Summary Politics of the EU Assigned Articles Overview
Summary of Politics of the EU IRO course containing the reading material:
-The Government and Politics of the EU
- European Governance and Policy Making: A Canadian Perspective
Next, to this two overviews are added containing the EU internal structure and a brief history of the Eu and its treaties
UPDATE: I added new information in red on EEAS, COREPER and QMV
UPDATE: I added an overview of the articles assigned. Just a quick list of important topics to get a grasp of what the article is about. so not too in-depth
Grade 10-12 IEB Visual Art Theory
My Visual Art Portfolio was 93% and I received a Distinction for Visual Art in Matric. These are the notes I study from. Notes also Applicable for Gr10-11.
Pack contains summaries on the Art Movements as well as Examples of Works from each movement. It also includes notes on Visual Lit/Analysis. Movements include; Dada, Surrealism, Abstract Expressionism, Pop Art, Photo/Superrealsim, Minimalism, Conceptual art, Resistance Art and Post 1994 Art. Notes on Works include facts about the artwork and possible arguments that can be made when used in Essays.
Please still do Research on your own Works and Movements. These are merely guidelines and not to be quoted/parroted.
Copy en Art 7,8 portfolio eindproducten: Becel, Buienblouse, Vegan Roockworst
Copy en Art portfolio die is gemaakt in periode 3, jaar 1, van studie Communicatie op Inholland. Cijfer was 7,8 en de eindopdrachten waren voor Becel, Buienblouse en Vegan Roockworst
Samenvatting Minor Community Art
Summary of the curriculum for the exam of the minor Community Art. This summary contains: all lecture notes, summary 'Community Art The politics or trespassing' by Pascal Gielen & Paul de Bruyne, summary of Use or Ornament by Matarasso, summary of Art in transition. In addition, all learning objectives are highlighted in red, and the 'answers' to these learning goals are highlighted in blue. This makes it extra clear what needs to be learned. Most of the summary is in English, but sometimes there is also an explanation in Dutch.
Cultural Celebration and Survival: The Early 20 th Century Part II
Cultural Celebration and Survival: The Early 20 th Century Part II
Early 20th-Century Mexican-American Artists
At the end of the 19th century, two Mexican-American communities existed
together in the American West. One community was made up of a small
contingent of families of Mexican heritage that continued to own land in the
United States after the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, the Gold Rush, and the
expansion west of white, Anglo settlers. The other community was composed of
recent immigrants coming north to work mainly in the agricultural fields, though
they also found jobs in mining and building extensions to the railroad. The
Exclusion Act in the 1880s had removed a valuable source of cheap labor, the
Chinese, in the West. Meanwhile, the Mexican/American border was left open and
mostly unpatrolled (until 1924 when a patrol started mostly in an effort to stop
Chinese from entering through Mexico). Fleeing poverty and government
corruption in Mexico, many workers hoped for a new life in the American
Southwest. After all, the Southwest was a place of familiarity and comfort.
Previously a part of Mexico, it still lingered in the minds of Mexican workers as a
place open to their culture. As part of the United States, the Southwest offered
more opportunities than Mexico then undergoing a revolution
Mexican-American painter Manuel Valencia (1856-1935) came from a family that
had been established in the San Francisco Bay area since the 18
Manuel Valencia, Santa Barbara
Mission at Night, Early 20th c.
By means of the Mission Myth, the region’s boosters recast California’s
mission history in glorifying terms and whitewashed the Spaniards’ gross
mistreatment and colonization of Native Americans, thereby supplying
tourists and displaced newcomers with a comforting, shared vision of a golden
Mexican Workers: Wanted, Unwanted
Unlike the romantic image of Mexico’s past presented in paintings of the Missions
of California, Mexico at the end of the 19th century was a place on the verge of
turmoil and revolution.
.Xavier Martinez, Afternoon in
Porfirio Salinas, Bluebonnets, 1956.
Antonio García, Woman Before a
Antonio García (1901- 1997), another Mexican-American artist who managed to
receive a moderate amount of recognition in the early 20th century, was born in
Monterrey, Mexico, and came with his family to the U.S. in 1913 because of the
Antonio García, La Virgen de
Guadalupe, c. 1940s.
