Summary Statistics for programming with R based on study guide
For the fall midterm of Statistics for CSAI I, this is based on the study guide that was provided by Dr. T. J. Wiltshire. It contains applications of basic R principles, basic statistics (measures of dispersion), how to plot through R and GGplot.
Types of validity
Null vs alternative hypotheses
Creating variable names in R
Using a working directory and loading data in R
Logical and arithmetic operators in R
Data frame and matrix operations and structures
Differences between inf, NA, NaN and NULL in R
Factors in R
Relationship between different measures of dispersion/spread
Sums of squared errors, variance, standard deviation
How to use functions for dispersion/spread in R and their interpret their
Types of kurtosis, how they look, and values associated with them
Types of skew, how they look, and values associated with them
Properties of the mean and its relationship to other measures of central tendency
How to extract particular elements of a vector
The different functions that can be used for plotting in R, what their output looks
like, and how to appropriate specify the arguments
How to interpret information provided in scatterplots, box plots, bar charts, and
Things to include to make good graphs
Manipulating and extracting from character strings in R
Coercing variable types in R
The different functions for generating descriptive statistics for entire data sets, for variables, and
for groups within data sets as well as their output and how to use their arguments
Interpreting the descriptive statistics output by R and how to report them in text
Long and wide formats for data and when they are appropriate
Exam 1 Study Guide - Chapter 13 & 14
This study guide / class notes is meant to be a comprehensive summary of everything that is needed to get you through the first exam. It covers all of the fundamentals of vectors (without the unnecessary physics), all the way up to curvature and normal vectors. At the beginning, you are provided some important prerequisite knowledge, and at the end you are given study questions for that exam you will be taking.
NOTE: The preview you see may show fragments / missing information as it does not recognize some math terms. And the text to show off different laws is smaller than the page preview. Stuvia definitely needs to work on making the preview accurate to how documents actually look.
Biol-113 Midterm-2 (2015)
1. What is the substance required to cleave the vector DNA during recombinant DNA technology?
2. Anatomical features that are fully developed and functional in one group of organisms but reduced and functionless in a similar group are termed
3. All living organisms share characteristics such as: DNA, the molecule that passes information between generations, metabolic processes like glycolysis and the ability to utilize specific energy sources. This is thought to be due to
The presents of transitional forms
Limited environmental stimuli
4. NADPH and ATP are used in the
cyclic electron pathway.
citric acid cycle.
Calvin cycle reactions.
noncyclic electron pathway.
5. Eukaryotic chromosomes are composed of
6. Mendel carried out most of his research with
7. During what stage of meiosis do sister chromatids separate from each other?
8. Chemical reactions that require the input of energy are
9. Inbreeding within a population is an example of
10. Which of the following crosses will yield four phenotypes in a ratio of 9:3:3:1?
RrYy x RrYy
RrYy x rryy
RRYY x RRYY
RRYY x rryy
rryy x rryy
11. During crossing-over,
chromatids exchange segments of genetic material.
chromosomes switch poles.
chromosomes become chromatin.
mitosis becomes meiosis.
chromatin becomes chromosomes.
12. Which fossil evidence is considered an intermediate between reptiles and birds?
13. Which is NOT true according to Mendel's law of segregation?
Fertilization restores the presence of two factors.
One factor must be dominant and one factor recessive in each individual.
Factors separate from each other during gamete formation.
Each individual contains two factors for each trait.
Each gamete contains one copy of each factor.
14. The _____ indicates the gene combination of an individual.
15. In humans, the diploid number of chromosomes is
16. Which of the following crosses will yield only homozygous recessive offspring?
RrYy x rryy
RRYY x RRYY
rryy x rryy
RRYY x rryy
RrYy x RrYy
17. Alternative forms of a gene that influence the same trait and are found at the same location in homologous chromosomes are called
18. Which of the following is NOT correct concerning the law of independent assortment?
It follows the observation that all maternal chromosomes end up in the egg.
It is based upon the process of meiosis.
