of early Mesopotamia was characterized by swamps that had to be drained before they could be cultivated In Mesopotamia, all human activity was subordinated to religion.... and human beings believed that the people were given life in order to serve the gods. These things reflected the sense of insecurity and apprehension felt among Mesopotamian people The Mesopotamian gods The environment of ancient Egypt was was favorable for development of human civilization in a number of ways _____ doctors were more capable than those of nerdy civilizations Egyptian The hebrews originated in Mesopotamia What happened after the fall of Israel to the Assyrians? many Hebrews lost their identity as the people of God The exile of Hebrews following the fall of Isreal to the Assyrians is known as the Babaylonian Captivity One of the greatest pharaohs that is remembered by his huge temples and monuments of himself Ramesses II Who was famous for siege weapons?
Largest empire that the world had ever seen. Assyria Persian leader who his son and him conquered between the Nile and Indus. Deemed absolute monarchy. Cyrus the Great Who was one of the influential rules of ancient Babylon. He collected all laws and put them in one place. (law of 12 tables) Hammurabi What was rebuilt with magnificence, including hanging gardens. Babylon What group was famous for iron weapons and chariots. They settled in the Asia Minor. Hittites What is it called when you believe in only one God? Monotheism Who was the first known women leader of Egypt? Rescued Moses from the river. Hatshepsut Led by Sargon the Great and conquered Sumerian cities. It was the worlds first empire. Akkad What is the belief in more than one God? Polytheism He was called Napoleon of Egypt. Most likely the Pharaoh of the exodus. He expanded Egypts territory. Thutmose III Who was a gifted worrier and poet who defeated Philistine power? David Who was the son of David and wisest man who ever lived? He lead Israel to its high and prosperity. Solomon Belief that humans, the apex of God creation, are unique and different form the rest of nature.
Knowing God improved a person to be righteous. Moral Autonomy Who brought the Hebrews out of Egypt and also received the 10 commandments by God? Moses What civilization was a peaceful civilization with magnificent art and architecture and Ultimately dominated by the warlike Mycenaean Greeks? Mioan Who was the shaper of the Greek Spirit? Wrote the Iliad and the Odyssey. Homer Type of government ruled by landowning aristocrats oligarchy Who had a great navy and commercial leader and valued political freedom? Athens What was the thing that was self governing and most were less than 5,000 males and no females? City-states Who expands by conquering? Had a great army. Their people only learned one thing- soldering. Sparta Who was a orator, military commander, and influential leader of Athens? Athens became a cultural center of the world. Pericles Requires a society that accepts rational thought. Leaders were not gods but men. Rule by the people!! Democracy What was the war between Athens and Sparta? Sparta won. Peloponnesian war War in the Ionian Greeks of Asia Minor rebelled against Persian overlord. Turning point of imperialism. Crucial victory for Greeks. Persian war He believed that knowledge of the individual and society was more important than the knowledge of nature. He taught that wrong thinking resulted in wrong doing. Socrates Who claimed water was the basic element and was the first to predict and eclipse? Thales He used Socratic ideas to create comprehensive philosophical system. He was a student of socrates. He wanted to reform society. Plato He was a synthesis of Greek thought. Tutor of Alexander the great. Studied at Platos academy for 20 years. Aristotle Athenian nobleman who wrote 80 plays. Aeschylus Who was most remembered for his characters? Wrote about on-going problems. Sophocles Who was the greatest writer of comedies? The plays were made of government politics and leaders. Aristophanes Who were considered the father(s) of history? Herodotus Who was a greek historian who wrote about development Peloponnesian War? Thucydides Who's father died when he was 20 and he got to become king? He wanted to conquer Persians completely. Tutored by Aristotle and appreciated Greek culture. His army carved empire from Greece to India. Alexander the Great Who divided the earth into climate zones? He measured the Earths circumference. Eratosthenes Who was known as a mathematician, physicist, inventor and most known for principles of hydrostatics, estimation of pi, and geometric formulas? Archimedes Was a type of government that said everyone should enjoy life and avoid things that caused distress. They thought that gods did exist but they could not effect humanity. "nothing in excess" Epicureanism This was founded by Zeno. Stressed since reason was common to all, all humans were worthy of respect. Also stressed inner strength to deal with life's misfortunes. Stoicism He opened a school in Athens around the same time as Stoicism. He was the founder of stoicism. Most