Organisatiestructuren - Henry Mintzberg
Organisatiestructuren - Henry Mintzberg.
Deze samenvatting is uitgebreid geschreven. Hierdoor staan naast de essentiële onderwerpen ook de uitleg er van bij.
Strategy Safari - Henry Mintzberg, Bruce Ahlstrand, Joseph Lampel
Summary of the book Strategy Safari, for the course Organization & Environment, given at the Radboud University for Business Administration students.
Samenvatting Strategy Safari, voor het vak Organization & Environment van de Radboud Universiteit.
Summary Organisation and Environment
Extensive summary from the book Strategy Safari written by Mintzberg. The summary contains a lot of pictures from the book.
According to Mintzberg's classification of managerial roles (Verified Answer)
1. According to Mintzberg's classification of managerial roles, the role of a(n) is to transmit information received from outsiders or from other employees to members of the
c. resource allocator
2. According to Mintzberg's classification of managerial roles, which of the following is a kind of decisional role?
3. In order to predict human behavior, it is best to supplement intuitive opinions with information derived from
a. systematic study
c. organizational theory
d. direct observation
e. common sense
4. Myriam is analyzing the gender roles of men and women in management in the United States
and comparing them to the gender roles in management in Japan. She is surveying fifty male
and fifty female managers in each country to compare their daily behavior. Myriam's study
contributes to OB. exemplifies how
c. corporate strategy
d. political science
5. _________ helped Amazon revolutionize the bookselling industry.
a. Luthan's findings on management behavior
b. The availability of Big Data
c. Mintzberg's Theory of Management
e. Evidence-based management
6. Which of the following is true regarding systematic study?
a. It attributes causes and effects based on intuition.
b. It involves supporting decisions based on gut feelings.
c. It analyzes relationships based on previous experiences.
d. It involves analyzing relationships based on scientific data.
e. It involves taking action based on instinct.
7. Which of the following is true of systematic study?
It analyzes relationships based on previous experiences.
It involves analyzing relationships based on scientific data.
It involves taking action based on instinct.
It attributes causes and effects based on intuition.
It involves supporting decisions based on gut feelings.
8. ________ refers to the heterogeneity of organizations in terms of gender, age, race, ethnicity,
sexual orientation, and inclusion of other diverse groups.
a. Cultural similarity
b. Workforce diversity
c. Organizational congruity
d. Workforce associability
e. Operational homogeneity
9. Which of the following terms best describes organizations that allow people to communicate
and work together even though they may be thousands of miles apart?
a. hierarchical organizations
b. networked organizations
c. flat organizations
d. matrix organizations
e. stable organizations
10. Which of the following is the major challenge for managers in a fully networked organization?
a. retaining team members who can easily move to another employer when demand for their
b. managing people who work together but are geographically separated.
c. managing contract and temporary workers.
d. maintaining a " virtual office " through the use of computers, interoffice networks, and the
e. eliminating the need for paper communication by relying entirely on e-mail, file transfers,
and the like.
11. __________ diversity refers to diversity with respect to attributes that are less easy to observe initially but that can be inferred after more direct experience.
12. Which of the following is the best example of mockery as a tool of discriminatory treatment
a. Because she is considerably older than the rest of her team, Hannah's colleagues often
do not invite her to team lunches or informal team get-togethers.
b. Rifka's supervisor often stereotypes Rifka because of her ethnic heritage and makes jokes
about her ethnicity.
c. Most of Lean ne's co-workers are male and share inappropriate jokes at the office.
d. Joan's boss sets impossible targets and reprimands her in front of her colleagues if she
fails to complete them on time.
e. Sheena is the only African-American employee in her department and often feels left out
of office jokes and gossip.
13. A person who is made fun of because he is an Arab-American is being subjected to
a kind of discrimination in work environments.
14. Which of the following explains why the relationship between age and job performance is
likely to be of increasing importance during the next decade?
a. A decline in immigration has opened up more entry-level positions for older workers.
b. Increasing job opportunities are opening up in the domestic sector, resulting in a dearth
c. A majority of people believe that productivity rises as a person grows older.
d. The workforce is shrinking and older workers are compelled to work beyond retirement.
e. U.S. legislation, in effect, outlaws mandatory retirement.
15. Green Planet, an environmental organization, recently opened an office in Indonesia. The
organization is currently looking for employees to staff a deforestation project in the country.
They need to recruit individuals who understand the intricacies of Jakarta's culture, the
mindset of the locals, and are fluent in the local language. Which of the following are they
most likely to consider while they recruit for these positions?
e. length of service
16. ________ refers to the ability to exert force against external objects.
a. Extent flexibility
b. Body coordination
c. Static strength
d. Dynamic flexibility
e. Cognitive ability
17. Which of the following best describes the physical ability known as dynamic strength?
a. the ability to expend a maximum of energy in one or a series of explosive acts.
b. the ability to maintain equilibrium despite forces pulling off balance.
c. the ability to coordinate the simultaneous actions of different parts of the body.
d. the ability to exert muscular force repeatedly or continuously over time.
e. the ability to move the trunk and back muscles as far as possible.
