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Test Bank Memory Foundations and Applications 3rd Edition,GRADED A.

1. What kind of a coil does TMS use to stimulate particular areas of the brain? a. magnetic b. behavior c. memory d. zinc Ans: a Cognitive Domain: Knowledge Answer Location: Transmagnetic Stimulation (TMS) Difficulty Level: Easy 2. Magnetic fields created in an fMRI use a three-dimensional image capturing ______ of the brain. a. density b. structure c. function d. measurements Ans: b Cognitive Domain: Knowledge Answer Location: Neuroimaging Difficulty Level: Medium 3. PET scans use special chemicals to obtain a three-dimensional image of the brain. What kind of chemicals are these? a. organic b. compound c. magnetic d. radioactive Ans: d Cognitive Domain: Knowledge Answer Location: Neuroimaging Difficulty Level: Easy 4. MEG uses a specific kind of sensor to detect small magnetic fields produced by electrical activity. What are these sensors? a. radioactive b. magnetic c. structure d. function Ans: b Cognitive Domain: Knowledge Answer Location: Neuroimaging Difficulty Level: Easy 5. EEG uses a special material to measure electric output of the brain. What are these special materials? a. electrodes b. magnets c. chemicals d. sensors Ans: a Cognitive Domain: Knowledge Answer Location: Neuroimaging Difficulty Level: Easy 6. Neuroimaging uses a set of techniques to observe the brain and assign functions. What is the function of this type of operation called? a. shocking b. stimulating c. mapping d. aligning Ans: c Cognitive Domain: Comprehension Answer Location: Neuroimaging Difficulty Level: Medium 7. Neuropsychology is the study of people with specific damage. What kind of damage is the speciality? a. head b. brain c. skull d. thought Ans: b Cognitive Domain: Comprehension Answer Location: Neuropsychology Difficulty Level: Medium 8. What type of mental structure is common across many different types of animals? a. memory b. brains c. neurons d. genetics Ans: a Cognitive Domain: Comprehension Answer Location: Animal Models Difficulty Level: Medium 9. Judgments of learning are called this as we study items and whether or not we will remember them. a. memories b. hopes c. models d. predictions Ans: d Cognitive Domain: Knowledge Answer Location: Metamemory Judgments Difficulty Level: Easy 10. Reality monitoring is our specific ability to do this concerning memory as reality or imagined. a. sense b. care c. measure d. distinguish Ans: d Cognitive Domain: Comprehension Answer Location: Source Judgments Difficulty Level: Medium 11. We do many things at different times all day long. However, which of the following is part of our everyday moment? a. eating b walking c. watching d. remembering Ans: d Cognitive Domain: Knowledge Answer Location: Introduction to the Study of Memory Difficulty Level: Easy 12. Which of the following forms is the basis of our views of ourselves and our personalities? a. image b. retrospection c. judgment d. memory Ans: d Cognitive Domain: Comprehension Answer Location: Introduction to the Study of Memory Difficulty Level: Medium 13. Name the type of evidence that is a product of verifiable scientific research. a. empirical b. modified c. stratified d. scientific Ans: a Cognitive Domain: Knowledge Answer Location: The Science of Memory Difficulty Level: Easy 14. Which term describes the verbal models of how memory works? a. memory metaphors b. developmental reasoning c. memory cues d. stimulation Ans: a Cognitive Domain: Knowledge Answer Location: The History of Memory Research Difficulty Level: Easy 15. Choose the term that best describes avoidance to effects of meaning on memory. a. chunking b. nonsense syllables c. absolute resolution d. saving curve Ans: b Cognitive Domain: Comprehension Answer Location: Hermann Ebbinghaus (1850–1909) Difficulty Level: Medium 16. What term best describes a graph that traces the decline of memory? a. savings score b. forgetting curve c. mnemonic improvement d. retention graph Ans: b Cognitive Domain: Comprehension Answer Location: Hermann Ebbinghaus (1850–1909) Difficulty Level: Medium 17. What term best describes reduction in time required to relearn a previously mastered list? a. forgetting curve b. savings score c. mnemonic graph d. retention graph Ans: b Cognitive Domain: Comprehension Answer Location: Hermann Ebbinghaus (1850–1909) Difficulty Level: Medium 18. Identify the term for studying after material has been thoroughly learned. a. overload b. spacing