Summary Statistics for programming with R based on study guide
For the fall midterm of Statistics for CSAI I, this is based on the study guide that was provided by Dr. T. J. Wiltshire. It contains applications of basic R principles, basic statistics (measures of dispersion), how to plot through R and GGplot.
Types of validity
Null vs alternative hypotheses
Creating variable names in R
Using a working directory and loading data in R
Logical and arithmetic operators in R
Data frame and matrix operations and structures
Differences between inf, NA, NaN and NULL in R
Factors in R
Relationship between different measures of dispersion/spread
Sums of squared errors, variance, standard deviation
How to use functions for dispersion/spread in R and their interpret their
Types of kurtosis, how they look, and values associated with them
Types of skew, how they look, and values associated with them
Properties of the mean and its relationship to other measures of central tendency
How to extract particular elements of a vector
The different functions that can be used for plotting in R, what their output looks
like, and how to appropriate specify the arguments
How to interpret information provided in scatterplots, box plots, bar charts, and
Things to include to make good graphs
Manipulating and extracting from character strings in R
Coercing variable types in R
The different functions for generating descriptive statistics for entire data sets, for variables, and
for groups within data sets as well as their output and how to use their arguments
Interpreting the descriptive statistics output by R and how to report them in text
Long and wide formats for data and when they are appropriate
Exam 1 Study Guide - Chapter 13 & 14
This study guide / class notes is meant to be a comprehensive summary of everything that is needed to get you through the first exam. It covers all of the fundamentals of vectors (without the unnecessary physics), all the way up to curvature and normal vectors. At the beginning, you are provided some important prerequisite knowledge, and at the end you are given study questions for that exam you will be taking.
NOTE: The preview you see may show fragments / missing information as it does not recognize some math terms. And the text to show off different laws is smaller than the page preview. Stuvia definitely needs to work on making the preview accurate to how documents actually look.
Biol-113 Midterm-2 (2015)
1. What is the substance required to cleave the vector DNA during recombinant DNA technology?
2. Anatomical features that are fully developed and functional in one group of organisms but reduced and functionless in a similar group are termed
3. All living organisms share characteristics such as: DNA, the molecule that passes information between generations, metabolic processes like glycolysis and the ability to utilize specific energy sources. This is thought to be due to
The presents of transitional forms
Limited environmental stimuli
4. NADPH and ATP are used in the
cyclic electron pathway.
citric acid cycle.
Calvin cycle reactions.
noncyclic electron pathway.
5. Eukaryotic chromosomes are composed of
6. Mendel carried out most of his research with
7. During what stage of meiosis do sister chromatids separate from each other?
8. Chemical reactions that require the input of energy are
9. Inbreeding within a population is an example of
10. Which of the following crosses will yield four phenotypes in a ratio of 9:3:3:1?
RrYy x RrYy
RrYy x rryy
RRYY x RRYY
RRYY x rryy
rryy x rryy
11. During crossing-over,
chromatids exchange segments of genetic material.
chromosomes switch poles.
chromosomes become chromatin.
mitosis becomes meiosis.
chromatin becomes chromosomes.
12. Which fossil evidence is considered an intermediate between reptiles and birds?
13. Which is NOT true according to Mendel's law of segregation?
Fertilization restores the presence of two factors.
One factor must be dominant and one factor recessive in each individual.
Factors separate from each other during gamete formation.
Each individual contains two factors for each trait.
Each gamete contains one copy of each factor.
14. The _____ indicates the gene combination of an individual.
15. In humans, the diploid number of chromosomes is
16. Which of the following crosses will yield only homozygous recessive offspring?
RrYy x rryy
RRYY x RRYY
rryy x rryy
RRYY x rryy
RrYy x RrYy
17. Alternative forms of a gene that influence the same trait and are found at the same location in homologous chromosomes are called
18. Which of the following is NOT correct concerning the law of independent assortment?
It follows the observation that all maternal chromosomes end up in the egg.
It is based upon the process of meiosis.
It was the second law of heredity established by Mendel.
Each pair of factors separates independently.
All possible combinations of factors can occur in the gametes.
19. Which evidence for evolution uses impressions of plants and animals pressed into sedimentary rock?
20. What lines up at the metaphase plate during metaphase II of meiosis and metaphase of mitosis?
each chromosome composed of two sister chromatids for meiosis, each chromosome composed of one sister chromatid for mitosis
each chromosome composed of two sister chromatids for meiosis, homologous chromosomes for mitosis
homologous chromosomes for meiosis, each chromosome composed of two sister chromatids for mitosis
each chromosome composed of two sister chromatids at both
homologous chromosomes at both
21. Mass extinctions
are the result of humans exploiting wildlife and using pesticides.
require life to evolve again from protocells.
occurred in cycles when organisms fail to evolve.
have occurred about 4 or 5 times in fossil record, due in some cases to catastrophic changes.
are the result of humans damaging the natural environment.
