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1. For which of the following patients would a comprehensive health history be appropriate?
A) A new patient with the chief complaint of “I sprained my ankle”
B) An established patient with the chief complaint of “I have an upper respiratory infection”
C) A new patient with the chief complaint of “I am here to establish care”
D) A new patient with the chief complaint of “I cut my hand”
2. Is the following information subjective or objective?
Mr. M. has shortness of breath that has persisted for the past 10 days; it is worse with activity and relieved by rest.
3. Is the following information subjective or objective?
Mr. M. has a respiratory rate of 32 and a pulse rate of 120.
4. The following information is recorded in the health history: “Patient denies chest pain, palpitations, orthopnea, and paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea.”
Which category does it belong to?
A) Chief complaint
B) Present illness
C) Personal and social history
D) Review of systems
5. A patient presents for evaluation of a sharp, aching chest pain which increases with breathing. Which anatomic area would you localize the symptom to?
6. A 22-year-old advertising copywriter presents for evaluation of joint pain. The pain is new, located in the wrists and fingers bilaterally, with some subjective fever. The patient denies a rash; she also denies recent travel or camping activities. She has a family history significant for rheumatoid arthritis. Based on this information, which of the following pathologic processes would be the most correct?
7. A 15-year-old high school sophomore comes to the clinic for evaluation of a 3-week history of sneezing; itchy, watery eyes; clear nasal discharge; ear pain; and nonproductive cough. Which is the most likely pathologic process?
8. You are seeing an elderly man with multiple complaints. He has chronic arthritis, pain from an old war injury, and headaches. Today he complains of these pains, as well as dull chest pain under his sternum. What would the order of priority be for your problem list?
A) Arthritis, war injury pain, headaches, chest pain
B) War injury pain, arthritis, headaches, chest pain
C) Headaches, arthritis, war injury pain, chest pain
D) Chest pain, headaches, arthritis, war injury pain
9. Suzanne, a 25 year old, comes to your clinic to establish care. You are the student preparing to go into the examination room to interview her. Which of the following is the most logical sequence for the patient–provider interview?
A) Establish the agenda, negotiate a plan, establish rapport, and invite the patient's story.
B) Invite the patient's story, negotiate a plan, establish the agenda, and establish rapport.
C) Greet the patient, establish rapport, invite the patient's story, establish the agenda, expand and clarify the patient's story, and negotiate a plan.
D) Negotiate a plan, establish an agenda, invite the patient's story, and establish rapport.
10. Alexandra is a 28-year-old editor who presents to the clinic with abdominal pain. The pain is a dull ache, located in the right upper quadrant, that she rates as a 3 at the least and an 8 at the worst. The pain started a few weeks ago, it lasts for 2 to 3 hours at a time, it comes and goes, and it seems to be worse a couple of hours after eating. She has noticed that it starts after eating greasy foods, so she has cut down on these as much as she can. Initially it occurred once a week, but now it is occurring every other day. Nothing makes it better. From this description, which of the seven attributes of a symptom has been omitted?
A) Setting in which the symptom occurs
B) Associated manifestations
11. A 23-year-old graduate student comes to your clinic for evaluation of a urethral discharge. As the provider, you need to get a sexual history. Which one of the following questions is inappropriate for eliciting the information?
A) Are you sexually active?
B) When was the last time you had intimate physical contact with someone, and did that contact include sexual intercourse?
C) Do you have sex with men, women, or both?
D) How many sexual partners have you had in the last 6 months?
12. On a very busy day in the office, Mrs. Donelan, who is 81 years old, comes for her usual visit for her blood pressure. She is on a low-dose diuretic chronically and denies any side effects. Her blood pressure is 118/78 today, which is well-controlled. As you are writing her script, she mentions that it is hard not having her husband Bill around anymore. What would you do next?
A) Hand her the script and make sure she has a 3-month follow-up appointment.
B) Make sure she understands the script.
C) Ask why Bill is not there.
D) Explain that you will have more time at the next visit to discuss this.
13. When you enter your patient's examination room, his wife is waiting there with him. Which of the following is most appropriate?
A) Ask if it's okay to carry out the visit with both people in the room.
B) Carry on as you would ordinarily. The permission is implied because his wife is in the room with him.
C) Ask his wife to leave the room for reasons of confidentiality.
D) First ask his wife what she thinks is going on.
14. You are performing a young woman's first pelvic examination. You make sure to tell her verbally what is coming next and what to expect. Then you carry out each maneuver of the examination. You let her know at the outset that if she needs a break or wants to stop, this is possible. You ask several times during the examination, “How are you doing, Brittney?” What are you accomplishing with these techniques?
A) Increasing the patient's sense of control
B) Increasing the patient's trust in you as a caregiver
C) Decreasing her sense of vulnerability
D) All of the above
15. A 15-year-old high school sophomore and her mother come to your clinic because the mother is concerned about her daughter's weight. You measure her daughter's height and weight and obtain a BMI of 19.5 kg/m2. Based on this information, which of the following is appropriate?
A) Refer the patient to a nutritionist and a psychologist because the patient is anorexic.
B) Reassure the mother that this is a normal body weight.
C) Give the patient information about exercise because the patient is obese.
D) Give the patient information concerning reduction of fat and cholesterol in her diet because she is obese.
16. A 25-year-old radio announcer comes to the clinic for an annual examination. His BMI is 26.0 kg/m2. He is concerned about his weight. Based on this information, what is appropriate counsel for the patient during the visit?
A) Refer the patient to a nutritionist because he is anorexic.
B) Reassure the patient that he has a normal body weight.
C) Give the patient information about reduction of fat, cholesterol, and calories because he is overweight.
D) Give the patient information about reduction of fat and cholesterol because he is obese.
17. Common or concerning symptoms to inquire about in the General Survey and vital signs include all of the following except:
A) Changes in weight
B) Fatigue and weakness
D) Fever and chills
18. You are beginning the examination of a patient. All of the following areas are important to observe as part of the General Survey except:
A) Level of consciousness
B) Signs of distress
C) Dress, grooming, and personal hygiene
D) Blood pressure
19. Mrs. Lenzo weighs herself every day with a very accurate balance-type scale. She has noticed that over the past 2 days she has gained 4 pounds. How would you best explain this?