c. massed d. overlearning Ans: d Cognitive Domain: Knowledge Answer Location: Mnemonic Improvement Tip 1.1 Difficulty Level: Easy 19. Define the term for study occurring in one block of time. a. nonspaced practice b. overload practice c. distributed practice d. massed practice Ans: d Cognitive Domain: Knowledge Answer Location: Mnemonic Improvement Tip 1.2 Difficulty Level: Easy 20. What type of operation indicates study spread out over time? a. overload practice b. massed practice c. nonspaced practice d. distributed practice Ans: d Cognitive Domain: Knowledge Answer Location: Mnemonic Improvement Tip 1.2 Difficulty Level: Easy 21. Define the term indicating the associating between two items, such as in language. a. paired-associated learning b. language association c. association by indication d. associated language Ans: a Cognitive Domain: Comprehension Answer Location: Mary Calkins (1863–1930) Difficulty Level: Medium 22. Which of the following indicates memory from personal events in one’s life? a. episodic memory b. semantic memory c. comprehensive memory d. associated memory Ans: a Cognitive Domain: Knowledge Answer Location: Endel Tulving (1927–) Difficulty Level: Easy 23. Which of the following indicates memory for facts? a. system memory b. semantic memory c. episodic memory d. associated memory Ans: b Cognitive Domain: Knowledge Answer Location: Endel Tuliving (1927–) Difficulty Level: Easy 24. An independent variable can only be measured by the relationship between itself and what other variable? a. direct b. dependant c. response d. random Ans: b Cognitive Domain: Comprehension Answer Location: Methods of Studying Memory Difficulty Level: Medium 25. Mary Calkins was involved with what type of study? a. paired-associate learning b. memory comprehension c. free recall d. recognition quotients Ans: a Cognitive Domain: Comprehension Answer Location: Mary Calkins (1863–1930) Difficulty Level: Medium 26. Which view of Psychology recognizes the nature of environmental stimuli and its influence on individuals and animals ? a. empericalism b. behaviorism c. memory d. cognitive perception Ans: b Cognitive Domain: Comprehension Answer Location: Behaviorism Difficulty Level: Medium 27. You witnessed a crime and the police asks you to describe as much as you can about the crime. Which test of memory will be used? a. recognition test b. recall test c. reactive test d. responsibility test Ans: b Cognitive Domain: Comprehension Answer Location: Recall Difficulty Level: Medium 28. Ratings we make concerning our memory recall process are identified as: a. memory intervention rating. b. implicit judgment. c. recall rating. d. metamemory judgments. Ans: d Cognitive Domain: Comprehension Answer Location: Metamemory Judgments Difficulty Level: Medium 29. Endel Tulving is associated with what type of memory? a. episodic/semantic b. long-term/short-term c. recall/recognition d. cognitive/behavioral Ans: a Cognitive Domain: Comprehension Answer Location: Endel Tulving (1927–) Difficulty Level: Medium 30. Which view of Psychology is most consistent with long-term and short-term memory? a. behaviorism b. humanistic c. gestalt d. cognitive Ans: a Cognitive Domain: Comprehension Answer Location: Behaviorism Difficulty Level: Medium 31. The reduction in the amount of time used to relearn a previously mastered list is known as: a. savings score. b. episodic memory score. c. recall score. d. list recognition score. Ans: a Cognitive Domain: Knowledge Answer Location: Hermann Ebbinghaus (1850–1909) Difficulty Level: Easy 32. Although he was also known for his work with memory measurements, Ebbinghaus is also accredited with an even broader study of human memory. Considering his life work, what is this broader study? a. designing the first studies on human memory b. designing a flash card system for memorization c. explaining the forgetting and savings graphs d. dream interpretation as it relates to memory Ans: a Cognitive Domain: Application Answer Location: Hermann Ebbinghaus (1850–1909) Difficulty Level: Hard 33. A research scientist wants to observe the nonconscious aspects of memory. The test subject will not be conscious of being tested. What kind of test would the scientist give to observe the results? a. source judgment test b. implicit memory test c. recall memory test d. recognition review test Ans: b Cognitive Domain: Application Answer Location: Implicit Memory Tests Difficulty Level: Hard 34. Memory for the things we need to know in