22. The ____ is the total number of alleles of all the gene loci in all the members of a population.
23. Africa, Asia, South America, and Antarctica share some patterns of primitive (fossil) plants and early reptiles, but do not have similar mammal populations. This therefore
suggests that the earlier plants and reptiles evolved while continents were joined but mammals radiated into diverse groups after separation.
is an unsolved puzzle probably due to the random nature of biological evolution.
suggests that the mammals evolved earlier while continents were joined but plants and reptiles radiated into diverse groups after separation.
suggests that a pattern of land bridges existed at different times in geological history.
casts serious doubts upon the theory of continental drift and fused land masses.
24. Which molecules are the reactants or substrates for aerobic respiration?
lactate and oxygen
glucose and carbon dioxide
oxygen and glucose
glucose and water
carbon dioxide and water
25. When does apoptosis occur?
during injury repair
26. A cross that involves two traits is called a ______ cross.
27. What are the products of photosynthesis?
carbon dioxide and carbohydrate
water and oxygen
oxygen and carbohydrate
water and carbon dioxide
carbohydrate and water
28. The organisms examined by Darwin on the Galapagos Islands that were most important in his development of the theory of natural selection were
monkeys and armadillos.
rabbits and hares.
29. In humans, widow's peak (W) is dominant over straight hairline (w). If a heterozygous male marries a female with a straight hairline, what percent of their children can be expected to have widow's peak?
can't be determined
30. Synapsis occurs during what stage of meiosis?
31. Where does glycolysis take place within the cell?
32. The raw material for evolutionary change is
33. In which stage of mitosis do the chromosomes line up in the center of the cell?
34. Wherever an evolutionary tree branches, there is assumed to be
a common ancestor.
a suddenly new species.
an embryo only.
always a living member of that group.
no living member of that group.
35. Where within the cell is ATP built up?
36. During what stage of mitosis does the nuclear envelope disappear and the chromosomes become distinct?
37. Which of the following conditions does NOT contribute to evolution?
unchanging environmental conditions
38. The treatment of a disorder by inserting genetic material into an organism is called
chorionic villi sampling.
39. Enzymes are specific. This means that they
have a preferred pH.
have a particular substrate.
are only in certain cells.
have a preferred temperature.
require ATP and cofactors in order to work properly.
40. Which of the following is true about natural selection?
It acts on genotypes rather than phenotypes.
It always selects for forms that are a mutated variation.
It assures the survival of each fit individual.
On average, it favors the survival of young with adaptive characteristics.
It always selects for more complex forms.
41. When creating transgenic bacteria, plants, and animals
any cell may be used as long as is does not have a cell wall.
only eggs may be used for animals while and cell may be used for plants and bacteria.
only eggs may be used for plants and animals while any cell may be used for bacteria.
only eggs may be used to create any transgenic organism.
transgenic bacteria are created first and then used to create transgenic plants and animals.
42. When only a few individuals survive unfavorable times, thereby losing the majority of genotypes in the next generation, it is called
a founder effect.
a bottleneck effect.
43. According to the evolutionary theory, which statement is NOT true?
Evolution explains the diversity of life.
Diversity occurs because various living things are adapted to different ways of life.
All living things are NOT descended from a common ancestor.
Evolution explains the unity of life.
All living things share the same fundamental characteristics.
44. In humans, brown eyes (B) is a simple dominant trait over blue eyes (b). A brown-eyed woman whose child is blue-eyed would have the genotype
45. What is the term used to describe the accumulation of small changes in the gene pool of a species over time?
46. Which of the following is not a use of DNA fingerprinting?
Identifying Superbowl footballs
Determining a predisposition to cancer
All of the above are uses of DNA fingerprinting
47. What are the two sets of reactions for photosynthesis?
Calvin cycle reactions, citric acid cycle
light reactions, glycolysis
light reactions, Calvin cycle reactions
glycolysis, citric acid cycle
electron transport chain, light reactions
48. Genetically modified organisms (GMOs) that are used as crop plants to feed humans are able to express new traits because
they have been injected with these new molecules and there is no natural method for them to be degraded in the organism.
they grow bacteria on the surface of leaves or roots that produce these molecules.
their normally occurring molecules have been modified to serve different functions.
they now contain genes from another organism that code for these molecules.
they are hybrid plants that contain new alleles.
49. ________ uses an electrical field to separate DNA fragments based upon their length.
Polymerase chain reaction
50. Transgenic crop plants have been created that do all of the following except
are resistant to insect damage.
produce human hormones or antibodies.
grow two kinds of crops, like the pomato which produces both tomatoes and potatoes.
are resistant to herbicides.
transgenic plants have been produced that can do all of the things listed.