A) Attribute this to some overeating at the holidays.
B) Attribute this to wearing different clothing.
C) Attribute this to body fluid.
D) Attribute this to instrument inaccuracy.
20. You are seeing an older patient who has not had medical care for many years. Her vital signs taken by your office staff are: T 37.2, HR 78, BP 118/92, and RR 14, and she denies pain. You notice that she has some hypertensive changes in her retinas and you find mild proteinuria on a urine test in your office. You expected the BP to be higher. She is not on any medications. What do you think is causing this BP reading, which doesn't correlate with the other findings?
A) It is caused by an “auscultatory gap.”
B) It is caused by a cuff size error.
C) It is caused by the patient's emotional state.
D) It is caused by resolution of the process which caused her retinopathy and kidney problems.
21. Mr. Garcia comes to your office for a rash on his chest associated with a burning pain. Even a light touch causes this burning sensation to worsen. On examination, you note a rash with small blisters (vesicles) on a background of reddened skin. The rash overlies an entire rib on his right side. What type of pain is this?
A) Idiopathic pain
B) Neuropathic pain
C) Nociceptive or somatic pain
D) Psychogenic pain
22. A 50-year-old body builder is upset by a letter of denial from his life insurance company. He is very lean but has gained 2 pounds over the past 6 months. You personally performed his health assessment and found no problems whatsoever. He says he is classified as “high risk” because of obesity. What should you do next?
A) Explain that even small amounts of weight gain can classify you as obese.
B) Place him on a high-protein, low-fat diet.
C) Advise him to increase his aerobic exercise for calorie burning.
D) Measure his waist.
23. A 32-year-old white female comes to your clinic, complaining of overwhelming sadness. She says for the past 2 months she has had crying episodes, difficulty sleeping, and problems with overeating. She says she used to go out with her friends from work but now she just wants to go home and be by herself. She also thinks that her work productivity has been dropping because she just is too tired to care or concentrate. She denies any feelings of guilt or any suicidal ideation. She states that she has never felt this way in the past. She denies any recent illness or injuries. Her past medical history consists of an appendectomy when she was a teenager; otherwise, she has been healthy. She is single and works as a clerk in a medical office. She denies tobacco, alcohol, or illegal drug use. Her mother has high blood pressure and her father has had a history of mental illness. On examination you see a woman appearing her stated age who seems quite sad. Her facial expression does not change while you talk to her and she makes little eye contact. She speaks so softly you cannot always understand her. Her thought processes and content seem unremarkable.
What type of mood disorder do you think she has?
A) Dysthymic disorder
B) Manic (bipolar) disorder
C) Major depressive episode
24. A 23-year-old ticket agent is brought in by her husband because he is concerned about her recent behavior. He states that for the last 2 weeks she has been completely out of control. He says that she hasn't showered in days, stays awake most of the night cleaning their apartment, and has run up over $1,000 on their credit cards. While he is talking, the patient interrupts him frequently and declares this is all untrue and she has never been so happy and fulfilled in her whole life. She speaks very quickly, changing the subject often. After a longer than normal interview you find out she has had no recent illnesses or injuries. Her past medical history is unremarkable. Both her parents are healthy but the husband has heard rumors about an aunt with similar symptoms. She and her husband have no children. She smokes one pack of cigarettes a day (although she has been chain-smoking in the last 2 weeks), drinks four to six drinks a week, and smokes marijuana occasionally. On examination she is very loud and outspoken. Her physical examination is unremarkable.
Which mood disorder does she most likely have?
A) Major depressive episode
B) Manic episode
C) Dysthymic disorder
25. Adam is a very successful 15-year-old student and athlete. His mother brings him in today because he no longer studies, works out, or sees his friends. This has gone on for a month and a half. When you speak with him alone in the room, he states it “would be better if he were not here.” What would you do next?
A) Tell him that he has a very promising career in anything he chooses and soon he will feel better.
B) Tell him that he needs an antidepressant and it will take about 4 weeks to work.
C) Speak with his mother about getting him together more with his friends.
D) Assess his suicide risk.
26. You are speaking to an 8th grade class about health prevention and are preparing to discuss the ABCDEs of melanoma. Which of the following descriptions correctly defines the ABCDEs?
A) A = actinic; B = basal cell; C = color changes, especially blue; D = diameter >6 mm; E = evolution
B) A = asymmetry; B = irregular borders; C = color changes, especially blue; D = diameter >6 mm; E = evolution
C) A = actinic; B = irregular borders; C = keratoses; D = dystrophic nails; E = evolution
D) A = asymmetry; B = regular borders; C = color changes, especially orange; D = diameter >6 mm; E = evolution
27. You are beginning the examination of the skin on a 25-year-old teacher. You have previously elicited that she came to the office for evaluation of fatigue, weight gain, and hair loss. You strongly suspect that she has hypothyroidism. What is the expected moisture and texture of the skin of a patient with hypothyroidism?
A) Moist and smooth
B) Moist and rough
C) Dry and smooth
D) Dry and rough
28. A mother brings her 11 month old to you because her mother-in-law and others have told her that her baby is jaundiced. She is eating and growing well and performing the developmental milestones she should for her age. On examination you indeed notice a yellow tone to her skin from head to toe. Her sclerae are white. To which area should your next questions be related?
B) Family history of liver diseases
C) Family history of blood diseases
D) Ethnicity of the child
29. You are examining an unconscious patient from another region and notice Beau's lines, a transverse groove across all of her nails, about 1 cm from the proximal nail fold. What would you do next?
A) Conclude this is caused by a cultural practice.
B) Conclude this finding is most likely secondary to trauma.
C) Look for information from family and records regarding any problems which occurred 3 months ago.
D) Ask about dietary intake.
30. Jacob, a 33-year-old construction worker, complains of a “lump on his back” over his scapula. It has been there for about a year and is getting larger. He says his wife has been able to squeeze out a cheesy-textured substance on occasion. He worries this may be cancer. When gently pinched from the side, a prominent dimple forms in the middle of the mass. What is most likely?
