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PATHO 2410 (PATHO2410)Regulation/Metabolism Test Bank

egulation/Metabolism (CP #2) Test Bank Chapter 2 1. Choose the correct proportion of water to body weight to be expected in a healthy male adult’s body: a. 30% b. 45% c. 60% d. 70% 2. Choose the correct proportion of blood (to body weight) in an adult male’s body: a. 30% b. 20% c. 10% d. 4% 3. Insensible fluid loss refers to water lost through: a. Perspiration only b. Feces only c. Perspiration and expiration d. Urine and feces 4. When the osmotic pressure of the blood is elevated above normal, water would shift from the: a. Blood into the cells b. Interstitial compartment into the cells c. Interstitial compartment into the blood d. Cells into the interstitial compartment 5. Which of the following would result from a deficit of plasma proteins? a. Increased osmotic pressure b. Decreased osmotic pressure c. Increased hydrostatic pressure d. Decreased hydrostatic pressure 6. Which of the following would cause edema? a. Decreased capillary hydrostatic pressure b. Increased capillary osmotic pressure c. Decreased capillary permeability d. Increased capillary permeability 7. Which of the following would likely be related to an elevated hematocrit reading? a. Fluid excess b. Fluid deficit c. Increased sodium level d. Decreased electrolytes 8. Which of the following is a typical sign of dehydration? a. Rapid, strong pulse b. Low hematocrit c. Increased urine output d. Rough oral mucosa 9. Which of the following terms refers to a combination of decreased circulating blood volume combined with excess fluid in a body cavity? a. Dehydration b. Third-spacing c. Hypovolemia d. Water retention 10. Which of the following is the primary cation in the extracellular fluid? a. Sodium b. Potassium c. Calcium d. Iron 11. Which of the following is a common cause of hyponatremia? a. Loss of the thirst mechanism b. Excessive sweating c. Excessive aldosterone secretion d. Prolonged period of rapid, deep respirations 12. Which of the following is a common effect of both hypokalemia and hyperkalemia? a. Skeletal muscle twitch and cramps b. Oliguria c. Elevated serum pH d. Cardiac arrhythmias 13. Choose the correct effect of increased parathyroid hormone. a. Increased movement of calcium ions into the bones b. Increased activation of vitamin D c. Increased absorption of calcium from the digestive tract d. Decreased reabsorption of calcium in the kidneys 14. Which of the following results from hypocalcemia? (Select all that apply) a. Low serum phosphate levels b. Nausea and constipation c. Skeletal muscle twitch and spasms d. Weak cardiac contractions 15. Which of the following causes tetany? a. Increased permeability of nerve membranes due to low serum calcium b. Excess calcium ions in skeletal muscle due to excess parathyroid hormone (PTH) c. Excess calcium ions inside somatic nerves as a result of neoplasms d. Increased stimulation of the nerves in the cerebral cortex 16. In which of the following processes is phosphate ion NOT a major component? a. Bone metabolism b. Metabolic processes involving adenosine triphosphate (ATP) c. Blood clotting d. Acid-base balance 17. Which of the following would be considered normal serum pH? a. 4.5-8 b. 7.0 c. 7.4 d. 8 18. When many excess hydrogen ions accumulate in the blood, what happens to serum pH? The pH: a. Decreases b. Increases c. Remains constant d. Varies based on metabolism 19. What is the slowest but most effective control for acid-base balance? a. Respiratory system b. Buffer systems in the blood c. Kidneys d. Brain 20. Which of the following is essential in order to maintain serum pH within normal range? a. Carbonic acid and bicarbonate ion must be present in equal quantities. b. All excess carbonic acid must be excreted by the kidneys. c. The concentration of bicarbonate ion must remain constant. d. The ratio of carbonic acid to bicarbonate ion must be 1:20. 21. Which is the correct effect on the body of abnormally slow respirations? a. Increased carbonic acid b. Decreased carbonic acid c. Increased bicarbonate ion d. Decreased bicarbonate ion 22. Which condition is likely to cause metabolic acidosis? a. Slow, shallow respirations b. Prolonged diarrhea c. Mild vomiting d. Excessive fluid in the body

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