the future is known as: a. wishful memory. b. prospective memory. c. perspective memory. d. possibilities memory. Ans: b Cognitive Domain: Knowledge Answer Location: Mnemonic Improvement Tip 1.3 Difficulty Level: Easy 35. Learning and remembering are a practice known as: a. empirical processes. b. cued recall processes. c. passive processes. d. active processes. Ans: d Cognitive Domain: Comprehension Answer Location: Themes for the Book Difficulty Level: Medium 36. Learning and remembering have biological and what other basis? a. behavioristic b. cognitive c. genetic d. neurological Ans: d Cognitive Domain: Comprehension Answer Location: Themes for the Book Difficulty Level: Medium 37. We all have need of memory for events, language, geography, surroundings, music, and many other things in our lives. To compensate for this basic need, what does memory have that makes all of these memory tasks possible? a. chemicals b. behaviors c. components d. recalls Ans: c Cognitive Domain: Comprehension Answer Location: Themes for the Book Difficulty Level: Medium 38. Which technique is currently the state of the art neuroimaging and provides appliable insight into the workings of the brain for memory, emotion, and human thinking? a. TMS b. MEG c. fMRI d. PPT Ans: c Cognitive Domain: Application Answer Location: Transmagnetic Stimulation (TMS) Difficulty Level: Hard 39. A researcher needs to identify changes in specific regions of the brain after an automobile accident. The technician uses a magnetic coil to electrically stimulate particular areas of the brain to determine problems. What type of changes does this stimulation cause? a. behavioral b. pulse c. cognitive d. memory Ans: c Cognitive Domain: Application Answer Location: Transmagnetic Stimulation (TMS) Difficulty Level: Hard 40. A researcher needs to observe a three-dimensional image of a patient’s brain to detect a brain tumor. He needs to be sure of the current structure and function of the brain to rule out other problems. What type of imagery must the researcher use? a. fMRI b. MEG c. PET d. EEG Ans: a Cognitive Domain: Application Answer Location: Neuroimaging Difficulty Level: Hard 41. A researcher needs to see a three-dimensional image of an intact brain after a traumatic injury. The blood flow is of importance due to the injury. Which type of imagery will the researcher most likely use? a. fMRI b. EEG c. PET d. MEG Ans: c Cognitive Domain: Application Answer Location: Neuroimaging Difficulty Level: Hard 42. A researcher needs to know the electrical output of the brain in a patient. The patient has recently experienced a traumatic and the readings obtained will be used to create an ERP. Which type of imaging with the researcher use? a. fMRI b. EEG c. MEG d. PET Ans: b Cognitive Domain: Application Answer Location: Neuroimaging Difficulty Level: Hard 43. A researcher needs to see a good representation of a compromise between good spatial resolution and good temporal resolution. Which imagery equipment should the researcher use? a. MEG b. PET c. fMRI d. EEG Ans: a Cognitive Domain: Application Answer Location: Neuroimaging Difficulty Level: Hard 44. To study items related to future memory to improve our memory efficiency while using predictions to accomplish this task is known as: a. retrieval learning. b. maximized efficiency. c. cued memory. d. judgments of learning. Ans: d Cognitive Domain: Comprehension Answer Location: Metamemory Judgments Difficulty Level: Medium 45. Memory for things we need to do in the future is known as: a. introspective memory. b. prospective memory. c. convex memory. d. cued memory. Ans: b Cognitive Domain: knowledge Answer Location: Mnemonic Improvement Tip 1.3 Difficulty Level: Easy 46. Frederic Bartlett disagreed with behaviorism. Instead, he argued that: a. memory is composed of compartments. b. memory is exact in all forms. c. meaning of memory is focused on stimuli. d. meaning of memory is exact in all forms. Ans: c Cognitive Domain: Comprehension Answer Location: Frederic Bartlett (1886–1969) Difficulty Level: Medium 47. Cognitive Neuroscience is the study of the brain in: a. aspects of thinking. b. identifying thought. c. producing cognition. d. memory production. Ans: c Cognitive Domain: Knowledge Answer Location: Cognitive Neuroscience Difficulty Level: Easy 48. Elizabeth Lofus is best known for her work in the area of: a. cognitive neuroscience. b. eyewitness memory. c. spacial recognition. d. episodic distribution. Ans: b Cognitive Domain: Knowledge Answer Location: Elizabeth Loftus (1944–) Difficulty Level: Easy 49. Which of the following systems did Elizabeth bring eyewitness memory error to? a. legal b. memory c. Stafford d. Psychological Ans: a Cognitive Domain: knowledge Answer Location: Elizabeth Loftus (1944-) Difficulty Level: Easy 50. Neuroimaging allows scientist to do four things: a. learns, remembers, scores, and recalls. b. communicates, contemplates, scores, and recalls. c. learns, remembers, communicates, and contemplates. d. contemplates, remembers, scores, and recalls. Ans: c Cognitive Domain: Comprehension Answer Location: Cognitive Neuroscience Difficulty Level: medium 51. If more learning occurs when study trials on the same information are spread out over time than when they occur successively, it is attributed to: a. paired-associate effect. b. recency effect. c. cognition effect. d. spacing effect. Ans: d Cognitive Domain: Comprehension Answer Location: Mnemonic Improvement Tip 1.2 Difficulty Level: Medium 52. In an experiment, the researcher controls which variable? a. independent b. dependant c. reactive d. random Ans: a Cognitive Domain: Knowledge Answer Location: Methods of Studying Memory Difficulty Level: Easy 53. Factors that are manipulated across different conditions are called: a. dependant b. independent c. direct d. indirect Ans: b Cognitive Domain: Knowledge Answer Location: Methods of Studying Memory Difficulty Level: Easy 54. Variables that measure response in an experiment are called: a. dependant variables. b. independent variables. c. random variables. d. mixed variables. Ans: a Cognitive Domain: Knowledge Answer Location: Methods of Studying Memory Difficulty Level: Easy 55. In an experiment, all horses are given a special food designed to hold down their weight. A random selection of the horses are kept in one area and receive one hour of exercise daily, while the remaining horses are kept separately and receive four hours of exercise daily. The researcher measures the weight change in all horses after one month of eating the special food, to see if the food has had any consequences regarding weight of the horses. Which variable does the sample of horses limited to one hour of exercise daily represent? a. dependant b. independent c. random d. reflective Ans: a Cognitive Domain: Analysis Answer Location: Methods of Studying Memory Difficulty Level: Hard 56. In the above experiment, what represents the independent variable? a. the horses receiving four hours of exercise b. the horses receiving one hour of exercise c. the special food d. the type of exercise Ans: a Cognitive Domain: Analysis Answer Location: Methods of Studying Memory Difficulty Level: Hard 57. In the above experiment, what does the food represent? a. the independent variable b. the dependant variable c. the random variable d. the experimental variable Ans: a Cognitive Domain: Analysis Answer Location: Methods of Studying Memory Difficulty Level: Hard 58. In a double-blind experiment, who knows what condition the participant is in? a. both the experimenter and the participant b. neither the experimenter nor the participant c. only the experimenter d. only the participant Ans: b Cognitive Domain: Knowledge Answer Location: Methods of Studying Memory Difficulty Level: Easy 59. What is it called when a person must generate a targeted memory based on cues, without seeing or hearing the actual target memory? a. recall b. free recall c. blind recall d. experimental recall Ans: a Cognitive Domain: Knowledge Answer Location: Memory Measures Difficulty Level: Easy 60. What is it called when a person must generate memories with minimal or no cuing of the memory? a. recall b. cued recall c. free recall d. disassociated recall Ans: c Cognitive Domain: Knowledge Answer Location: Memory Measures Difficulty Level: Easy 61. What is it called when a person is given a specific cue and must generate a target memory that corresponds to that cue? a. experimental recall b. disassociated recall c. free recall d. cued recall Ans: d Cognitive Domain: Knowledge Answer Location: Memory Measures Difficulty Level: Easy 62. Tests that draw on the non-conscious aspects of memory are called: a. implicit memory tests. b. explicit memory tests. c. free memory tests. d. recognition memory tests. Ans: a Cognitive Domain: Knowledge Answer Location: Implicit Memory Tests Difficulty Level: Easy 63. Identifying the answers from among a series of possible answers is which type of recognition? a. forced-choice