Octavio Medellín, Indian Woman,
Toltec Columns from Tula, Mexico,
c. 900-1200 CE
Octavio Medellín, History of Mexico, 1949.
Mexican Artists Come to the United States: The WPA Era
Despite the American deportation of many Mexican workers and families, the
1930s was a time when artistic exchange between artists from the U.S. and
Mexico was common. A Mexican School of artists that developed in response to
the Revolution and the following political climate in Mexico inspired artists
working north of the border both in terms of the social content of their art and
their approach to modernism. American artists were also drawn to Pre-Columbian
Because the making of murals was
considered a Pre-Columbian revival and because there were a number of largescale mural programs created, the period of the 1920s has been called the Mexican
Mural Renaissance or the Mexican Mural Movement
Diego Rivera, detail, Night of the Rich,
184 Diego Rivera, detail, Night of the Poor,
José Guadalupe Posada, La Catrina
Diego Rivera, Portrait of Detroit,
Diego Rivera, The Making of a
Fresco Showing the Building of a
In The Making of a Fresco Showing the Building of a City, Rivera brought
together scenes of fresco painting with sculptors and builders at work constructing
a city. He showed himself from behind, seated on a scaffold at work. (Illustration
187) Done as a kind of trompe l’oeil (“fool the eye,” an optical illusion), the
fresco represents the making of a fresco, as the title suggests. As in many of his
other murals, Rivera celebrated the common worker, even placing himself
alongside the builders. He included not only the builders, but his own assistants
and those involved with making the fresco
José Clemente Orozco, detail,
The Epic of American Civilization, 1932-
José Clemente Orozco, detail,
The Epic of American Civilization, 1932-
José Clemente Orozco, Allegory of
Frida Kahlo, My Grandparents, My
Parents and I, 1936.
Frida Kahlo, Frida and Diego, 1931
Frida Kahlo, Self-portrait Dedicated
to Dr. Eloesser
Building Upon Tradition, Creating New Visions: Native American
Artists and the Continuation of the Reservation Era
Japanese Americans in the internment camps were taught white American cultural
values in schools and through programs and activities. In a similar way, Native
American family life in the 20th century was one surrounded by governmentsponsored education, pushing assimilation. This was while most Native
Americans lived on reservations, mostly segregated from white American
George Ros, Corn Katsina Doll,
Ceremonial Arts: Kachinas / Katsinas
Whether or not ceremonial materials should be collected by non-Pueblo people
and how such material should be handled and exhibited in museums are critical
ethical issues in the field of Native American art history and museum studies
Julian Martinez, Pottery design, Early
“Modern” Pueblo Painting and the Studio Style
197. Julian Martinez, Pottery design, Early
At the start of the 20th century, some Pueblo artists answered both the tourist and
scholarly demand for acquiring cultural objects by creating drawings or paintings
depicting kachinas, ceremonialism and other aspects of culture, such as pottery
Fred Kabotie, Kachina Dance, 1921.
Fred Kabotie, Mixed Kachina Dance,
Assimilation, not into our culture but into modern life, and preservation and
intensification of heritage are not hostile choices, excluding one another, but
are interdependent through and through.36
Collier’s new approach included self-government for Native reservations and
helped Native peoples find economic support through arts and crafts, establishing
the Indian Arts and Crafts Board in 1935.
. Pablita Velarde, Santa Clara Corn
Tradition and Innovation in Southwest Pottery
Fannie Nampeyo, Seed Jar, Early 20th
Maria and Julian Martinez with
their work in the 1930s
Maria Martinez, Black-on-Black
Stephanie Barron, Sheri Bernstein and Ilene Susan Fort, eds., Made In California: Art, Image, and Identity, 1900-2000
(L. A. : Los Angeles County Museum of Art, 2000), 91.