18. The physical ability that allows a body to maintain equilibrium despite opposing forces is
a. static strength
b. extent flexibility
e. body coordination
19. The physical ability that allows a body to continue maximum effort at maintaining prolonged
effort over time is known as ________
a. extent flexibility
d. body coordination
e. static strength
20. The theory of cognitive dissonance was proposed by
a. Geert Hofstede
b. Leon Festinger
c. Ivan Petrovich Pavlov
d. Abraham Maslow
e. Daryl Bern
21. Anna Jonas owns a manufacturing firm in Indonesia and strongly believes that it is important
that workers' rights be respected. However, because of the recent economic meltdown, she
makes the management pay workers a wage which is below ethical standards. In addition,
the working conditions are below standards because of low investment in safety equipment.
She knows her actions are unethical but continues to do so to avoid major losses. Anna is
most likely to be experiencing
a. positivity offset
b. ethical evasion
c. cognitive dissonance
e. emotional contagion
22. Which of the following is most likely to be related to reduced absences and lower resignation
a. high cognitive dissonance
b. high emotional contagion
c. low organizational commitment
d. low psychological empowerment
e. high job involvement
23. ________ refers to a positive feeling about one's job resulting from an evaluation of its
b. Job satisfaction
c. Positivity offset
d. Constructive dismissal
e. Job design
24. In her work in the publishing industry, Vera Loranzo seeks out new authors who she considers promising. In the past two years, she has found a number of new writers whose work she thought was exceptional and immersed herself in the task of helping them shape their
manuscripts for submission to her managers for publishing. Although she was extremely
proud of the results, none of the authors she worked with were chosen for publication. After
learning about her management's decision, she is extremely frustrated and is beginning to
resent the job she does. However, she knows there is nothing she can do and continues
working because of the good perks and salary benefits the job offers. How can Loranzo's job
attitude be best described?
a. low job satisfaction
b. high psychological empowerment
c. high positivity offset
d. low job involvement
e. low emotional contagion
25. Employees with positive core self-evaluations believe in their inner worth and basic
competence and are more satisfied with their jobs than those with negative core
self-evaluations. The concept of positive core self-evaluations indicates that
a. job conditions have a direct influence on job satisfaction
b. employees should be regularly monitored and provided with feedback
c. promotions and growth opportunities influence job satisfaction
d. pay always has a direct correlation with job satisfaction
e. personality plays a role in job satisfaction
26. Which of the following is a type of response to dissatisfaction that is constructive and
27. The exit-voice-loyalty-neglect framework expands employee response to include voice and
loyalty—constructive behaviors that allow individuals to
a. decrease emotional contagion
b. reject unionization and focus on team-building activities
c. tolerate unpleasant situations or revive satisfactory working conditions
d. identify psychologically with their jobs
e. revolt against the management
28. _________refers to feelings that tend to be less intense than emotions and that lack a
29. Which of the following statements is true regarding negotiation?
a. Angry negotiators who have less power than opponants have better outcomes.
b. Displaying a negative emotion at a negotiation can never be effective.
c. Individuals who do poorly in a negotiation develop positive perceptions of their
d. Feeling bad about your performance during a negotiation tends to impair future
e. Individuals who do poorly in a negotiation are more willing to be cooperative in future
30. Which of the following is an example of deviant workplace behavior?
a. taking blame for not achieving a deadline
b. putting forward one's views in a brainstorming session
c. requesting a two-day leave during the Christmas season
d. working during the weekend to make up for backlog
e. sabotaging one's organization's computers
31. Which of the following terms refers to the practice of hiding inner feelings and foregoing
emotional expressions in response to display rules?
a. surface acting
b. active camouflage
c. anchoring bias
d. framing effect
e. bandwagon effect
32. Which of the following terms refers to a person's ability to detect and to manage emotional
cues and information?
b. cognitive dissonance
c. emotional spectrum
d. illusory correlation
e. emotional intelligence
33. Green Earth, an environmental organization in Oklahoma, recently recruited Phyllis Galvan as a project coordinator. Galvan's manager has noticed that ever since she has joined, she has
been extremely positive about her work and takes up challenges without complaining. In
addition, she maintains a positive ambience by helping out colleagues and smiling at
everyone she interacts with. Her behavior has had a positive effect on her colleagues, who
have started behaving in a similar manner. Which of the following concepts is demonstrated
in this example?
a. unit bias
b. emotional contagion
c. Ben Franklin effect
d. anchoring effect
e. emotional dissonance
34. Which of the following are characteristics of the intuitive type of people according to the
Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (M BTI) classification?
a. outgoing, sociable, and assertive in nature
b. use reason, rationality, and logic to handle problems and situations
c. rely on their personal values and emotions to make decisions
d. prefer routine and order and focus on details
e. rely on unconscious processes and look at the overall picture
35. What does the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator classification of S versus N stand for?
36. Which dimension of the Big Five model is a measure of reliability?
b. emotional stability
e. openness to experience
37. Which of the following statements is true about people with positive core self-evaluations?
a. They tend to be disliked by superiors and co-workers.
b. They tend to question their capabilities and capacities.
c. They are committed to their goals and set ambitious goals.
d. They lack persistence to achieve goals.
e. They view themselves as powerless over their environment.