A) An enlarged lymph node
B) A sebaceous cyst
C) An actinic keratosis
D) A malignant lesion
31. A young man comes to you with an extremely pruritic rash over his knees and elbows which has come and gone for several years. It seems to be worse in the winter and improves with some sun exposure. On examination, you notice scabbing and crusting with some silvery scale, and you are observant enough to notice small “pits” in his nails. What would account for these findings?
D) Tinea infection
32. Mrs. Anderson presents with an itchy rash which is raised and appears and disappears in various locations. Each lesion lasts for many minutes. What most likely accounts for this rash?
A) Insect bites
B) Urticaria, or hives
33. Ms. Whiting is a 68 year old who comes in for her usual follow-up visit. You notice a few flat red and purple lesions, about 6 centimeters in diameter, on the ulnar aspect of her forearms but nowhere else. She doesn't mention them. They are tender when you examine them. What should you do?
A) Conclude that these are lesions she has had for a long time.
B) Wait for her to mention them before asking further questions.
C) Ask how she acquired them.
D) Conduct the visit as usual for the patient.
34. Which of the following is a symptom involving the eye?
35. A 29-year-old physical therapist presents for evaluation of an eyelid problem. On observation, the right eyeball appears to be protruding forward. Based on this description, what is the most likely diagnosis?
36. A 12-year-old presents to the clinic with his father for evaluation of a painful lump in the left eye. It started this morning. He denies any trauma or injury. There is no visual disturbance. Upon physical examination, there is a red raised area at the margin of the eyelid that is tender to palpation; no tearing occurs with palpation of the lesion. Based on this description, what is the most likely diagnosis?
37. A 15-year-old high school sophomore presents to the emergency room with his mother for evaluation of an area of blood in the left eye. He denies trauma or injury but has been coughing forcefully with a recent cold. He denies visual disturbances, eye pain, or discharge from the eye. On physical examination, the pupils are equal, round, and reactive to light, with a visual acuity of 20/20 in each eye and 20/20 bilaterally. There is a homogeneous, sharply demarcated area at the lateral aspect of the base of the left eye. The cornea is clear. Based on this description, what is the most likely diagnosis?
B) Acute iritis
C) Corneal abrasion
D) Subconjunctival hemorrhage
38. A sudden, painless unilateral vision loss may be caused by which of the following?
A) Retinal detachment
B) Corneal ulcer
C) Acute glaucoma
39. Sudden, painful unilateral loss of vision may be caused by which of the following conditions?
A) Vitreous hemorrhage
B) Central retinal artery occlusion
C) Macular degeneration
D) Optic neuritis
40. A light is pointed at a patient's pupil, which contracts. It is also noted that the other pupil contracts as well, though it is not exposed to bright light. Which of the following terms describes this latter phenomenon?
A) Direct reaction
B) Consensual reaction
C) Near reaction
41. A patient is assigned a visual acuity of 20/100 in her left eye. Which of the following is true?
A) She obtains a 20% correct score at 100 feet.
B) She can accurately name 20% of the letters at 20 feet.
C) She can see at 20 feet what a normal person could see at 100 feet.
D) She can see at 100 feet what a normal person could see at 20 feet.
42. A patient presents with ear pain. She is an avid swimmer. The history includes pain and drainage from the left ear. On examination, she has pain when the ear is manipulated, including manipulation of the tragus. The canal is narrowed and erythematous, with some white debris in the canal. The rest of the examination is normal. What diagnosis would you assign this patient?
A) Otitis media
B) External otitis
C) Perforation of the tympanum
43. A patient with hearing loss by whisper test is further examined with a tuning fork, using the Weber and Rinne maneuvers. The abnormal results are as follows: bone conduction is greater than air on the left, and the patient hears the sound of the tuning fork better on the left. Which of the following is most likely?
A) Otosclerosis of the left ear
B) Exposure to chronic loud noise of the right ear
C) Otitis media of the right ear
D) Perforation of the right eardrum
44. A college student presents with a sore throat, fever, and fatigue for several days. You notice exudates on her enlarged tonsils. You do a careful lymphatic examination and notice some scattered small, mobile lymph nodes just behind her sternocleidomastoid muscles bilaterally. What group of nodes is this?
D) Posterior cervical
45. A 21-year-old college senior presents to your clinic, complaining of shortness of breath and a nonproductive nocturnal cough. She states she used to feel this way only with extreme exercise, but lately she has felt this way continuously. She denies any other upper respiratory symptoms, chest pain, gastrointestinal symptoms, or urinary tract symptoms. Her past medical history is significant only for seasonal allergies, for which she takes a nasal steroid spray but is otherwise on no other medications. She has had no surgeries. Her mother has allergies and eczema and her father has high blood pressure. She is an only child. She denies smoking and illegal drug use but drinks three to four alcoholic beverages per weekend. She is a junior in finance at a local university and she has recently started a job as a bartender in town. On examination she is in no acute distress and her temperature is 98.6. Her blood pressure is 120/80, her pulse is 80, and her respirations are 20. Her head, eyes, ears, nose, and throat examinations are essentially normal. Inspection of her anterior and posterior chest shows no abnormalities. On auscultation of her chest, there is decreased air movement and a high-pitched whistling on expiration in all lobes. Percussion reveals resonant lungs.
Which disorder of the thorax or lung does this best describe?
A) Spontaneous pneumothorax
B) Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)
46. A 62-year-old construction worker presents to your clinic, complaining of almost a year of chronic cough and occasional shortness of breath. Although he has had worsening of symptoms occasionally with a cold, his symptoms have stayed about the same. The cough has occasional mucous drainage but never any blood. He denies any chest pain. He has had no weight gain, weight loss, fever, or night sweats. His past medical history is significant for high blood pressure and arthritis. He has smoked two packs a day for the past 45 years. He drinks occasionally but denies any illegal drug use. He is married and has two children. He denies any foreign travel. His father died of a heart attack and his mother died of Alzheimer's disease. On examination you see a man looking slightly older than his stated age. His blood pressure is 130/80 and his pulse is 88. He is breathing comfortably with respirations of 12. His head, eyes, ears, nose, and throat examinations are unremarkable. His cardiac examination is normal. On examination of his chest, the diameter seems enlarged. Breath sounds are decreased throughout all lobes. Rhonchi are heard over all lung fields. There is no area of dullness and no increased or decreased fremitus.