important philosopher in the world Hellenistic world. Zeno Believed that nothing can be known with certainty. Suspecting judgement calms the mind and brings contentment. Saw spiritual comfort in recognizing that no beliefs were true. Skepticism This was a group of individuals who rebelled against establishing values and conventions. Cynicism What is a medieval association of craftsmen or merchants, often having considerable power? Guild This age saw great outpouring of literary works. Art, like philosophy, showed new awareness of the individual. Ended when the last city fell. Hellenistic age Who was the roman republic ruled by? They owned land and controlled army. They were aristocrats. Patricians Which war was hard on both sides, but Rome prevailed? - Rome won First punic war War that sees leader Hannibal bringing 26,000 men over Alps. Carthaginian victory at Cannae (216 B.C.) shocks Romans, some Italian allies defect
Finally Scipio Africanus defeats Hannibal in North Africa in 202 B.C., and Carthage surrenders. Second punic war War that was unnecessary and brutal, vengeful. Third punic war Was a city in North America that had become a prosperous commercial center. They controlled trade in the western Mediterranean. Rome feared they would take over control of Sicily. Carthage Who was the Carthaginian general who brings his men and war elephants across Rome to attack? And at the battle of Cannane he destroyed the largest army Rome had ever had. He only had one elephant left and that was his. Hannibal Who became spokesman for land reform, moderate and traditional measures, but leading families saw him as a revolutionary? Senatorial extremists killed him and 300 of his followers Tiberius Gracchus The brother of Tiberius who took up the cause when he died. He won support of the city's poor and became tribune in 123 B.C.
Gained support from the Equites (plebeian businessmen) and by promising citizenship to Italians
However, his murder was also ordered, and 3000 of his followers died Gaius Gracchus Who began conquest of Gaul and was a brilliant general? Pompey became jealous and urged the Senate to dismiss him. He developed strong, enlightened leadership to create order out of chaos. Lowered taxes. Julius Caesar What were the list of laws called that Plebeian pressure brought first? Roman code of laws Law of Twelve Tables Octavian crushed _____ and Cleopatra in the battle of Actium. This guy was Caesars officer. Antony What group was often considered the commoners? Plebeians He was a creative salesman. He ended civil wars. Who's defeat of Antony and Cleopatra (31 B.C.) finally created order? He ruled in partnership with the Senate. Octavian Considered as a time of peace. Pax Romana Who wrote the history of Rome? Also praised Augustus for trying to restore tradition. Livy He was a Stoic philosopher and chose his megalomaniacal son Commodus to succeed him. He did not follow smart practice of designating a competent successor. Marcus Aurelius Who invented a system that said motionless earth in center of universe, all suns and planets circling? One of the most prominent Greco-Roman scientists. He was mathematician, geographer, astronomer.
Wrote Algamest. Ptolemy Why did Rome fall? Various factors included military anarchy, Germanic raids, economic dislocations, new Eastern religions challenging Greco-Roman rationalism He weakened municipal institutions. He raised taxes. Tightened central government. Who divided the empire into 2 halves? Him and Constantine prevented the Empire from collapsing by imposing order. Tried to contain disintegration Diocletian Did prevent Empire from collapsing by imposing order. He built a new capitol at Constantinople which further divided Empire. Tried to contain disintegration. Constantine Who committed suicide because he lost all confidence in his people? He watched Rome burn. Nero His crucifixion was during the reign of Tiberus. Son of God. Jesus Strict interpretation of mosaic law. No resurrection of the dead or after life. Sadducees,, They were sad because they did not believe in the resurrection. These people had a more liberal view of law. Thought traditions had authority as well. Believed in life after death. They had the support of most Jews. Pharisees This man changed his name from Saul. Knew Greek well and persecuted Jesus' followers as Saul. Paul Who established semimonastic community near Dead Sea? Essenes This religion offered comforting solutions to problems like what happens when we die. It offered hope. Also offered a personal relationship with God. the appeal of Christianity Who demanded Jews not pay Roman tax or acknowledge emperor? Engaged in acts of resistance to Rome. Zealots Who was a merchant of Mecca and claimed to have seen angle Gabriel that gave him the message that he was a prophet? Founder of Islam. Muhammad Was monotheist and had 5 pillars of faith that were essential to the practice. Koran is the holy bible. Islam Who is the first great Byzantine emperor? Major achievement was codifying Rome's ancient laws and commentaries. Justinian This was are essential to Islamic practice. 