Stewart Chapter 10: Vectors and the Geometry of Space
Textbook notes on Stewart's Essential Calculus, Chapter 10: Vectors and the Geometry of Space. Notes are handwritten and color coded, with graphs and diagrams.
NAPSRx® PHARMACEUT CNPR - Quiz Bank (Latest Quiz 1-Quiz 20) All Answers Correct.
University of Phoenix - PHARMACEUT CNPR Quizzes Bank - Already Graded A
1. Pharmaceuticals are arguably the most socially important healthcare product.
2. Pharmaceutical development is a high-risk undertaking, in which many promising leads prove disappointing.
3. Pharmaceutical sales are highest in which geographical regions?
A. The U.S., Saudi Arabia, and Japan
B. The U.S., Western Europe, and Japan
C. Western Europe, Australia, and Canada
D. Western Europe, Canada, and Saudi Arabia
4. The U.S. accounts for about ____ of the world’s pharmaceutical revenues.
5. Which of the following has fueled recent growth in the pharmaceutical industry?
A. increased international standardization and regulation
B. international legalization of DTC advertising
C. population growth and increased life expectancies
D. all of these
6. According to your manual, which statement accurately describes the predicted relationship between pharmaceutical companies and genomic research facilities?
A. Genomic research company is another term for ethical research company.
B. Partnerships between pharmaceutical companies and genomic companies will not prove immediately profitable.
C. Pharmaceutical companies have little to no interest in partnerships with genomic research companies.
D. Pharmaceutical companies will be genomic research companies\' biggest competitors in the coming years.
7. Prescription drug therapy is not cost-effective for insurance companies and healthcare providers.
8. The high price of healthcare is explained by the high price of medicines.
9. One of the oldest and least effective pharmaceutical marketing techniques is DTC (direct-to-consumer) advertising.
10. What influences the number of districts in a region?
A. the number of qualified sales representatives who apply to represent that region
B. the region\'s population
C. both the district\'s population and the number of qualified sales representatives who apply to represent that region
D. none of these
11. What is an example of the regionalization of healthcare delivery systems?
A. California and Florida have different demographics.
B. California and Florida have different drug companies.
C. California and Florida have different DTC advertisements.
D. California and Florida have different prescription reimbursement policies.
12. The heart of a pharmaceutical sales team is the Regional Manager.
13. Most DMs did not start as representatives.
14. How many territories are in a typical district?
A. 1 to 2
B. 8 to 12
C. 30 to 40
D. 50 to 100
15. What is the most effective method for grabbing market share?
A. comparative selling
B. criticizing the competition
C. power point presentations
D. questioning doctors\' choices
1. Pharmaceutical reps mainly visit pharmacies.
2. It usually only takes 1-2 calls to a physician before he or she commits to prescribing your product.
3. The pharmacist may dispense a product other than what the physician prescribed
4. According to Chapter 2 of your manual, which of the following would classify as payers?
5. According to your manual, what defines ethical pharmaceutical companies?
A. donating a specified proportion of their revenue to consumer organizations
B. donating a specified proportion of their revenue to the NIH
C. manufacturing generics
D. researching and developing novel drugs
6. One of the most disappointing results of the pharmaceutical industry’s continued investment in R & D is the few new drugs being approved and in development.
7. Thanks to modern medicines, how long are people newly diagnosed with HIV expected to live?
A. another 10 years
B. another 20 years
C. another 5 years
D. another 50 years
8. How much has the average American lifespan increased since 1890?
A. almost 10 years
B. almost 15 years
C. almost 30 years
D. almost 5 years
9. What is a treatment group?
A. a group of patients assigned to receive a specified treatment
B. a group of patients who have volunteered to receive the active drug, but not the placebo
C. A group of substances being tested
D. A list of study protocols
10. What is the main difference between a blinded and double-blinded study?
A. A blinded study is performed to control the placebo effect whereas a double-blinded study is performed to control the observer effect.
B. A double-blinded study has two control groups, but a blinded study only has one.
C. Blinded studies are more scientifically rigorous.
D. In a double-blind study, neither the study staff nor the study participants know which subjects are in the experimental group and which in the control.
11. What does asymptomatic mean?
A. exhibiting atypical signs or symptoms that were not indicated in the product packaging
B. not exhibiting signs or symptoms
C. refusing treatment for symptoms
D. toxic or harmful to the human body
1. Which term denotes the study of bodily functions (as opposed to structures)?
2. In its broadest definition, a drug is any substance that produces a physical or psychological change in the body.
3. How does the Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act (FFDCA) define a drug?
A. any substance intended for use in the diagnosis, cure, mitigation, treatment or prevention of disease, or a substance other than food intended to affect the structure or function of the body
B. any substance that causes legitimate side effects
C. any substance that outperforms a placebo
D. any substance that produces a physical or psychological change in the body
4. Which statement about vitamins is CORRECT?
A. Most of the body\'s required vitamins are manufactured in the bone marrow.
B. Most of the body\'s required vitamins are products of the body\'s metabolic processes.
C. Most of the body\'s required vitamins must be taken in from outside the body.
D. The body manufactures most of the vitamins it requires.
5. ADME testing measures the rate at which the body absorbs the drug, distributes it to the organs necessary to produce the desired effect, metabolizes it into waste material and then excretes it from the body.