It was the second law of heredity established by Mendel.
Each pair of factors separates independently.
All possible combinations of factors can occur in the gametes.
19. Which evidence for evolution uses impressions of plants and animals pressed into sedimentary rock?
20. What lines up at the metaphase plate during metaphase II of meiosis and metaphase of mitosis?
each chromosome composed of two sister chromatids for meiosis, each chromosome composed of one sister chromatid for mitosis
each chromosome composed of two sister chromatids for meiosis, homologous chromosomes for mitosis
homologous chromosomes for meiosis, each chromosome composed of two sister chromatids for mitosis
each chromosome composed of two sister chromatids at both
homologous chromosomes at both
21. Mass extinctions
are the result of humans exploiting wildlife and using pesticides.
require life to evolve again from protocells.
occurred in cycles when organisms fail to evolve.
have occurred about 4 or 5 times in fossil record, due in some cases to catastrophic changes.
are the result of humans damaging the natural environment.
22. The ____ is the total number of alleles of all the gene loci in all the members of a population.
23. Africa, Asia, South America, and Antarctica share some patterns of primitive (fossil) plants and early reptiles, but do not have similar mammal populations. This therefore
suggests that the earlier plants and reptiles evolved while continents were joined but mammals radiated into diverse groups after separation.
is an unsolved puzzle probably due to the random nature of biological evolution.
suggests that the mammals evolved earlier while continents were joined but plants and reptiles radiated into diverse groups after separation.
suggests that a pattern of land bridges existed at different times in geological history.
casts serious doubts upon the theory of continental drift and fused land masses.
24. Which molecules are the reactants or substrates for aerobic respiration?
lactate and oxygen
glucose and carbon dioxide
oxygen and glucose
glucose and water
carbon dioxide and water
25. When does apoptosis occur?
during injury repair
26. A cross that involves two traits is called a ______ cross.
27. What are the products of photosynthesis?
carbon dioxide and carbohydrate
water and oxygen
oxygen and carbohydrate
water and carbon dioxide
carbohydrate and water
28. The organisms examined by Darwin on the Galapagos Islands that were most important in his development of the theory of natural selection were
monkeys and armadillos.
rabbits and hares.
29. In humans, widow's peak (W) is dominant over straight hairline (w). If a heterozygous male marries a female with a straight hairline, what percent of their children can be expected to have widow's peak?
can't be determined
30. Synapsis occurs during what stage of meiosis?
31. Where does glycolysis take place within the cell?
32. The raw material for evolutionary change is
33. In which stage of mitosis do the chromosomes line up in the center of the cell?
34. Wherever an evolutionary tree branches, there is assumed to be
a common ancestor.
a suddenly new species.
an embryo only.
always a living member of that group.
no living member of that group.
35. Where within the cell is ATP built up?
36. During what stage of mitosis does the nuclear envelope disappear and the chromosomes become distinct?
37. Which of the following conditions does NOT contribute to evolution?
unchanging environmental conditions
38. The treatment of a disorder by inserting genetic material into an organism is called
chorionic villi sampling.
39. Enzymes are specific. This means that they
have a preferred pH.
have a particular substrate.
are only in certain cells.
have a preferred temperature.
require ATP and cofactors in order to work properly.
40. Which of the following is true about natural selection?
It acts on genotypes rather than phenotypes.
It always selects for forms that are a mutated variation.
It assures the survival of each fit individual.
On average, it favors the survival of young with adaptive characteristics.
It always selects for more complex forms.
41. When creating transgenic bacteria, plants, and animals
any cell may be used as long as is does not have a cell wall.
only eggs may be used for animals while and cell may be used for plants and bacteria.
only eggs may be used for plants and animals while any cell may be used for bacteria.
only eggs may be used to create any transgenic organism.
transgenic bacteria are created first and then used to create transgenic plants and animals.
42. When only a few individuals survive unfavorable times, thereby losing the majority of genotypes in the next generation, it is called
a founder effect.
a bottleneck effect.