2 Ibid, 86-94.
3 Ibid, 90.
4 Ibid, 94.
Nancy Dustin Wall Moure, California Art: 450 Years of Painting and Other Media (L.A.: Dustin Publications, 1998),
Julian Samora and Patricia Vandel Simon, A History of the Mexican-American People (Notre Dame: University of NotreCopyright © 2006 C, Cadge-Moore All rights reserved. 231
Dame Press, 1993), 121.
Frances Pohl, Framing America: A Social History of American Art (N.Y.: Thames and Hudson, 2002), 337.
Ronald Takaki, A Different Mirror: A History of Multicultural America (N.Y.: Back Bay Books, 1993), 317.
Jacinto Quirarte, Mexican American Artists (Austin: University of Texas Press, 1973), 56-57.
Jacinto Quirarte, “Mexican and Mexican American Artists: 1920-1970” in The Latin American Spirit: Art and Artists in
the United States, 1920-1970 (N.Y.: Abrams, Inc., 1988), 41. See also Quirarte, Mexican American Artists, 44, 47.
Quirarte, Mexican American Artists, 50.
Armando Navarro, Mexicano Political Experience in Occupied Aztlán (Walnut Creek: Altamira Press, 2005), 185.
Takaki, A Different Mirror, 334.
Peter Selz, “The Impact from Abroad: Foreign Guests and Visitors” in On the Edge of America: California Modernist
Art, 1900-1950. Paul J. Karlstrom, ed. (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1996), 103.
15 Sharon F. Patton, African-American Art (N.Y. : Oxford University Press, 1998), 127.
Gray Brechin, “Politics and Modernism: The Trial of the Rincon Annex Murals” in On the Edge of America: California
Modernist Art, 1900-1950. Paul J. Karlstrom, ed. (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1996), 72.
Quirarte, “Mexican and Mexican American Artists: 1920-1970,” 26.
All three murals exist today – see , .
Quirarte, “Mexican and Mexican American Artists: 1920-1970,” 26.
Desmond Rochfort, Mexican Muralists: Orozco, Rivera and Siqueiros (London: L. King, 1993), 164.
Max Benavidez, “Chicano Art: Culture, Myth, and Sensibility” in Chicano Visions: American Painters on the Verge.
Cheech Marin, ed. (Boston: Bulfinch Press, 2002), 15.
W. Jackson Rushing, Native American Art and the New York Avant Garde (Austin: University of Texas Press, 1995),
Gerald McMaster and Clifford E. Trafzer, eds., Native Universe: Voices of Indian America (Washington, D.C.: National
Museum of the American Indian, 2004), 168.
J.J. Brody, Indian Painters and White Patrons (Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1971), 102.
David W. Penney and Lisa A. Roberts, “America’s Pueblo Artists: Encounters on the Borderlands” in Native American
Art in the Twentieth Century : Makers, Meanings, Histories. W. Jackson Rushing, ed. (London: Routledge, 1999), 21.
29 Ibid, 31-32.
30 Ibid, 34.
Bruce Bernstein and W. Jackson Rushing, Modern by Tradition : American Indian Painting in the Studio Style (Santa
Fe: Museum of New Mexico Press, 1995), 10.
34 Ibid, 31.
Bernstein and Rushing, 4.
Joseph Traugott, “Fewkes and Nampeyo: Clarifying a Myth-Understanding” in Native American Art in the Twentieth
Century : Makers, Meanings, Histories. W. Jackson Rushing, ed. (London: Routledge, 1999), 7-8.
Janet C. Berlo and Ruth B. Phillips, Native North American Art (N.Y.: Oxford University Press, 1998), 59.
Cultural Celebration and Survival: The Early 20th Century Part I
In early spring in 1942, Miné Okubo was walking her old familiar ground around
Berkeley. She had attended the university here, studying art, several years back. The
faculty had been good to her. After getting her master’s degree, Miné was able to
travel to Europe through a university scholarship. Backpacking around France had
been fun, and she had been exposed to wonderful new ideas and people. She felt lucky
too, catching the last boat out of Bordeaux for America just in time as World War II
escalated and the Nazis occupied Paris. 1 Now a few more years had gone by. Miné
felt her career as an artist was finally taking off. After all, she was just thirty years old
and already had her own solo exhibit at the San Francisco Museum of Art.