6. ADME testing is primarily used in what field?
7. Which statement about placebos is CORRECT?
A. By definition, placebos must be designed to affect everyone equally.
B. Placebo effects can be distinguished from drugs because they are always desirable.
C. Placebo effects can lead to withdrawal symptoms.
D. Placebos can be distinguished from drugs because they do not lead to withdrawal symptoms.
8. On average, only about 5 of 4,000 drugs studied in the laboratory are eventually studied in people.
9. Which statement is TRUE about drugs taken sublingually?
A. Sublingual administration is the most common route of administration.
B. Sublingual drugs are absorbed directly and almost immediately into the bloodstream.
C. Sublingual drugs are used primarily to treat the mouth.
D. Sublingual drugs must first pass through the intestinal wall and liver, just like oral drugs, but can be used in patients with swallowing problems.
10. What are 3 of the 7 rights of drug administration?
A. the right patient, the right drug, and the right dose
B. the right supervision, the right patient, and the right dose
C. the right technique, the right documentation, and the right supervision
D. the right to information about one\'s medication, the right to question one\'s treatment, and the right to a second opinion
11. Pro-drugs are administered in an active form, which is metabolized into an inactive form.
12. The kidney of an 85-year-old person excretes drugs only _____ as efficiently as that of a 35-year-old person.
A. around 15%
B. around 30%
C. around 50%
D. This is impossible to predict because it depends on such a wide range of other factors.
13. The normal age-related decrease in kidney function can help doctors determine an appropriate dosage based solely on a person’s age.
14. What DIFFERENTIATES a caplet from a tablet?
A. Caplets are made of compressed powder.
B. Caplets are shaped like capsules and have film coatings to aid in swallowing.
C. Caplets are used for sustained-release drugs.
D. Caplets contain hard cylindrical granules, liquids, or some combination of these.
15. Where will you find the legend “Caution: Federal Law prohibits dispensing without a prescription”?
A. on the label of all prescription drugs
B. on the labels of all generic drugs
C. only on the labels of drugs dispensed at pharmacies (as opposed to, e.g., product samples at doctors\' offices)
D. only on the labels of product samples
16. What happens in slow acetylators?
A. Drugs that are metabolized by N-acetyl transferase are less likely to reach toxic levels than in fast acetylators.
B. Drugs that are metabolized by N-acetyl transferase tend to reach higher blood levels and remain in the body longer.
C. Drugs that are metabolized by N-acetyl transferase tend to reach lower blood levels, but remain in the body longer.
D. None of these statements apply to slow acetylators.
1. About _____ of the people in the U.S. are slow acetylators.
2. Which of the following statements about drug-drug interactions is INCORRECT?
A. Drug-drug interactions are always harmful.
B. Duplication can involve two drugs with the same effect causing toxicity when taken together.
C. Duplication can involve two drugs with the same effect intensifying each other\'s therapeutic effects without any serious side effects.
D. Opposition can involve two drugs with opposing actions interacting to reduce one\'s effectiveness but not the other\'s.
3. Smoking decreases the effectiveness of some drugs.
4. Which of the following statements about dietary supplements is INCORRECT?
A. Because dietary supplements are not drugs, interactions with drugs are not a concern.
B. Dietary supplements are regulated as foods.
C. Dietary supplements contain vitamins, minerals, amino acids, and/or herbs.
D. all of these
5. Which statement/s is/are INCORRECT about an ideal drug, or magic bullet as Ehrlich phrased it?
A. It does not exist.
B. It would be aimed precisely at a disease site.
C. It would not harm healthy tissues.
D. All of these statements are correct.
6. Which statement accurately differentiates resistance from tolerance?
A. Doctors can predict resistance but not tolerance.
B. There is no difference between tolerance and resistance.
C. Tolerance is caused by genetic mutations, but resistance is always innate.
D. Tolerance refers to a person\'s diminished response to a drug after repeated use, while resistance applies to microorganisms\' or cancel cells\' abilities to withstand drug effects.
7. Between 3% and 7% of hospital admissions in the United States are estimated to be for treatment of adverse drug reactions.