What thorax or lung disorder is most likely causing his symptoms?
A) Spontaneous pneumothorax
B) Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)
47. A 68-year-old retired postman presents to your clinic, complaining of dull, intermittent left-sided chest pain over the last few weeks. The pain occurs after he mows his lawn or chops wood. He says that the pain radiates to the left side of his jaw but nowhere else. He has felt light-headed and nauseated with the pain but has had no other symptoms. He states when he sits down for several minutes the pain goes away. Ibuprofen, Tylenol, and antacids have not improved his symptoms. He reports no recent weight gain, weight loss, fever, or night sweats. He has a past medical history of high blood pressure and arthritis. He quit smoking 10 years ago after smoking one pack a day for 40 years. He denies any recent alcohol use and reports no drug use. He is married and has two healthy children. His mother died of breast cancer and his father died of a stroke. His younger brother has had bypass surgery. On examination you find him healthy-appearing and breathing comfortably. His blood pressure is 140/90 and he has a pulse of 80. His head, eyes, ears, nose, and throat examinations are unremarkable. His lungs have normal breath sounds and there are no abnormalities with percussion and palpation of the chest. His heart has a normal S1 and S2 and no S3 or S4. Further workup is pending.
Which disorder of the chest best describes these symptoms?
A) Angina pectoris
C) Dissecting aortic aneurysm
D) Pleural pain
48. A 36-year-old teacher presents to your clinic, complaining of sharp, knifelike pain on the left side of her chest for the last 2 days. Breathing and lying down make the pain worse, while sitting forward helps her pain. Tylenol and ibuprofen have not helped. Her pain does not radiate to any other area. She denies any upper respiratory or gastrointestinal symptoms. Her past medical history consists of systemic lupus. She is divorced and has one child. She denies any tobacco, alcohol, or drug use. Her mother has hypothyroidism and her father has high blood pressure. On examination you find her to be distressed, leaning over and holding her left arm and hand to her left chest. Her blood pressure is 130/70, her respirations are 12, and her pulse is 90. On auscultation her lung fields have normal breath sounds with no rhonchi, wheezes, or crackles. Percussion and palpation are unremarkable. Auscultation of the heart has an S1 and S2 with no S3 or S4. A scratching noise is heard at the lower left sternal border, coincident with systole; leaning forward relieves some of her pain. She is nontender with palpation of the chest wall.
What disorder of the chest best describes this disorder?
A) Angina pectoris
C) Dissecting aortic aneurysm
D) Pleural pain
49. A grandmother brings her 13-year-old grandson to you for evaluation. She noticed last week when he took off his shirt that his breastbone seemed collapsed. He seems embarrassed and tells you that it has been that way for quite awhile. He states he has no symptoms from it and he just tries not to take off his shirt in front of anyone. He denies any shortness of breath, chest pain, or lightheadedness on exertion. His past medical history is unremarkable. He is in sixth grade and just moved in with his grandmother after his father was deployed to the Middle East. His mother died several years ago in a car accident. He states that he does not smoke and has never touched alcohol. On examination you see a teenage boy appearing his stated age. On visual examination of his chest you see that the lower portion of the sternum is depressed. Auscultation of the lungs and heart are unremarkable.
What disorder of the thorax best describes your findings?
A) Barrel chest
B) Funnel chest (pectus excavatum)
C) Pigeon chest (pectus carinatum)
D) Thoracic kyphoscoliosis
50. A 55–year-old smoker complains of chest pain and gestures with a closed fist over her sternum to describe it. Which of the following diagnoses should you consider because of her gesture?
D) Angina pectoris
51. Which of the following percussion notes would you obtain over the gastric bubble?
52. Which lung sound possesses the characteristics of being louder and higher in pitch, with a short silence between inspiration and expiration and with expiration being longer than inspiration?
53. When crackles, wheezes, or rhonchi clear with a cough, which of the following is a likely etiology?
B) Simple asthma
C) Cystic fibrosis
D) Heart failure
54. What is responsible for the inspiratory splitting of S2?
A) Closure of aortic, then pulmonic valves
B) Closure of mitral, then tricuspid valves
C) Closure of aortic, then tricuspid valves
D) Closure of mitral, then pulmonic valves
55. A 25-year-old optical technician comes to your clinic for evaluation of fatigue. As part of your physical examination, you listen to her heart and hear a murmur only at the cardiac apex. Which valve is most likely to be involved, based on the location of the murmur?
56. You are screening people at the mall as part of a health fair. The first person who comes for screening has a blood pressure of 132/85. How would you categorize this?
C) Stage 1 hypertension
D) Stage 2 hypertension
57. You are conducting a workshop on the measurement of jugular venous pulsation. As part of your instruction, you tell the students to make sure that they can distinguish between the jugular venous pulsation and the carotid pulse. Which one of the following characteristics is typical of the carotid pulse?
B) Soft, rapid, undulating quality
C) Pulsation eliminated by light pressure on the vessel
D) Level of pulsation changes with changes in position
58. You are palpating the apical impulse in a patient with heart disease and find that the amplitude is diffuse and increased. Which of the following conditions could be a potential cause of an increase in the amplitude of the impulse?
B) Aortic stenosis, with pressure overload of the left ventricle
C) Mitral stenosis, with volume overload of the left atrium
59. You are performing a cardiac examination on a patient with shortness of breath and palpitations. You listen to the heart with the patient sitting upright, then have him change to a supine position, and finally have him turn onto his left side in the left lateral decubitus position. Which of the following valvular defects is best heard in this position?
60. You are concerned that a patient has an aortic regurgitation murmur. Which is the best position to accentuate the murmur?
B) Upright, but leaning forward
D) Left lateral decubitus
61. Which of the following events occurs at the start of diastole?
A) Closure of the tricuspid valve
B) Opening of the pulmonic valve
C) Closure of the aortic valve
D) Production of the first heart sound (S1)
62. Which is true of splitting of the second heart sound?
A) It is best heard over the pulmonic area with the bell of the stethoscope.
B) It normally increases with exhalation.
C) It is best heard over the apex.
D) It does not vary with respiration.