Accept that "there is no God but Allah, and Muhammad is his prophet"
Pray five times a day facing Mecca
Give alms to the poor
Fast during the month of Ramadan
Pilgrimage to Mecca once in a lifetime The Five Pillars of the Faith He was Muhammad's closest companion and adviser, who succeeded to the Prophet's political and administrative functions. Abu Bakr What was the minority supported descendents of Ali, Muhammad's cousin? They believed that Caiph should be a dependent of Muhammad. Shi'ites These people believed that the rulers should follow Muhammads example. Who was the majority traditional and based on established practices? Sunni Who translated John's gospel into Anglo-Saxon? Wrote the Ecclesiastical History of the English People, one of the finest medieval historical works. Venerable Bede Who formed new power of the papacy, brilliant administrator? Is considered the father of the Latin Church. Pope Gregory I the Great Who continued policy of expanding Frankish kingdom? Pope Leo III crowned him Emperor of the Romans in Rome in 800 Charlemagne Empire was divided in 843 among the three surviving sons. What was this treaty called? Treaty of Verdun What was it called when nobles exercise public power formerly held by kings? feudalism Who united Frankish tribes and converted to Roman Christianity? Clovis Who was a Saxon king who founded schools, studied Latin, read Gregory I and Boethius. Was ruler of Wessex. He defeated the Danes and extended his rule over southern England (laid the foundation for a unified English monarchy). Alfred the Great What provided uniform laws for all of England? common law Philip tried to take land from English kings Henry II and Richard I and succeeded with ______. King John This was supposed to guarantee feudal rights and became one of the most important documents in English history because it established the principle that the king's power is limited. Magna Carta The 1st of the Norman line of kings of England. He brought centralized feudalism to England, declaring himself the feudal lord of the entire country. William the Conqueror Kings needed an amount of money but was unable to levy new taxes with approval of the _____. _____ used this control over money matters to enhance its power. Parliament Feudal lords chose him as king. Hugh Capet A religious act that grants grace based on the recipient's right intentions. The Roman Catholic Church says they are necessary for salvation. There are seven of them. Sacrament Of all crusades, it was the most successful. Broke Muslim resistance and captured Jerusalem First crusade Which crusade? Frederick Barbarossa, Philip Augustus and Richard the Lionhearted all went
Frederick drowned, Philip returned to France because of fights with Richard
Richard defeated Saladin (Muslim leader) but did not succeed in taking Jerusalem. The Kings' Crusade (3rd) Abandoned the ideal of the first crusades and openly pursued political and economic goals
Never reached the Holy Land. Instead they attacked the Byzantines (who had requested their help).
Constantinople fell to the crusaders who pillaged the city. The "diverted" crusade (4th) Organizations of merchants and craftsmen to protect themselves and regulate the business activity in a town. Guild What was the reformation concerned with? The Church was overly concerned with power & protecting their own interests Who was known as "Morningstar of the Reformation"
Proclaimed the papacy to be "full of poison" and called the pope "the antichrist"
Believed that every Christian should study the Bible for himself, and initiated the translation of the Bible
He was the first to translate the complete Bible into English. John Wycliffe Who was a Bohemian reformer who taught the same as Wycliffe? He was summoned to the Council of Constance to defend his beliefs, but he was placed on trial for heresy, imprisoned, and condemned to die at the stake. John Huss What did mystics want to do? Wanted to have immediate and personal communication with God and renew the church's spirituality. What was the Millenarianism? belief in a coming millennial reign of Christ The reform movement needed a leader who understood the people. What was this revolt called? The Lutheran Revolt Who planned to become a lawyer like his father wanted, but he had a near-death experience during which he promised St. Anne he would become a monk Luther Sola fide -justification by faith alone
Sola gratia—justification is by God's grace alone, not by any works of men
Sola scriptura—Scripture alone is necessary, sufficient, authoritative and clear for man
Solus Christus—Man is justified by the finished work of Christ alone
Soli deo gloria- Glory to God alone.