Miné Okubo, Citizen 13660.
African-American Art: The Harlem Renaissance
New opportunities to pursue art in the 20th century lead to a cultural renaissance
for African Americans. Unlike the small number of 19th-century black artists
recognized today, many African-American artists of the 20th century have been
recorded in art historical scholarship
Victory march of the 369th Infantry
Regiment, Fifth Avenue, New York
James Van Der Zee, Portrait of a
Couple in a Cadillac Garvey promoted ideas of pan-africanism, advocating for unity among all peoples of
African origin in spite of where one was born or of cultural differences. Pride in African
heritage and solidarity of blacks would lead to justice and freedom from oppression.
Garvey’s movement contributed to a general mood in Harlem at the time that embraced
Africa and African heritage as a source of strength and confidence. Intellectuals, such as
William Edward Burghardt Du Bois and Alain Locke, saw pride in African and
African-American heritage as an instrument to promote social agendas aiding the black
community. W.E.B. Du Bois was editor of Crisis, one of several magazines of the
period dedicated to African-American culture and economic and social improvement.
Another important African-American organization, the National Urban League, and its
journal, Opportunity, also advanced the message of the Harlem Renaissance. Aaron Douglas, Crucifixion, 1927 Jacob Lawrence, The Migration of the
Negro, Panel 1: During the War,
There was a Great Migration North
by Southern Negroes, 1940-41 Jacob Lawrence, The Migration of
the Negro, Panel 10: They were very
poor. Jacob Lawrence, The Migration of
the Negro, Panel 42. Augusta Savage, JW Johnson. Early 20th-Century Asian-American Art
Continuing from the late 19th century, a popular interest in America for things
“Asian” led to a steady market for Chinese and Japanese arts and antiquities in the
20th century. Similar to African, Native American and Mexican arts and crafts, Asian
arts appealed to members of the upper classes, mostly white, because they evoked
romantic and exotic images of other peoples and places. Ironically, however, this
desire for objects from the Orient did not stop the xenophobia of the period that was
evident through the discrimination and racism faced by immigrants from China and
Japan, as well as other Asian countries such as India, Korea and the Philippines.
At the turn of the 20th century, most Chinese workers, including women, continued to
be excluded from entry into the United States due to the Exclusion Act and
subsequent laws. After the 1906 earthquake, however, some Chinese were able to take
paper identities, becoming, for example, a paper son
Jade Snow Wong in her San
Francisco Chinatown pottery studio,
1946 Issei in America: The Beginnings of a Japanese-American Art History
Although the first Japanese workers came in the 19th century, artists from Japan who
worked professionally in the U.S. are not well documented until the turn of the 20th
century. The Issei (First generation) were born in Japan and denied U.S. citizenship.
Most immigrated in the hopes of finding a better life at a time when the economic
situation in Japan left many farmers of the working class in need. They suffered under
heavy taxes the government imposed to help finance the militarization of Japan to
protect against the advancement of Western imperialism. Commodore Perry of the
U.S. Navy had forced Japan open to Western trade in 1854. Art of the Japanese American Internment Camps
After the Japanese bombed Pearl Harbor in December, 1941, hostility towards
Americans of Japanese descent increased to such an extent newspapers voiced popular
sentiment among non-Asian Americans that the Japanese in the U.S. posed a serious Miyatake Family Christmas in
Manzanar Internment Camp Chiura Obata, Hatsuki Wakasa Shot
by M.P., 1943. Chiura Obata, Sunset, Water Tower,
1943. Matsusaburo Hibi, Block #9, Topaz, 1945 Taneyuki Dan Harada, The Barracks, Topaz, 1945 Hisako and her daughter, Ibuki, 1942.
Michael D. Brown, Views from Asian California, 1920-1965 : an Illustrated History (San Francisco: M. Brown, 1992),
2 Miné Okubo, Citizen 13660 (N.Y.: Arno Press, 1946), 17. Okubo recounted the events of this day.
Steven Watson, The Harlem Renaissance: Hub of African-American Culture, 1920-1930 (New York: Pantheon Books,
Eloise E. Johnson, Rediscovering the Harlem Renaissance: The Politics of Exclusion (New York: Garland Publishing,
Inc., 1997), 19.