63. Which of the following is true of jugular venous pressure (JVP) measurement?
A) It is measured with the patient at a 45-degree angle.
B) The vertical height of the blood column in centimeters, plus 5 cm, is the JVP.
C) A JVP below 9 cm is abnormal.
D) It is measured above the sternal notch.
64. How much does cardiovascular risk increase for each increment of 20 mm Hg systolic and 10 mm Hg diastolic in blood pressure?
65. In measuring the jugular venous pressure (JVP), which of the following is important?
A) Keep the patient's torso at a 45-degree angle.
B) Measure the highest visible pressure, usually at end expiration.
C) Add the vertical height over the sternal notch to a 5-cm constant.
D) Realize that a total value of over 12 cm is abnormal.
66. How should you determine whether a murmur is systolic or diastolic?
A) Palpate the carotid pulse.
B) Palpate the radial pulse.
C) Judge the relative length of systole and diastole by auscultation.
D) Correlate the murmur with a bedside heart monitor.
67. Which of the following correlates with a sustained, high-amplitude PMI?
68. You are listening carefully for S2 splitting. Which of the following will help?
A) Using the diaphragm with light pressure over the 2nd right intercostal space
B) Using the bell with light pressure over the 2nd left intercostal space
C) Using the diaphragm with firm pressure over the apex
D) Using the bell with firm pressure over the lower left sternal border
69. Which of the following is true of a grade 4-intensity murmur?
A) It is moderately loud.
B) It can be heard with the stethoscope off the chest.
C) It can be heard with the stethoscope partially off the chest.
D) It is associated with a “thrill.”
70. A 44-year-old female comes to your clinic, complaining of severe dry skin in the area over her right nipple. She denies any trauma to the area. She noticed the skin change during a self-examination 2 months ago. She also admits that she had felt a lump under the nipple but kept putting off making an appointment. She does admit to 6 months of fatigue but no weight loss, weight gain, fever, or night sweats. Her past medical history is significant for hypothyroidism. She does not have a history of eczema or allergies. She denies any tobacco, alcohol, or drug use. On examination you find a middle-aged woman appearing her stated age. Inspection of her right breast reveals a scaly eczema-like crust around her nipple. Underneath you palpate a nontender 2-cm mass. The axilla contains only soft, moveable nodes. The left breast and axilla examination findings are unremarkable.
What visible skin change of the breast does she have?
A) Nipple retraction
B) Paget's disease
C) Peaud'orange sign
71. A 56-year-old female comes to your clinic, complaining of her left breast looking unusual. She says that for 2 months the angle of the nipple has changed direction. She does not do self-examinations, so she doesn't know if she has a lump. She has no history of weight loss, weight gain, fever, or night sweats. Her past medical history is significant for high blood pressure. She smokes two packs of cigarettes a day and has three to four drinks per weekend night. Her paternal aunt died of breast cancer in her forties. Her mother is healthy but her father died of prostate cancer. On examination you find a middle-aged woman appearing older than her stated age. Inspection of her left breast reveals a flattened nipple deviating toward the lateral side. On palpation the nipple feels thickened. Lateral to the areola you palpate a nontender 4-cm mass. The axilla contains several fixed nodes. The right breast and axilla examinations are unremarkable.
What visible skin change of the breast does she have?
A) Nipple retraction
B) Paget's disease
C) Peaud'orange sign
72. A 23-year-old computer programmer comes to your office for an annual examination. She has recently become sexually active and wants to be placed on birth control. Her only complaint is that the skin in her armpits has become darker. She states it looks like dirt, and she scrubs her skin nightly with soap and water but the color stays. Her past medical symptoms consist of acne and mild obesity. Her periods have been irregular for 3 years. Her mother has type 2 diabetes and her father has high blood pressure. The patient denies using tobacco but has four to five drinks on Friday and Saturday nights. She denies any illegal drug use. On examination you see a mildly obese female who is breathing comfortably. Her vital signs are unremarkable. Looking under her axilla, you see dark, velvet-like skin. Her annual examination is otherwise unremarkable.
What disorder of the breast or axilla is she most likely to have?
B) Acanthosis nigricans
C) Hidradenitis suppurativa
73. A 40-year-old mother of two presents to your office for consultation. She is interested in knowing what her relative risks are for developing breast cancer. She is concerned because her sister had unilateral breast cancer 6 years ago at age 38. The patient reports on her history that she began having periods at age 11 and has been fairly regular ever since, except during her two pregnancies. Her first child arrived when she was 26 and her second at age 28. Otherwise she has had no health problems. Her father has high blood pressure. Her mother had unilateral breast cancer in her 70s. The patient denies tobacco, alcohol, or drug use. She is a family law attorney and is married. Her examination is essentially unremarkable.
Which risk factor of her personal and family history most puts her in danger of getting breast cancer?
A) First-degree relative with premenopausal breast cancer
B) Age at menarche of less than 12
C) First live birth between the ages of 25 and 29
D) First-degree relative with postmenopausal breast cancer
74. How often, according to American Cancer Society recommendations, should a woman undergo a screening breast examination by a skilled clinician?
A) Every year
B) Every 2 years
C) Every 3 years
D) Every 4 years
75. Which of the following is most likely benign on breast examination?
A) Dimpling of the skin resembling that of an orange
B) One breast larger than the other
C) One nipple inverted
D) One breast with dimple when the patient leans forward
76. A 77-year-old retired bus driver comes to your clinic for a physical examination at his wife's request. He has recently been losing weight and has felt very fatigued. He has had no chest pain, shortness of breath, nausea, vomiting, or fever. His past medical history includes colon cancer, for which he had surgery, and arthritis. He has been married for over 40 years. He denies any tobacco or drug use and has not drunk alcohol in over 40 years. His parents both died of cancer in their 60s. On examination his vital signs are normal. His head, cardiac, and pulmonary examinations are unremarkable. On abdominal examination you hear normal bowel sounds, but when you palpate his liver it is abnormal. His rectal examination is positive for occult blood.
What further abnormality of the liver was likely found on examination?