8. Which statement is true about the universal scale for quantifying the severity of an adverse drug reaction?
A. The severities of adverse drug reactions are quantified by their chronicity.
B. The severities of adverse drug reactions are quantified by their threat to life.
C. None of these statements are true because the scale uses different criteria.
D. None of these statements are true because there is no such scale.
9. Why is non-compliance a serious public health concern?
A. It erodes trust between physicians and pharmaceutical sales representatives.
B. It increases the cost of medical care.
C. It indicates a lack of accountability among healthcare providers.
D. Noncompliance is a serious public health concern for all of these reasons.
10. Which of the following is NOT eligible for patent protection under U.S. regulations?
A. the drug itself
B. the method of delivering and releasing the drug into the bloodstream
C. the way the drug is made
D. Companies can be granted patents for all of these things.
11. Drugs\' trade names are often unrelated to their intended use.
12. Like foods and household products, generic drugs are usually lower quality than the brand name drugs for which they are marketed as equivalents.
13. Legally, bioequivalence of different versions of a drug can vary by up to ________.
D. The drugs must be 100% equivalent.
14. Which of the following statements about biologics is INCORRECT?
A. They are also called “large molecule drugs.
B. They are derived from living materials.
C. They do not cause immune responses.
D. Vaccines are a type of biologic.
15.“Large molecule” products are developed and manufactured by a chemical process.
16. What are drugs that attract or bind to cell receptors in order to mimic or enhance activities by endogenous chemical messengers?
C. orphan drugs
1. Which term denotes how an API works in the body?
B. mechanism of action
C. site of action
D. therapeutic group
2. What cements the active and inert components together to maintain cohesive portions?
3. What does the medical abbreviation BID denote?
A. as needed
B. bioavailable in diet
C. quality of drugs
D. twice a day
4. What is the medical abbreviation for as needed?
5. Which components might cause patients\' different reactions to brand name and generic drugs?
A. differences in active ingredients
B. differences in inactive ingredients
C. differences in both active and inactive ingredients
D. Patients\' reactions to a brand name and generic drugs are equivalent.
6. All cells have a nucleus.
7. Which of the following does NOT affect drug response?
A. the patient\'s genetic makeup, age, body size, and use of other drugs and dietary supplements.
B. the patient\'s other conditions or diseases.
C. whether or not the patient takes the drug properly
D. All of these factors influence drug response.
8. Drug reactions are predictable because they do not occur after a person has been previously exposed to the drug one or more times without any allergic reactions.
9. What is the typical relationship between a drug\'s site of administration and site of action?
A. They are usually somewhat removed from each other.
B. They are usually the same site.
C. They should not be the same site for economic reasons.
D. They should not be the same site for safety reasons.
10. What is CMAX?
A. an abbreviation for the maximum concentration of white blood cells
B. the peak plasma concentration on a measuring curve
C. the time interval within which a given dose of a drug is expected to have a therapeutic effect
D. the time of peak plasma concentration on a measuring curve
11. Which of the following is NOT a main concept in clinical pharmacology?
A. Drug Distribution and Elimination
12. Which of the following is NOT a route of drug administration?
13. How are intradermal drugs delivered?
A. by injection under the skin
B. through a skin patch
C. through a topical ointment
D. under the tongue
14. What is an example of intravenous drug delivery?
A. a subcutaneous insulin injection
B. a transdermal nicotine patch
C. an injection of anesthetic directly into the bloodstream
D. any type of pre-surgery anesthetic
15. What are the major organs of the gastrointestinal system?
A. the heart, the blood vessels, and the blood
B. the lymph nodes and lymph vessels
C. the mouth, esophagus, stomach, liver, pancreas, gallbladder, small and large intestines
D. the nasal passages, the trachea, the diaphragm, and the lungs
1. Who is normally responsible for selling to distributors?
B. Local Territory Representatives
D. Pharmacy Benefit Managers
2. How often do secondary drug wholesale distributors buy their drugs directly from manufactures?
B. almost always
3. By FDA law, large chain pharmacies are not allowed to buy directly from drug manufactures.
4. Only 3 companies account for nearly 90% of all drug wholesale sales.
5. What type of sale bypasses the need for intermediary distributors?
A. brokerage sales
B. drop shipment sales
C. integrated delivery network sales
D. manufacturer-direct sales
6. What is a group purchasing organization (GPO)?
A. a company that owns and operates 3 or fewer pharmacies
B. a wholesaler that obtains drugs from manufacturers and delivers them directly to pharmacists\' warehouses
C. an entity consisting of two or more hospitals or other health care entities that negotiates contracts on behalf of its members
D. any distributor of a prescription drug that conducts at least 22 transactions every 2 years
7. Prescriptions dispensed by mail-order pharmacies are, on average, around ____________ than those dispensed by retail pharmacies.