37. According to Rokeach, Value Survey, ________ values refer to desirable end
38. Which of the following is a terminal value according to Rokeach?
a. social recognition
e. personal discipline
39. According to the attribution theory, _________ is one the three main factors which attempt to determine an individual’s behavior.
40. If a person responds to a particular situation in the same way over a long time period, then
the attribution theory states that the behavior demonstrates
41. The tendency to seek out information that reaffirms past choices and to discount information
that contradicts past judgements is known as a(n)
42. A manager believes that he should not hire older workers because they can't learn new skills.
This belief is an example of
a. a confirmation bias
c. an anchoring bias
d. a fundamental attribution error
e. a self-serving bias
43. Sarah Covington, a sales manager at Synergy Corporation Bank, often keeps low expectations of her team. She feels that they are underqualified for their job and do not have substantial experience to sell a large number of accounts. Covington's team does not feel motivated enough and invariably underperforms and misses targets on a regular basis. Which of the following concepts best explains the team's poor performance?
a. confirmation bias
b. contrast effect
c. hindsight bias
d. self-fulfilling prophecy
e. bandwagon effect
44. The tendency to believe falsely, after an outcome of an event is actually known, that one
would have accurately predicted that outcome is known as a(n) ______ bias,
45. If Alberta is a categorized as a Theory X manager, which of the following behaviors is she
most likely to exhibit?
a. She will let her employees choose their own goals.
b. She will strictly control all the details of any project she is managing.
c. She will trust her employees to use their discretion in most matters.
d. She will empower her subordinates.
e. She will delegate authority extensively to junior managers.
46. According to goal-setting theory, goals are more likely to have a stronger impact on
a. tasks are complex rather than simple
b. tasks are novel rather than well learned
c. goals have long time frames for completion
d. tasks are independent rather than interdependent
e. goals are easy rather than difficult
47. MBO emphasizes goals that are ____
a. tangible, verifiable, and measurable
b. tangible, rewarding, and assigned
c. achievable, controllable, and profitable
d. profitable, attainable, and self-set
e. inspirational, verifiable, and creative
48. _______ argues that people learn to behave to get something they want or to avoid
something they don't want.
a. Theory X
b. Theory Y
c. Operant conditioning theory
d. Social cognitive theory
e. McClelland's theory of needs
49. Edith believes that the methods for determining salary hikes and bonuses in her company are
extremely unfair. In this case, Edith perceives a lack of _______ justice.
50. Logan is an employee who processes health insurance forms. Initially he was criticized by his supervisor for sloppy work, but thereafter he improved considerably. Now he consistently
processes his forms without errors and even does more than his fair share of work. However,
Logan's supervisor has not responded to the extra effort he has put in, giving him no praise
or monetary benefits. This leads Logan to believe that his supervisor is biased against him.
According to the expectancy theory, in this situation, there is a problem in the
e. rewards-personal goals
51. Managers at Flavors, a restaurant chain, train their employees such that in the absence of
employees someone else trained in the same skills can step in and do the job equally well.
Thus, many modules in training are extensive as they provide employees with details of the
skill sets required for different jobs. In practice, this lengthy training program helps the
company as a well-trained and flexible workforce is at their disposal at all times. The
managers at Flavors use ________
b. vertical enhancement
c. job rotation
d. job sharing
52. An arrangement that allows two or more individuals to split a traditional 40-hour-a-week job
b. job sharing
c. job rotation
53. After the training and development manager at Add Worth, Nicole Hayes, resigned, the CEO
has made it a priority that the position be filled soon by someone of equal expertise and
experience. To locate the right candidate, Jennifer Ray, the HR manager, has been contacting
recruitment firms, checking job sites, and pushing for referrals from the employees. However,
she has only found candidates with little or no experience in the field who were willing to
work full time for the position. At the next meeting with the CEO, Jennifer proposes an
alternative strategy; she suggests hiring two experienced candidates who are open to the idea
of handling the training needs on a part-time basis as a team. The CEO listens to her
proposal but is not too convinced by it. Which of the following, if true, would strengthen
Jennifer's proposal to use job sharing for the vacant position?
a. A good proportion of the company's prized workforce comprises employees from the baby
boomer generation who are set to retire in the impending future.
b. Trainers are exempted from the requirement of being at the office throughout the
common core period of the workday.
c. The employees of the company on the work council have planned to demand the flextime
d. A rival firm recently adopted telecommutingto reduce administrative costs cutting into
its bottom line.
e. The headhunting firms that Jennifer contacted are usually helpful in generating a good
pool of potential candidates.