A) Smooth, large, nontender liver
B) Irregular, large liver
C) Smooth, large, tender liver
77. A 27-year-old policewoman comes to your clinic, complaining of severe left-sided back pain radiating down into her groin. It began in the middle of the night and woke her up suddenly. It hurts in her bladder to urinate but she has no burning on the outside. She has had no frequency or urgency with urination but she has seen blood in her urine. She has had nausea with the pain but no vomiting or fever. She denies any other recent illness or injuries. Her past medical history is unremarkable. She denies tobacco or drug use and drinks alcohol rarely. Her mother has high blood pressure and her father is healthy. On examination she looks her stated age and is in obvious pain. She is lying on her left side trying to remain very still. Her cardiac, pulmonary, and abdominal examinations are unremarkable. She has tenderness just inferior to the left costovertebral angle. Her urine pregnancy test is negative and her urine analysis shows red blood cells.
What type of urinary tract pain is she most likely to have?
A) Kidney pain (from pyelonephritis)
B) Ureteral pain (from a kidney stone)
C) Musculoskeletal pain
D) Ischemic bowel pain
78. Chris is a 20-year-old college student who has had abdominal pain for 3 days. It started at his umbilicus and was associated with nausea and vomiting. He was unable to find a comfortable position. Yesterday, the pain became more severe and constant. Now, he hesitates to walk, because any motion makes the pain much worse. It is localized just medial and inferior to his iliac crest on the right. Which of the following is most likely?
A) Peptic ulcer
79. Which is the proper sequence of examination for the abdomen?
A) Auscultation, inspection, palpation, percussion
B) Inspection, percussion, palpation, auscultation
C) Inspection, auscultation, percussion, palpation
D) Auscultation, percussion, inspection, palpation
80. Mr. Patel is a 64-year-old man who was told by another care provider that his liver is enlarged. Although he is a life-long smoker, he has never used drugs or alcohol and has no knowledge of liver disease. Indeed, on examination, a liver edge is palpable 4 centimeters below the costal arch. Which of the following would you do next?
A) Check an ultrasound of the liver
B) Obtain a hepatitis panel
C) Determine liver span by percussion
D) Adopt a “watchful waiting” approach
81. Cody is a teenager with a history of leukemia and an enlarged spleen. Today he presents with fairly significant left upper quadrant pain. On examination of this area a rough grating noise is heard. What is this sound?
A) It is a splenic rub.
B) It is a variant of bowel noise.
C) It represents borborygmi.
D) It is a vascular noise.
82. You are palpating the abdomen and feel a small mass. Which of the following would you do next?
B) Examination with the abdominal muscles tensed
C) Surgery referral
D) Determine size by percussion
83. Mr. Maxwell has noticed that he is gaining weight and has increasing girth. Which of the following would argue for the presence of ascites?
A) Bilateral flank tympany
B) Dullness which remains despite change in position
C) Dullness centrally when the patient is supine
D) Tympany which changes location with patient position
84. Which of the following is consistent with obturator sign?
A) Pain distant from the site used to check rebound tenderness
B) Right hypogastric pain with the right hip and knee flexed and the hip internally rotated
C) Pain with extension of the right thigh while the patient is on her left side or while pressing her knee against your hand with thigh flexion
D) Pain that stops inhalation in the right upper quadrant
85. A 57-year-old maintenance worker comes to your office for evaluation of pain in his legs. He has smoked two packs per day since the age of 16, but he is otherwise healthy. You are concerned that he may have peripheral vascular disease. Which of the following is part of common or concerning symptoms for the peripheral vascular system?
A) Intermittent claudication
B) Chest pressure with exertion
C) Shortness of breath
D) Knee pain
86. You are a student in the vascular surgery clinic. You are asked to perform a physical examination on a patient with known peripheral vascular disease in the legs. Which of the following aspects is important to note when you perform your examination?
A) Size, symmetry, and skin color
B) Muscle bulk and tone
C) Nodules in joints
D) Lower extremity strength
87. You are assessing a patient for peripheral vascular disease in the arms, secondary to a complaint of increased weakness and a history of coronary artery disease and diabetes. You assess the brachial and radial pulses and note that they are bounding. What does that translate to on a scale of 0 to 3?
88. A 77-year-old retired nurse has an ulcer on a lower extremity that you are asked to evaluate when you do your weekly rounds at a local long-term care facility. All of the following are responsible for causing ulcers in the lower extremities except for which condition?
A) Arterial insufficiency
B) Venous insufficiency
C) Diminished sensation in pressure points
89. Asymmetric BPs are seen in which of the following conditions?
A) Coronary artery disease
B) Congenital narrowing of the aorta
C) Diffuse atherosclerosis
D) Vasculitis, as seen in systemic lupus erythematosus
90. When assessing temperature of the skin, which portion of your hand should be used?
C) Backs of fingers
D) Ulnar aspect of the hand
91. A patient presents with claudication symptoms and diminished pulses. Which of the following is consistent with chronic arterial insufficiency?
A) Pallor of the foot when raised to 60 degrees for one minute
B) Return of color to the skin within 5 seconds of allowing legs to dangle
C) Filling of the veins of the ankles within 10 seconds of allowing the legs to dangle
D) Hyperpigmentation of the skin
92. A 32-year-old white male comes to your clinic, complaining of aching on the right side of his testicle. He has felt this aching for several months. He states that as the day progresses the aching increases, but when he wakes up in the morning he is pain-free. He denies any pain with urination and states that the pain doesn't change with sexual activity. He denies any fatigue, weight gain, weight loss, fever, or night sweats. His past medical history is unremarkable. He is a married hospital administrator with two children. He notes that he and his wife have been trying to have another baby this year but have so far been unsuccessful despite frequent intercourse. He denies using tobacco, alcohol, or illegal drugs. His father has high blood pressure but his mother is healthy. On examination you see a young man appearing his stated age with unremarkable vital signs. On visualization of his penis, he is circumcised with no lesions. He has no scars along his inguinal area, and palpation of the area shows no lymphadenopathy. On palpation of his scrotum you feel testes with no discrete masses. Upon placing your finger through the right inguinal ring you feel what seems like a bunch of spaghetti. Asking him to bear down, you feel no bulges. The left inguinal ring is unremarkable, with no bulges on bearing down. His prostate examination is unremarkable.
What abnormality of the scrotum does he most likely have?