A. 3 times smaller
B. just slightly smaller
C. 3 times larger
D. 10 times larger
8. Which of the following is NOT a type of non-stock sale?
A. brokerage sales
B. dock-to-dock sales
C. drop shipments
D. All of these are examples of non-stock sales.
9. What is another term for rebates?
A. after-market arrangements
B. in-state arrangements
C. mail-order arrangements
D. sell-side arrangements
10. The PDMA is the Prescription Drug Manufacturers Association.
11. A company that owns and operates three or fewer pharmacies is an ____________.
A. authorized distributor
B. independent drug store
C. in-state wholesaler
D. integrated drug store
12. Which section of a drug\'s package insert information covers the usual dosage range?
A. clinical pharmacology
D. indications and usage
13. Drug labels must include indications, usage information, and contraindications.
14. What should be included in the description section of a drug\'s package insert information?
A. the drug\'s proprietary name and the established name
B. the indications
C. the mechanism of action
1. Exclusivity gives exclusive _____, is granted by the FDA, and can run concurrently with a patent or not.
A. marketing rights
B. research work
C. trademark assignment
2. What differentiates exclusivity from a patent?
A. Exclusivity can be granted at any time during a drug\'s lifespan.
B. Exclusivity can encompass a wide range of claims, whereas patents do not.
C. Exclusivity is only granted upon the drug\'s FDA approval.
D. Exclusivity typically lasts longer than patents.
3. What is required of an invention for it to be worthy of patent protection?
A. It must be novel, useful, and not obvious.
B. It must have been on the market for at least 3 months.
C. It must have competitors.
D. all of these
4. A generic drug is ______ to the originator brand-name drug in dosage, strength, safety, and quality.
5. Which of the following is NOT required by the FDA\'s Criteria for Equivalency?
A. The drugs are adequately labeled.
B. The drugs contain identical amounts of the same active ingredients.
C. The drugs contain identical amounts of the same inactive ingredients.
D. The drugs involve the same dosage form and route of administration.
6. A generic drug is ______ to the originator brand-name drug in dosage, strength, safety, and quality.
7. What list is generally considered the most reliable source of information on therapeutically equivalent drug products?
A. International Council on Harmonization (ICH) Handbook
B. “Approved Drug Products with Therapeutic Equivalence”
C. The Blue Book
D. The Red Book
8. Which of the following is an Orange Book rating?
9. What is the term for chemical equivalents which, when administered in the same amounts, will provide the same biological or physiological availability as measured by blood and urine levels?
A. biological equivalents
B. branded generics
C. therapeutic alternatives
D. therapeutic equivalents
10. What term denotes a drug that is identical or bioequivalent to the originator brand-name drug in dosage form, safety, strength, route, quality, performance, characteristics, and intended use?
C. therapeutic alternative
11. What term denotes the dispensing of an unbranded generic product for the product prescribed?
A. chemical substitution
B. generic substitution
C. pharmaceutical license
D. Pharmacist\'s license
12. What is the duration of a patent challenge?
A. 2 weeks
B. 4 weeks
C. 180 Days
D. 1 Year
1. How is a drug sample closet or cabinet like a grocery store shelf?
A. Drug sample closets are like grocery store shelves in all these ways.
B. The generic products are usually kept on the top shelf.
C. The more expensive products are always kept on the top shelf.
D. The more visibility you can give your drug, the more likely that it will be prescribed.
2. Pharmaceutical representatives do not typically store and secure their own drug samples.
3. Sampling is sometimes the most important factor in a pharmaceutical rep’s success.
4. The FDA approves storage conditions for drug products.
5. Pharmaceutical representatives must always record the amount of drug samples left and obtain a signature for that amount.
6. What is prohibited by Section 503 of the Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act, as amended by the Prescription Drug Marketing Act?
A. pharmaceutical companies providing research results directly to consumers
B. the purchase of another company\'s drug research without written permission from the FDA
C. the sale of pharmaceutical products to more than 8 different therapeutic classes
D. the sale, purchase, or trade or offer to sell, purchase, or trade prescription drug samples
7. The federal government does not regulate the drug sampling for a pharmaceutical representative.
8. Which of the following is permitted by Section 503 of the Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act?
A. hospitals donating their prescription drug coupons to qualified charitable organizations
B. hospitals donating their prescription drug samples to qualified charitable organizations
C. hospitals selling their prescription drug samples to qualified charitable organizations at reduced costs
D. none of these
9. Which entity issues monographs that define how drugs should be stored, and what variance is allowed in their stated contents?
B. Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act
C. International Council on Harmonization (ICH)
D. United States Pharmacopoeial Convention
10. Storage conditions for drug products are based on information supplied by the manufacturer.
11. Medications are usually unaffected by changes in temperature, light, humidity, and other environmental factors.
12. In which cases can degraded drugs SOMETIMES still be used?
C. when the amount of remaining drug has not fallen lower than 85-90% of that stated on the label
D. when the degraded drug causes additional side effects, but they are nonfatal
13. Drug recalls are almost always negotiated with the FDA beforehand.
14. Which problem would NOT be improved by electronic prescribing systems?
A. patients doctor-shopping for controlled substances
B. pharmacists misreading prescriptions
C. physicians wasting time calling pharmacies
D. none of these
15. What should you do if you receive a shipment from your employer and you notice that there are twice as many samples as what is posted on the packing slip?