recognition b. recall recognition c. free recall recognition d. timed recognition Ans: a Cognitive Domain: Knowledge Answer Location: Recognition Difficulty Level: Easy 64. When a person must decide whether or not an item was on the study list is called: a. old/new recognition. b. free recognition. c. forced memory. d. dependant recall. Ans: a Cognitive Domain: Knowledge Answer Location: Recognition Difficulty Level: Easy 65. When identification is required of a target memory from a set of presented items, it is called: a. learning. b. required study. c. required recognition. d. recognition. Ans: d Cognitive Domain: Knowledge Answer Location: Recognition Difficulty Level: Easy 66. The measured amount of time required to perform a task is known as: a. reaction time. b. performing time. c. recognition time. d. generated time. Ans: a Cognitive Domain: Knowledge Answer Location: Reaction Time Difficulty Level: Easy 67. A participant in an experiment was given a specific set of instructions. The participant recalls that the instructions were given in a pamphlet and not by the experimenter. This information was recalled by the participant at the beginning of the experiment. What is the term attributed to this type of memory? a. source judgment b. recall recognition c. memory recognition d. recitable recognition Ans: a Cognitive Domain: Analysis Answer Location: Source Judgments Difficulty Level: Hard 68. You wakened from a dream and were sure an event took place. You even recognized everything you saw in your dream. Two days later you told a friend about your dream and were sure the event took place inreal life. Your ability to determine if the memory of the dream is real or imagined is termed: a. factual recall. b. implicit monitoring. c. reality monitoring. d. cued recall. Ans: c Cognitive Domain: Analysis Answer Location: Source Judgments Difficulty Level: Hard 69. In a visit to a police station to provide a statement concerning your witnessing a crime, you were asked to identify the mug shots in a book in the hopes of identifying a criminal involved in the crime. The policeman asks you if you are able to identify anyone in the pictures you were shown. You stated that you are sure a certain person was the culprit. The policeman asked you if you were sure. You replied that you never forget a face. This awareness of your ability to identify faces is termed: a. metamemory. b. judgment calls. c. reality monitoring. d. explicit memory. Ans: a Cognitive Domain: Analysis Answer Location: Metamemory Judgments Difficulty Level: Hard 70. You were asked to complete a number of tasks by your employer. Each task required that you remember a specific sequence of operation if you were to complete the tasks on time. You wanted to be sure you finished on time so you could accomplish your own list of personal jobs you must accomplish later. Predicting the likelihood that you would remember all the things you needed to do later is known as: a. judgments of learning. b. metacognition. c. cued sequence. d. monitored learning. Ans: a Cognitive Domain: Analysis Answer Location: Metamemory Judgments Difficulty Level: Hard 71. Both PET and fMRI technologies rely on: a. the fact that active areas of the brain have higher metabolic rates and require greater blood flow. b. response time to active areas of electrical impulses. c. usage of radioactive chemicals. d. usage of magnets. Ans: a Cognitive Domain: Analysis Answer Location: Neuroimaging Difficulty Level: Hard 72. Metamemory means: a. our awareness and experience of our own memory processes. b. our ability to recall semantic information. c. our ability to recall implicit information. d. our awareness of structures that constitute memory. Ans: a Cognitive Domain: Knowledge Answer Location: Memory Judgments Difficulty Level: Easy 73. William has had serious brain damage due to an accident. He seems to be able to remember details of the accident but his head feels swollen and he has a loss of significant blood. What type of neuroimaging will the doctor most probably use first? a. PET b. fMRI c. MEG d. EEG Ans: b Cognitive Domain: Analysis Answer Location: Neuroimaging Difficulty Level: Hard 74. A Psychologist is testing a client to see if the client has differences in memory performance even when the client can remember words of a list at 100% accuracy. One way of testing would be to record: a. old-new recognition. b. cued recall data. c. reaction time data. d. forced choice recognition. Ans: c Cognitive Domain: Analysis Answer Location: Memory Measures Difficulty Level: Hard 75. Which of the following statements about neuroimaging is false? a. Neuroimaging allows correlation of brain activity. b. Neuroimaging addresses cognitive issues. c. All neuroimaging technologies utilize magnets. d. Neuroimaging addresses correlation of brain activity with memory. Ans: c Cognitive Domain: Comprehension Answer Location: Neuroimaging Difficulty Level: Medium 76. Ebbinghaus demonstrated that: a. overlearning can improve subsequent saving scores. b. overlearning does not generalize. c. overlearning is an inefficient use of study time. d. overlearning requires extreme concentration and should be avoided. Ans: a Cognitive Domain: Comprehension Answer Location: Mnemonic Improvement Tip 1.1 Difficulty Level: Medium 77. Mary Calkins is known for her research on: a. overlearning. b. savings scores. c. eyewitness memory. d. paired-associate learning. Ans: d Cognitive Domain: Comprehension Answer Location: Mary Calkins (1863–1930) Difficulty Level: Medium 78. Frederic Bartlett disagreed with behaviorists and Ebbinghous because he theorized that: a. meaning is intrinsically linked to memory. b. memory is composed of multiple systems. c. overlearning encodes multiple systems. d. there is no reality in intrinsic memory. Ans: a Cognitive Domain: Comprehension Answer Location: Frederick Bartlett (1886–1969) Difficulty Level: Medium 79. Endel Tulving promoted and contributed to the: a. return of behaviorism. b. ecological validity in paired association. c. historic approach to cognition. d. the cognitive neuroscience approach to memory. Ans: d Cognitive Domain: Comprehension Answer Location: Endel Tulving (1927–) Difficulty Level: Medium 80. EEG records the: a. sum total of electrical output of the brain. b. thoughts and feelings by color representation. c. amount of blood flow. d. metabolic rate by xrays. Ans: a Cognitive Domain: Knowledge Answer Location: EEG (electroencephalography) Difficulty Level: Easy True/False 1. Empirical evidence is evidence by a collection of witnesses. Ans: F Cognitive Domain: Knowledge Answer Location: The Science of Memory Difficulty Level: Easy 2. The goal of memory science is to make generalizations of how memory works in reality than studying it carefully in a controlled lab. Ans: T Cognitive Domain: Knowledge Answer Location: The Science of Memory Difficulty Level: Easy 3. Nonsense syllables avoid the effects of meaning on memory. Ans: T Cognitive Domain: Knowledge Answer Location: Hermann Ebbinghaus (1850–1909) Difficulty Level: Easy 4. To master memory without intrinsic meaning, continuing to study it will not insure long-term memory if restudy is reduced. Ans: F Cognitive Domain: Analysis Answer Location: Mnemonic Improvement Tip 1.1 Difficulty Level: Hard 5. Data points on the savings score will naturally coincide with the lines on a forgetting curve. Ans: F Cognitive Domain: Analysis Answer Location: Hermann Ebbinghaus (1850–1909) Difficulty Level: Hard 6. The recency effect results in the maintenance of working memory. Ans: T Cognitive Domain: Comprehension Answer Location: Mary Calkins (1863–1930) Difficulty Level: Medium 7. Paired-associate learning is the association between two items. Ans: T Cognitive Domain: Knowledge Answer Location: Mary Calkins (1863–1930) Difficulty Level: Easy 8. Classical conditioning is learning a relationship that exists between a stimulus and an outcome. Ans: T Cognitive Domain: Knowledge Answer Location: Behaviorism Difficulty Level: Easy 9. Operant conditioning is learned response to a stimulus. Ans: T Cognitive Domain: Knowledge Answer Location: Behaviorism Difficulty Level: Easy 10. Metamemory is a judgment of memory. Ans: F Cognitive Domain: Knowledge Answer Location: Metamemory Judgments Difficulty Level: Easy 11. Reality monitoring is the ability to distinguish a real event from an imagined event. Ans: T Cognitive Domain: Knowledge Answer Location: Source Judgment Difficulty Level: Easy 12. Neuropsychology is the study of memory. Ans: F Cognitive Domain: Knowledge Answer Location: Neuropsychology Difficulty Level: Easy 13. Determining if a word appeared in a list of words is termed free recall. Ans: F Cognitive Domain: Comprehension Answer Location: Metamemory Judgments Difficulty Level: Medium 14. Judgments of learning are predictions rather than memories. Ans: T Cognitive Domain: Comprehension Answer Location: Metamemory Judgments Difficulty Level: Medium 15. Brain