B) Scrotal hernia
C) Scrotal edema
93. A 15-year-old high school football player is brought to your office by his mother. He is complaining of severe testicular pain since exactly 8:00 this morning. He denies any sexual activity and states that he hurts so bad he can't even urinate. He is nauseated and is throwing up. He denies any recent illness or fever. His past medical history is unremarkable. He denies any tobacco, alcohol, or drug use. His parents are both in good health. On examination you see a young teenager lying on the bed with an emesis basin. He is very uncomfortable and keeps shifting his position. His blood pressure is 150/100, his pulse is 110, and his respirations are 24. On visualization of the penis he is circumcised and there are no lesions and no discharge from the meatus. His scrotal skin is tense and red. Palpation of the left testicle causes severe pain and the patient begins to cry. His prostate examination is unremarkable. His cremasteric reflex is absent on the left but is normal on the right. By catheter you get a urine sample and the analysis is unremarkable. You send the boy with his mother to the emergency room for further workup.
What is the most likely diagnosis for this young man's symptoms?
A) Acute orchitis
B) Acute epididymitis
C) Torsion of the spermatic cord
94. Which of the following conditions involves a tight prepuce which, once retracted, cannot be returned?
95. You are examining a newborn and note that the right testicle is not in the scrotum. What should you do next?
A) Refer to urology
B) Recheck in 6 months
C) Tell the parent the testicle is absent but that this should not affect fertility
D) Attempt to bring down the testis from the inguinal canal
96. Frank is a 24-year-old man who presents with multiple burning erosions on the shaft of his penis and some tender inguinal adenopathy. Which of the following is most likely?
A) Primary syphilis
B) Herpes simplex
97. A 30-year-old paralegal analyst comes to your clinic, complaining of a bad-smelling vaginal discharge with some mild itching, present for about 3 weeks. She tried douching but it did not help. She has had no pain with urination or with sexual intercourse. She has noticed the smell increased after intercourse and during her period last week. She denies any upper respiratory, gastrointestinal, cardiac, or pulmonary symptoms. Her past medical history consists of one spontaneous vaginal delivery. She is married and has one child. She denies tobacco, alcohol, or drug use. Her mother has high blood pressure and her father died from a heart disease. On examination she appears healthy and has unremarkable vital signs. On examination of the perineum there are no lesions noted. On palpation of the inguinal nodes there is no lymphadenopathy. On speculum examination a thin gray-white discharge is seen in the vault. The pH of the discharge is over 4.5 and there is a fishy odor when potassium hydroxide (KOH) is applied to the vaginal secretions on the slide. Wet prep shows epithelial cells with stippled borders (clue cells).
What type of vaginitis best describes her findings?
A) Trichomonas vaginitis
B) Candida vaginitis
C) Bacterial vaginosis
D) Atrophic vaginitis
98. A 48-year-old high school librarian comes to your clinic, complaining of 1 week of heavy discharge causing severe itching. She is not presently sexually active and has had no burning with urination. The symptoms started several days after her last period. She just finished a course of antibiotics for a sinus infection. Her past medical history consists of type 2 diabetes and high blood pressure. She is widowed and has three children. She denies tobacco, alcohol, or drug use. Her mother has high blood pressure and her father died of diabetes complications. On examination you see a healthy-appearing woman. Her blood pressure is 130/80 and her pulse is 70. Her head, eyes, ears, nose, throat, cardiac, lung, and abdominal examinations are unremarkable. Palpation of the inguinal lymph nodes is unremarkable. On visualization of the vulva, a thick, white, curdy discharge is seen at the introitus. On speculum examination there is a copious amount of this discharge. The pH of the discharge is 4.1 and the KOH whiff test is negative, with no unusual smell. Wet prep shows budding hyphae.
What vaginitis does this patient most likely have?
A) Trichomonas vaginitis
B) Candida vaginitis
C) Bacterial vaginosis
D) Atrophic vaginitis
99. A 55-year-old married homemaker comes to your clinic, complaining of 6 months of vaginal itching and discomfort with intercourse. She has not had a discharge and has had no pain with urination. She has not had a period in over 2 years. She has no other symptoms. Her past medical history consists of removal of her gallbladder. She denies use of tobacco, alcohol, and illegal drugs. Her mother has breast cancer and her father has coronary artery disease, high blood pressure, and Alzheimer's disease. On examination she appears healthy and has unremarkable vital signs. There is no lymphadenopathy with palpation of the inguinal nodes. Visualization of the vulva shows dry skin but no lesions or masses. The labia are somewhat smaller than usual. Speculum examination reveals scant discharge and the vaginal walls are red, dry, and bleed easily. Bimanual examination is unremarkable. The KOH whiff test produces no unusual odor and there are no clue cells on the wet prep.
What form of vaginitis is this patient most likely to have?
A) Trichomonas vaginitis
B) Candida vaginitis
C) Bacterial vaginosis
D) Atrophic vaginitis
100. A 28-year-old married clothing sales clerk comes to your clinic for her annual examination. She requests a refill on her birth control pills. Her only complaint is painless bleeding after intercourse. She denies any other symptoms. Her past medical history consists of two spontaneous vaginal deliveries. Her past six Pap smears have all been normal. She is married and has two children. Her mother is in good health and her father has high blood pressure. On examination you see a young woman appearing healthy and relaxed. Her vital signs are unremarkable and her head, eyes, ears, throat, neck, cardiac, lung, and abdominal examinations are normal. Visualization of the perineum shows no lesions or masses. Speculum examination shows a red mass at the os. On taking a Pap smear the mass bleeds easily. Bimanual examination shows no cervical motion tenderness and both ovaries are palpated and nontender.
What is the most likely diagnosis for the abnormality of her cervix?