------ sort of memorize ... Who need money so he sent out agents to sell indulgences?? Leo X Who sold the indulgences near Luther's parish at Wittenberg? Johann Tetzel What was the 95 theses? And who posted it to the church wall? It was a list of 95 statements concerning the sale of indulgences proposed as topics to debate. Luther posted it. What is the idea that God is all-knowing and eternal? Predestination What debate widened the gap forming between Luther and the church? Before this debate, Luther had considered himself a good Roman Catholic who only wanted to point out a few corrupt practices. The Leipzig Debate Who summoned Luther to Worms to appear before the German diet on the charge of heresy? Charles V Luther stood at the ___________ (a meeting of the emperor, princes, and bishops of the Holy Roman Empire) to defend his teachings Diet of Worms Who translated the Bible into German and helped create a standard German language? Martin Luther By 1525, the revolts were crushed and thousands were homeless. Which revolt was this? Peasants' revolts Who became the priest of the largest church in Zurich? He made significant changes in his church that drew opposition from Rome but he had the support of the city council. Zwingli in Zurich Who was French scholar and theologian wrote The Institutes of the Christian Religion, one of the most significant and influential books on theology ever written? John Calvin Who were Huguenots? French Protestants Who was the leader of the Huguenots, won the throne of France, and became Henry IV? Henry of Navarre Two factors influenced the English Reformation. What were they? - The publication of the Bible in English
- The involvement of English rulers. Under the Tudor rulers, England broke with the papacy Henry VI 1st wife. Daughter of Ferdinand and Isabella of Spain. Catherine of Aragon Henry VI second wife. She was beheaded. Anne Boleyn Said to be Henry's only true love
Lady-in-waiting for Catherine and Anne. Jane Seymour Who did Henry appoint the new archbishop of Canterbury? Thomas Cranmer -His advisors were sympathetic to the Reformation
- He also sponsored the statement of faith known as the Forty-Two Articles that became the creed of the English church. Edward VI Daughter of Catherine of Aragon, succeeded him. She was a devout Catholic. Henry VI's only daughter that was catholic. Mary I Who succeeded her sister and reigned 45 years? It was one of the greatest periods of English history. 
She was called "Good Queen Bess" by her people. Elizabeth The Reformation never took off in Italy or Spain due to this. Catholic control Who was the largest group of radicals? Anabaptists What group believed that 
Only believers should be members of the local church
The state should not interfere in the church
A Christian should not take up arms against anyone, even in war (Pacifism) Anabaptists Society of Jesus Jesuits The Catholic Reformation is often called the ..... Counter Reformation What church established the Index of Prohibited Books to help regulate what its members read. The Catholic Church Who was called for it on the demand of Charles V of Holy Roman Empire? Pope Paul III This consul condemned many of the biblical principles on which Protestantism was based (justification by faith and authority of Scripture) and set forth a complete doctrinal position for the church and abolished indulgences? The Council of Trent What was the New intellectual movement called? It was based in a renewed interest in theology. Scholasticism. Who was the archbishop of Canterbury? Realized that faith in God's revelation is essential to proper understanding. Anselm Who Promoted asking questions as the first key to wisdom.
Did not attempt to answer the questions, but to get his students to search for truth. Peter Abelard Who was The "prince of Schoolmen"? He taught that philosophy of ancient Greeks could be used to help understand theological ideas , but when they disagreed, the church was right and Aristotle was wrong. Thomas Aquinas Who believed that there were 2 types of truth? 