43. According to the evolutionary theory, which statement is NOT true?
Evolution explains the diversity of life.
Diversity occurs because various living things are adapted to different ways of life.
All living things are NOT descended from a common ancestor.
Evolution explains the unity of life.
All living things share the same fundamental characteristics.
44. In humans, brown eyes (B) is a simple dominant trait over blue eyes (b). A brown-eyed woman whose child is blue-eyed would have the genotype
45. What is the term used to describe the accumulation of small changes in the gene pool of a species over time?
46. Which of the following is not a use of DNA fingerprinting?
Identifying Superbowl footballs
Determining a predisposition to cancer
All of the above are uses of DNA fingerprinting
47. What are the two sets of reactions for photosynthesis?
Calvin cycle reactions, citric acid cycle
light reactions, glycolysis
light reactions, Calvin cycle reactions
glycolysis, citric acid cycle
electron transport chain, light reactions
48. Genetically modified organisms (GMOs) that are used as crop plants to feed humans are able to express new traits because
they have been injected with these new molecules and there is no natural method for them to be degraded in the organism.
they grow bacteria on the surface of leaves or roots that produce these molecules.
their normally occurring molecules have been modified to serve different functions.
they now contain genes from another organism that code for these molecules.
they are hybrid plants that contain new alleles.
49. ________ uses an electrical field to separate DNA fragments based upon their length.
Polymerase chain reaction
50. Transgenic crop plants have been created that do all of the following except
are resistant to insect damage.
produce human hormones or antibodies.
grow two kinds of crops, like the pomato which produces both tomatoes and potatoes.
are resistant to herbicides.
transgenic plants have been produced that can do all of the things listed.
Stewart Chapter 10: Vectors and the Geometry of Space
Textbook notes on Stewart's Essential Calculus, Chapter 10: Vectors and the Geometry of Space. Notes are handwritten and color coded, with graphs and diagrams.
Bewijzen van Analyse 2
The evidence given by this document the following topics: - Test for divergence - The integral test - The estimation of the remainder by an integral - The alternating series test with the estimation of the remainder - The ratio test - If a function Has A power series expansion, this expansion must be the Taylor series - Taylor's inequality using the formula for the remainder of the Taylor series - The sketch of the idea of Fubini's theorem - Deriving the formula for changing variables for the case of polar coordinates - Formula for implicit differentiation - gradient gives the direction of steepest descent - gradient is orthogonal to level curves and level surfaces - Directional derivative can be computed as the dot product of the direction and the gradient - A function f: R ^ n⟶R ^ m is linear as and only if the function can be written in the form y = Ax, where a is a constant matrix. - The collection of all multi-linear transformations between vector spaces fixed is itself a vector space, and thus also in particular L (V, W) as well as V '. - V and W are normed spaces, then L (V, W) also a normed space. - Let f be a function of the R to R ^ n and for i = 1, ..., n f_i: R⟶R the component functions of f, i.e., f (t) = (F_1 (t), ..., f_n (t)) ^ '. Then f is continuously in a a∈R point if and only if, for i = 1, ..., n the functions f_i are all continuous. - If f is a negligible function, then -f negligible. - For functions from R to R 17 is defined equivalent to the old definition of Stewart and secondary school, ie f ^ '(x) = lim┬ (h → 0) 〖(f (x H) -f (x)) / h〗 - Let f and g be differentiable functions from V to W. Prove That fg is differentiable, too, and That d (fg) df = dg. - Let F and G be functions or X Such That F (X) G (X) is defined. Prove That d (FG) = (dF) GF (dG) if F and G are differentiable. - Let f: R ^ m ^ n⟶R and g: R ^ p ^ m⟶R be functions. Note f be differentiable at c and g be differentiable at f (c). Prove g∘f That is differentiable in c and That D (g∘f) (c) = (Dg (f (c))) (DF (c))
Support Vector Machines
Basic Summary of how Support Vector Machines Work, with historical background and the algorithms idea from the basic to Kernel functions.