A. Call your Sales Manager to inform him/her of the mistake and ask for instructions on proper procedure.
B. Give each physician twice as many samples as this will increase the promotion of this particular drug.
C. Store the samples for your next trade show.
D. Store the samples in your home office and use them as samples as needed.
1. Which area of drug R&D has seen the largest cost increases?
A. animal testing
B. clinical trials
2. On average, how long does it take for a new drug to be developed (i.e., from the discovery of the initial compound to FDA approval)?
A. 3-5 years
B. 10-15 years
C. 15-20 years
D. 20-30 years
3. Which of the following regulatory agencies is industry-based (i.e., run mainly by the companies themselves)?
A. Drug Enforcement Administration
B. European Medicines Agency
C. Pharmaceutical Research and Manufactures of America (PhRMA)
D. the FDA
4. Which of the following factors has simplified the pharmaceutical R&D process?
A. an intensive regulatory process
B. growing demand in the medical community for more complex data about pharmaceuticals
C. the increasing number of procedures in Phase III trials
D. none of these
5. The landmark FDA Modernization Act of 1997 was a major step forward in enabling safe and effective new drugs and biologics to be made available sooner to patients.
6. According to your manual, which type of system is the best way to deliver healthcare?
A. a central-price system
B. a market-based system
C. a non-negotiable system
D. a patient-restrictive system
7. How would increased pharmaceutical price controls affect the U.S. healthcare system?
A. Increased price controls would encourage the development of more life-saving medicines.
B. Increased price controls would limit the FDA\'s power.
C. Increased price controls would similarly increase companies\' incentives to invest in R&D.
D. Increased price controls would stifle innovation.
8. Which of the following invests a greater percentage of sales in research than the biotech sector?
A. the aerospace sector
B. the communications sector
C. the electronics sector
D. none of these
9. What was the intent of the Bayh-Dole Act and the Stevenson-Wydler Technology Innovation Act?
A. to curb the commercialization of technologies
B. to hasten the commercialization of technologies that otherwise might not be used
C. to keep government-funded ideas under government control
D. to secure funding for public university-based research initiatives
10. According to your manual, what did the G10 Medicines Group recently report about the pharmaceutical industry in the European Union (EU)?
A. The EU pharmaceutical industry has surpassed the US pharmaceutical industry because of increased price controls in the EU.
B. The EU pharmaceutical industry has surpassed the US pharmaceutical industry because of increased price controls in the US.
C. The EU should continue to discourage links between private and public research facilities.
D. There is poor collaboration between publicly- and privately-funded research centers.
1. The aim of preclinical pharmacological studies is to obtain data on the safety and effectiveness of the lead compound.
2. Toxicity information in preclinical studies helps provide confidence about a drug\'s safety.
3. Pharmacological studies using animals are regulated under Good Laboratory Practice.
4. Why do drugs administered to patients only contain APIs?
A. economic reasons
B. for reasons of safety and economics
C. safety reasons
D. They don\'t.
5. Which of the following does NOT affect a drug\'s ability to permeate membranes?
A. the drug\'s chemical composition
B. the drug\'s polarity
C. the drug\'s size
D. the drug\'s vesicles
6. Through which barriers can lipid-soluble drugs usually pass?
A. cell membranes
B. the blood brain barrier, but not the gastrointestinal tract
C. the gastrointestinal tract, but not the blood brain barrier
D. neither the gastrointestinal tract nor the blood-brain barrier
7. How are weak acid drugs generally absorbed by the stomach?
A. at about the same speed as weak basic drugs
B. more quickly than weak basic drugs
C. more slowly than weak basic drugs
D. not at all
8. Which of the following routes of administration do NOT completely bypass the liver?
A. intravenous administration
B. rectal administration
C. transdermal administration
D. All of these completely bypass the liver.
9. Why are intravenous drug dosages easier to control than drugs administered transdermally?
A. Intravenous drugs are neutralized by the pH conditions of the gastrointestinal tract.
B. Intravenous drugs are subject to first-pass metabolism by the liver.
C. The entire dose is available in the bloodstream to be distributed to the target site.
D. The site of administration is the same as the site of action.
10. Which of the following does NOT affect a drug\'s distribution to its target tissues?
A. the drug\'s lipid-solubility
B. the drug\'s polarity
C. the vascular nature of the drug\'s target tissue
D. All of these factors affect a drug\'s distribution to its target tissues.
11. Which of these medical terms means “to apply the drug on the skin surface”?
12. Carcinogenicity studies are carried out to identify the tumor-causing potential of a drug.
1. According to NIH ethical guidelines, which of the following is the most important criteria in selecting subjects for clinical studies?