54. For employee stock ownership plans to be effective in improving performance, they must
a. be planned such that they are unaffected by company profitability
b. be based on the market compensation philosophy
c. be based solely on productivity like gainsharing plans
d. be implemented such that employees psychologically experience ownership
e. be determined on the basis of performance appraisals and recent performance
55. Which of the following statements is true regarding employee recognition?
a. Employee stock option is a more powerful workplace motivator than recognition.
b. Employee recognition programs are expensive.
c. Critics argue that employee recognition programs are highly susceptible to political
manipulation by management.
d. Employee recognition is an extrinsic reward.
e. Centralized programs across multiple offices in different countries can hinder the process
of employee recognition programs.
56. Which of the following is true regarding formal groups?
a, They lack clearly defined structures and roles for their members.
b. They are natural formations that arise in response to the need for social contact.
c. They have negligible impact on employee performance and behavior.
d. They are marked by stipulated behaviors in pursuit of organizational goals.
e. A group of people who come together to protest against a new law make up a formal
57. Similarity is a characteristic under the social identity theory that manifests itself in the __________.
a. tendency of people to link themselves to high-status groups in an attempt to define
b. tendency of people to use the group as a means of understanding who they are and how
they fit into the world
c. tendency of ingroup members to prefer and endorse the products, ideas, and aspects of
someone else's culture over their own
d. tendency of ingroup members to notice and emphasize identities that reflect how
different they are from other groups
e. tendency of people who have greater uniformity in values and characteristics to have
greater group identification as well
58. Which of the following statements is true with regard to the punctuated-equilibrium model of
a. It characterizes groups as exhibiting long periods of inertia interspersed with brief
b. It involves the two strategies of groupthink and groupshift to break out of the phases of
c. It does not consider the changes in patterns of group activities in response to deadlines
and time constraints.
d. It applies to all permanent work groups.
e. It follows the five stages of forming, storming, norming, performing, and adjourning.
59. Which of the following is true with regard to social loafing?
a. Social loafing decreases when rewards are added for collective performance of the group.
b. Social loafing is a result of the emphasis on individual outcomes over shared outcomes.
c. Social loafing involves the cumulative rise in productivity when teams increase in size.
d. Social loafing is witnessed less in collectivist cultures where people take pride in group
e. Social loafing reflects the drastic rise in employee performance when employees work
60. When ______ is of importance in decision making, group decisions are preferred to
a. acceptance of solution
e. clear responsibility
61. People scoring high on _________ are valuable in teams because they're good at backing up
fellow team members and at sensing when their support is truly needed.
c. emotional stability
e. openness to experience
62. While discussing their marketing campaign for a new product, the members of the
cross-functional team responsible for Carver Inc. realized that a couple of changes relating to
their prior plan would be beneficial. The offer of a franchising that had earlier been brushed
off by the company head was discussed thoroughly, and it was decided that it would be
implemented on a trial basis initially and on full scale if found to work well. From the
information provided, it can be concluded that this cross-functional team has a high degree of ________
63. _______ are defined as organized mental representations of the key elements within a
team's environment that team members share.
a. Mental models
b. Path-goal models
c. Individual models
d. Task models
e. Specific models
64. When teams are performing nonroutine activities, stimulate discussion, promote critical assessment of problems and options, and can lead to better team decisions.
a. relationship conflicts
b. disciplinary conflicts
c. discriminatory conflicts
d. task conflicts
e. resource allocation conflicts
65. Work should be performed by an individual if:
a. the work creates a common purpose or set of goals for the people in the group that is
more than the aggregate of individual goals
b. several tasks that are interdependent are to be performed for completing the work
c. the work is simple and does not require diverse input
d. performing the work requires learning a new technology or understanding a new system
e. the work is complex and requires different perspectives
66. Communication that flows to a higher level in the group or organization is called
a. intrapersonal communication
b. upward communication
c. horizontal communication
d. lateral communication
e. downward communication
67. Which of the following is an example of upward communication?
a. The heads of the different departments of Carver Inc. have met to discuss their plans for
the coming year.
b. The assembly line workers have conducted a signature campaign asking for the revision
of the old pay scales.
c. The management has recently given a copy of the new safety policies that the employees must abide by in their daily work
d. Jennifer has just received an outstanding performance rating as a part of the yearly appraisals.
e. Sherry is holding a project initiation meeting with her team to familiarize her team with the guidelines and requirements
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