Beliefs that can be proven by reason and beliefs that reason cannot prove. Aquinas What was one of the most important developments of the middle ages? Universities-
The teacher was the most important factor—men would travel all over Europe to find the best teacher Teachers formed educational guilds. What were they called? universitas What was science known as in chapter 11? Little attention given to science. It was a "secondary source of knowledge" Who was an english scientist who promoted scientific observation and experimentation? Roger Bacon What was the language of the educated? Latin What became popular in the 12th century and was written in vernacular? They were long narrative poems that celebrated the adventures of legendary heroes: Beowulf, Song of Roland, El Cid. heroic epics He was an Italian poet who's Divine Comedy takes an imaginary journey through hell, purgatory, and paradise. Dante Alighiere Who was the english poet who wrote Canterbury tales? Geoffrey Chaucer What was collection of stories told by a group of pilgrims on their way to visit the tomb of Thomas a Becket? Canterbury Tales What was the most prominent form of medieval art? religious architecture What had 
Thick walls to support stone vaults and ceilings
Rounded arches
Heavy columns
Small doors & windows
Dark, gloomy interior???? Romanesque What had Higher ceilings, thinner walls 
Larger windows and doors
Used flying buttresses to support the heavy ceilings?? Gothic What are sometimes called a time of ignorance and superstition? But in reality it was an age of creativity and genius of spirit. Middle Ages What were developed urban centers that the citizens still considered themselves to be Roman? City- States How were Italian city states different from Europe? 1. Thriving commercial banking and trade centers
2. Feudal nobility had less power than in other parts of Europe. Politically, the city states went from republicanism to _______ despotism Why did the city states turn from Republicanism? They were unstable.
Class wars 
economic disasters Why was marring older men good for young women? If they married older men, they would have greater personal freedom. And it was good for the women when the men died. Why did Patrons give funds? To support promising artists What belief had to compete with wrong concerns? This life was more exciting. Secularism what was where the people that were free from restraints the church and feudalism? individualism What is a overemphasis on human worth and ability? Humanism What did humanists use to feed their interests in a worldly life? Classical learning Who was the father of humanism? Petrarch This emerged due to class war between rich merchants and nobles. Despotism What endured due to diplomacy, alliances, new balance of power? Peace of Lodi When does the Peace of Lodi end? When King Charles VIII invaded northern Italy What was the belief that generally insisted that women should be obedient, not educated? Humanism He argued, in his work On the Nobility and Excellence of Women, for full equality of the sexes. Heinrich Cornelius Who wrote The Book of the Courtier? Baldesar Castiglione Who wrote the era's most important advice book, The Prince? He was the first modern political thinker. He was a secularist who did not draw on Christian teachings. Niccolò Machiavelli What lead to the spread of the Renaissance? 1. Growing prosperity
2. printing press Who invented the first metal movable printing press? Johann Gutenberg Who made Renaissance humanism international? He said true religion is revealed in the Bible and accessible to all. Desiderius Erasmus Who believed that reason cannot be trusted in matters of religions? advanced skepticism, Christian faith, but also tolerance Michel de Montaigne This church hierarchy in Spain monopolized humanist learning and applied it. Spanish Humanism He was a Lawyer, civil servant, member of Parliament
His book Utopia was first major utopian treatise since Plato's Republic Sir Thomas More Why was Sir Thomas More executed? He refused to accept Henry VIII as head of the church. What was Spread by flees on rats
May have killed as much as 1/3 of Europe's population
Led to widespread terror and hysteria? Black Death What was the war called that was between England and France? Was fought due to English lands in France. The Hundred Years' War Why did the English win so many battles? strategies and weapons
The longbow was a major reason for their success. Who was a simple girl who said she heard voices telling her to go to battle? She helped the French win the battle. Joan of Arc Who tried to control Europe the way Innocent III had? French king Philip IV resisted his demands. Boniface VIII What did Boniface issue saying that it is necessary for salvation for everyone to be subject to the pope? Unam Sanctam Who defied the pope
Taxed the church in France to raise money for war
Tried and jailed a French bishop? Phillip What was also called the papal exile? Philip elected a new French pope. Babylonian captivity What , under threat, elected an Italian pope? A few months later they declared the election invalid and elected a new pope who ruled from Avignon. College of Cardinals For 40 years, this divided the nations of Europe. the Great Schism The church, at one time, had how many popes? 3 The Great Schism was finally resolved at the _______ _______ ______ deposing the other popes and securing Martin V as pope. consul of constance Why is October 31, 1517 so important? It was the date that the reformation started. Who precipitated a situation that led to another step in the political development of Rome? King John

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