A) Carcinoma of the cervix
B) Mucopurulent cervicitis
C) Cervical polyp
D) Retention cyst
101. A 23-year-old waitress comes to your clinic complaining of severe pelvic pain radiating to her right side. The pain began yesterday and is getting much worse. She has had no burning with urination and denies any recent sexual activity. She has no nausea, vomiting, constipation, diarrhea, fever, or vaginal discharge. Her last period was 3 to 4 weeks ago. Her past medical history consists of severe acne, depression, and mild obesity. She has had no surgeries. She broke up with her boyfriend 6 months ago and denies dating anyone else. She smokes one pack of cigarettes a day, drinks three to four beers two to three times a week, and denies any illegal drug use. Her mother is diabetic and her father has coronary artery disease. On examination you see a mildly obese female in moderate distress. Her blood pressure is 130/80 and her pulse is 90. She is afebrile. On auscultation she has active bowel sounds. She has no rebound or guarding in any abdominal quadrant. Speculum examination shows no lesions on the cervix and no discharge or bleeding from the os. During the bimanual examination she has no cervical motion tenderness, but her right adnexal area is swollen and tender. A urine analysis is normal and the urine pregnancy test is pending.
What disorder of the adnexa is most likely the diagnosis?
A) Ovarian cyst
B) Tubal pregnancy
C) Pelvic inflammatory disease
102. Which of the following represents metrorrhagia?
A) Fewer than 21 days between menses
B) Excessive flow
C) Infrequent bleeding
D) Bleeding between periods
103. Abby is a newly married woman who is unable to have intercourse because of vaginismus. Which of the following is true?
A) This is most likely due to lack of lubrication.
B) This is most likely due to atrophic vaginitis.
C) This is most likely due to pressure on an ovary.
D) Psychosocial reasons may cause this condition.
104. Which of the following is true of the HPV vaccine?
A) Ideally it should be administered within 3 years of first intercourse.
B) It covers against almost every HPV type.
C) It can be used as adjuvant therapy in cervical cancer.
D) It can protect against anogenital lesions.
105. A 42-year-old house painter comes to your clinic, complaining of pain with defecation and profuse bleeding in the toilet after a bowel movement. He was in his usual state of health until 2 weeks ago, when he was injured in a car accident. After the accident he began taking prescription narcotics for the pain in his shoulder. Since then he has had very few bowel movements. His stool is hard and pebble-like. He states he has always been “regular” in the past, with easy bowel movements. His diet has not changed but he states that he is exercising less since the accident. His past medical history includes hypertension and he is on a low-dose diuretic. He has had no other chronic illnesses or surgeries. He has a family history of hypertension, coronary heart disease, and diabetes but no cancer. He is divorced and has three children. He smokes two packs of cigarettes per day and quit drinking more than 10 years ago. He has had no recent weight loss, weight gain, fever, or night sweats. On examination he appears muscular and healthy; he is afebrile. His blood pressure is 135/90 with a pulse of 80. His cardiac, lung, and abdominal examinations are normal. He is wearing a sling on his left arm. On observation of his anus you find a swollen bluish ovoid mass that appears to contain a blood clot. Digital rectal examination is extremely painful for the patient. No other mass is palpated within the anus or rectum.
What disorder of the anus is this patient likely to have?
A) Anal fissure
B) External hemorrhoid
C) Anorectal cancer
D) Internal hemorrhoid
106. A 60-year-old coach comes to your clinic, complaining of difficulty starting to urinate for the last several months. He believes the problem is steadily getting worse. When asked he says he has a very weak stream and it feels like it takes 10 minutes to empty his bladder. He also has the urge to go to the bathroom more often than he used to. He denies any blood or sediment in his urine and any pain with urination. He has had no fever, weight gain, weight loss, or night sweats. His medical history includes type 2 diabetes and high blood pressure treated with medications. He does not smoke but drinks a six pack of beer weekly. He has been married for 35 years. His mother died of a myocardial infarction in her 70s and his father is currently in his 80s with high blood pressure and arthritis. On examination you see a mildly obese male who is alert and cooperative. His blood pressure is 130/70 with a heart rate of 80. He is afebrile and his cardiac, lung, and abdominal examinations are normal. On visualization of the anus you see no inflammation, masses, or fissures. Digital rectal examination reveals a smooth, enlarged prostate. No discrete masses are felt. There is no blood on the glove or on guaiac testing. An analysis of the urine shows no red blood cells, white blood cells, or bacteria.
What disorder of the anus, rectum, or prostate is this most likely to be?
A) Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH)
C) Prostate cancer
D) Anorectal cancer
107. A 45-year-old African-American minister comes to your clinic for a general physical examination. He has not been feeling very well for about 3 months, including night sweats and a chronic low-grade fever of 100 to 101 degrees. He denies any upper respiratory symptoms, chest pain, nausea, constipation, diarrhea, blood in his stool, or urinary tract symptoms. He has had some lower back pain. He has a past history of difficult-to-control high blood pressure and high cholesterol. He has had no surgeries in the past. His mother has diabetes and high blood pressure. He knows very little about his father because his parents divorced when he was young. He knows his father died in his 50s, but he is unsure of the exact cause. The patient denies smoking, drinking, or drug use. He is married and has three children. On examination he appears his stated age and is generally fit. His temperature is 99.9 degrees and his blood pressure is 160/90. His head, ears, nose, throat, and neck examinations are normal. His cardiac, lung, and abdominal examinations are also normal. On visualization of the anus there is no inflammation, masses, or fissures. Digital rectal examination elicits an irregular, asymmetric, hard nodule on the otherwise normal posterior surface of the prostate. Examination of the scrotum and penis are normal. Laboratory results are pending.
What disorder of the anus, rectum, or prostate is mostly likely in this case?
A) Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH)
C) Prostate cancer
D) Anorectal cancer
108. Which is true of the pectinate or dentate line?
A) It is a palpable landmark.
B) It demarcates the areas supplied by the central nervous system from the peripheral nervous system.
C) It is the border between the anal canal and the rectum.
D) It is not visible on proctoscopic examination.
109. Which is a sign of benign prostatic hyperplasia?
A) Weight loss
B) Bone pain
110. Important techniques in performing the rectal examination include which of the following?
B) Waiting for the sphincter to relax
C) Explaining what the patient should expect with each step before it occurs
D) All of the above
111. An elderly woman with dementia is brought in by her daughter for a “rectal mass.” On examination you notice a moist pink mass protruding from the anus, which is nontender. It is soft and does not have any associated bleeding. Which of the following is most likely?
A) Rectal prolapse
B) External hemorrhoid
C) Perianal fistula
D) Prolapsed internal hemorrhoid