Victor A. Kramer, “Introduction: The Harlem Renaissance Re-Examined” in Harlem Renaissance Re-examined. Victor
A. Kramer and Robert A. Russ. eds. (New York: The Whitston Publishing Co., 1997), 5.
This was during the Prohibition period when alcohol was illegal.
8 Sharon F. Patton, African-American Art (Oxford ; N.Y. : Oxford University Press, 1998), 142.
Samella S. Lewis, African American Art and Artists (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2003), 72.
Regenia A. Perry, Free Within Ourselves: African-American Artists in the Collection of the National Museum of American
Art (Washington, D.C.: National Museum of American Art, 1992), 109.
Quoted in Romare Bearden and Harry Henderson, A History of African-American Artists : From 1792 to the Present
(N.Y.: Pantheon Books,1993), 140.
Anthony W. Lee, Picturing Chinatown : Art and Orientalism in San Francisco (Berkeley: University of California
Press, 2001), 220.
Quoted in Anthony W. Lee, ed., Yun Gee: Poetry, Writings, Art, Memories (Seattle: University of Washington
Press, 2003), 56.
Lee, Picturing Chinatown, 201.
Ibid, 218. Several of Gee’s writings have been reprinted in Lee, Yun Gee: Poetry, Writings, Art, Memories.
Paul Karlstrom, “A Modernist Painter’s Journey in America” in Yun Gee: Poetry, Writings, Art, Memories. Anthony
W. Lee, ed. (Seattle: University of Washington Press, 2003), 32.
Lee, Yun Gee, 15.
Irene Poon, Leading the Way : Asian American Artists of the Older Generation (Wenham, Mass.: Gordon
College, 2001), 25.
Quoted in Iris Chang, The Chinese in America: A Narrative History (N.Y.: Viking Press, 2003), 203.
24 Ibid, 203-205.
Ronald Takaki, Strangers From a Different Shore: A History of Asian Americans (N.Y.: Back Bay Books, 1998), 260-
Kathleen Hanna, “She Finds Her Hands” in Jade Snow Wong: A Retrospective (San Francisco: Chinese Historical Society of
America, 2002), 7.
Ibid, 295, 302.
Ibid, 186, 270-271, 294.
Quoted in Takaki, 324-325.
Ronald Takaki, A Different Mirror: A History of Multicultural America (N.Y.: Back Bay Books, 1993), 246.
Timothy A. Burgard, Great Nature: The Transcendent Landscapes of Chiura Obata (San Francisco: M.H. de Young
Memorial Museum, 2000), 2.
Kimi Kodani Hill, Topaz Moon: Chiura Obata\'s Art of the Internment Camps (Berkeley: Heyday Books, 2000), 5.Copyright © 2006 C. Cadge-Moore. All rights reserved. 190
Janice T. Driesbach and Susan Landauer, Obata’s Yosemite: The Art and Letters of Chiura Obata from His Trip to the
High Sierra in 1927 (Yosemite National Park: Yosemite Association, 1993), 18.
Deborah Gesensway and Mindy Roseman, Beyond Words: Images from America’s Concentration Camps (Ithaca: Cornell
University Press, 1987), 41.
Marketing & Innovation Articles Summary - 2018/2019
The following articles are included: Tripsas (1997), Hillebrand et al (2010), Workman (1993), Evanschnitzky (2012), Van Kleef ( 2005), Hauser (1993), Bitner et al (2008), Füller (2011), Lilien (2002), Gatzweiler et al (2017), Schweitzer & van Hende (2017), Schmidt & Calantone (2002), Berends et al (2013), Guiltinan (1999), Lee & O'Connor (2013), Golder & Tellis (1993), Sorescu et al (2003), Plouffe et al (2000), Kuester et al (1999), Homburg et al ( 2010).
IPRes Notes Exam Part 2
This is a comprehensive summary for the second exam in IPRes 2019. It contains all the notes from the lectures, slides, and notes from all the assigned readings, organized and well explained.