stimulation causes cognitive changes. Ans: T Cognitive Domain: Knowledge Answer Location: Transmagnetic Stimulation (TMS) Difficulty Level: Easy Short Answer 1. Memory forms a sense of self and ______. Ans: personality Cognitive Domain: Comprehension Answer Location: Introduction to the Study of Memory Difficulty Level: Medium 2. Data must be ______ and repeatable. Ans: verifiable Cognitive Domain: Comprehension Answer Location: The Science of Memory Difficulty Level: Medium 3. Memory ______ are verbal models of how memory works. Ans: metaphors Cognitive Domain: Comprehension Answer Location: The History of Memory Research Difficulty Level: Medium 4. A retention interval equals the time transpired between learning and ______. Ans: recall Cognitive Domain: Comprehension Answer Location: Hermann Ebbinghus (1850–1909) Difficulty Level: Medium 5. Mary Calkins studied the nature of associative learning, or how we pair new knowledge to ______ knowledge. Ans: existing Cognitive Domain: Comprehension Answer Location: Mary Calkins (1863–1930) Difficulty Level: Medium 6. The ______ effect is the observation that memory is usually superior for items at the end of a list. Ans: regency Cognitive Domain: Comprehension Answer Location: Mary Calkins (1863–1930) Difficulty Level: Medium 7. Metamemory is our knowledge and ______ of our own memory process. Ans: awareness Cognitive Domain: Comprehension Answer Location: Metamemory Judgments Difficulty Level: Medium 8. Usually, in memory experiments, metamemory judgment refers to whether we think we can learn or retrieve on a particular item. Thus, judgments of ______ are predictions of the likelihood of remembering studied items. Ans: learning Cognitive Domain: Comprehension Answer Location: Metamemory Judgments Difficulty Level: Medium 9. In many patients, the study of brain damage is too wide, diffused, or minor to be of interest to neuropsychologists. However, if brain damage is relatively ______, whatever behavior changes that occur can be linked to that area of the brain. Ans: restricted Cognitive Domain: Comprehension Answer Location: Neuropsychology Difficulty Level: Medium 10. Predictions we make as we study items of the likelihood that we will remember them later are ______ of learning. Ans: judgments Cognitive Domain: Comprehension Answer Location: Metamemory Judgments Difficulty Level: Medium Essay 1. Explain the differences between the dependant and the independent and their function. Ans: Dependant does not change. Independent is measured. Cognitive Domain: Analysis Answer Location: Methods of Studying Memory Difficulty Level: Hard 2. Explain the relationship between source judgments and reality monitoring. Ans: Source judgments are specific. Reality monitoring distinguishes whether an event is real or imagined event. Cognitive Domain: Analysis Answer Location: Source Judgments Difficulty Level: Hard 3. Explain in what way metamemory effects our memory. Ans: It affects our memory through knowledge and awareness of our own memory processes. Cognitive Domain: Analysis Answer Location: Metamemory Judgments Difficulty Level: Hard 4. Describe the importance of Transmagnetic Stimulation (TMS). Ans: Stimulation causes cognitive changes. Cognitive Domain: Analysis Answer Location: Transmagnetic Stimulation Difficulty Level: Hard 5. Describe the Spacing Effect of mnemonic improvement. Ans: Learning occurs when the same information is spread over time. Cognitive Domain: Comprehension Answer Location: Mnemonic Improvement Tip 1.2 Difficulty Level: Medium 6. Explain the relationship between paired-associate learning and the regency effect. Ans: Paired is relationship between two items whereas regency indicates memory over time. Cognitive Domain: Comprehension Answer Location: Mary Calkins (1863–1930) Difficulty Level: Medium 7. Describe the importance of Endel Tulving’s work. Ans: Proponent of episodic and semantic memory involving multiple systems. Cognitive Domain: Analysis Answer Location: Endel Tulving (1927–) Difficulty Level: Hard 8. Explain the difference between Classical and Operant Conditioning. Ans: Classical is behavior by learning whereas Operant is learning by response. Cognitive Domain: Knowledge Answer Location: Behaviorism Difficulty Level: Easy 9. Explain the importance of empirical evidence. Ans: Data must be verifiable and reliable. Cognitive Domain: Knowledge Answer Location: The Science of Memory Difficulty Level: Easy

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