B. relative risk
C. scientific objectives
2. Which statement about the IRB is INCORRECT?
A. The investigator must inform the IRB/IEC of any changes in the research activity.
B. The IRB/IEC acts as a third party to oversee the welfare of the trial subjects
C. The IRB/IEC has the right to stop a trial or require that procedures and methods be changed.
D. The members of the IRB/IEC must be experts in the topic of the study
3. Which phases of clinical studies are open label and which are blinded?
A. All clinical trials are blinded except for Phase I.
B. All clinical trials are blinded except for Phase IV.
C. All clinical trials are blinded.
D. Phase I and IV trials are often open label, but Phase II and III are double-blinded or at least blinded.
4. If it is not possible to measure the direct effects of a drug, what is used instead?
A. likelihood ratios
B. odds ratios
C. predictive values
D. surrogate markers such as blood pressure and cholesterol levels
5. Which of the following is an observational study that first identifies a group of subjects with a certain disease and a control group without the disease, and then looks to back in time (e.g., via chart reviews) to find exposure to risk factors?
A. case series
B. case-control study
C. cross-sectional study
D. longitudinal cohort study
6. Which measure of central tendency is the sum of all observations divided by the number of observations?
A. interquartile range
7. Which measurement describes the number of new events that occur during a specified period of time in a population at risk for the event (e.g., lung infections per year)?
B. odds ratio
D. relative risk
8. Which of the following measures is used to describe the variability of the population mean?
C. standard deviation
D. standard error of the mean
9. Which of the following terms denotes the extent to which a test actually measures what it is supposed to be measuring, or what we think it is measuring?
10. What are the Kaplan-Meier analysis and Cox proportional hazards analysis?
A. measures of inference errors
B. methods for ensuring validity
C. methods of survival analysis
D. types of surrogate markers
11. What section of a clinical paper describes subjects\' entry and exclusion criteria?
12. Which document sets out how a trial is to be conducted (i.e., the study\'s general design and operating features)?
A. case report
B. consent form
C. inclusion criteria
13. When designing and performing clinical trials, several ethical constraints must be considered. Which of the following is NOT one of these ethical constraints?
A. geographic variations
B. independent review
C. scientific validity
D. social value
1. What is one way in which large molecule drugs DIFFER from small molecule drugs?
A. Large molecule drugs are mainly protein-based drugs that develop in biological systems such as living cells.
B. Large molecule drugs are synthesized using techniques based on chemical reactions of reactants.
C. Small molecule drugs are also known as biopharmaceuticals.
D. Small molecule drugs are mainly protein-based drugs that develop in biological systems such as living cells.
2. Which of the following statements about vaccines is INCORRECT?
A. After initial vaccination, booster doses may be needed to maximize vaccines\' immunological effects.
B. Vaccine development focuses on how to reduce virulence while retaining the ability to produce immunity.
C. Vaccines are types of small molecule drugs.
D. Vaccines contain antigenic components that are obtained from or derived from the pathogen.
3. What is an advantage of attenuated vaccines over inactivated vaccines?
A. Attenuated vaccines are less expensive to prepare.
B. Attenuated vaccines do not revert to virulence.
C. Attenuated vaccines have a more stable shelf life.
D. Attenuated vaccines require multiple doses.
4. How are toxoids derived?
A. from a patients\' own MHC markers
B. from the body\'s naturally occuring immune globulins
C. from the body\'s naturally occuring neurotransmitters
D. from the toxins secreted by a pathogen
5. What is the estimated annual death toll for malaria?
A. 300 to 500 million people
B. 300,000 to 500,000 people
C. 500,000 to 1 million people
D. 1.5 to 3.5 million people
6. There are more white blood cells than red blood cells for the same volume in the human body.
7. How was insulin primarily obtained from the 1930s to the 1980s?
A. artificial human growth factors
B. non-diabetic human donors
C. porcine and bovine extracts
D. recombinant biopharmaceutical processes
8. Which of the following are NOT types of cytokines?
D. All of these are types of cytokines.
9. Which of the following is NOT a type of hormones?
A. amino acid derivatives
B. blood glucose
10. Which of the following is a basic gene therapy technique?
A. in situ, in which patients\' genetically faulted tissues are removed, loaded with normal genes in vectors, and returned to the patients\' bodies
B. in situ, in which patients\' tissues are removed, transplanted into animal donors where the normal genes are produced, and then returned to the patients\' bodies
C. in vitro, in which patients\' genetically faulted tissues are removed, loaded with normal genes in vectors, and returned to the patients\' bodies
D. in vitro, in which patients\' tissues are removed, transplanted into animal donors where the normal genes are produced, and then returned to the patients\' bodies
11. Which statement about stem cells is CORRECT?
A. Multipotent stem cells are the most controversial because they can only be harvested from embryos.
B. Multipotent stem cells can develop into a much broader range of types of cells than pluripotent or totipotent cells.
C. Pluripotent stem cells can develop into many cell types, but not a new individual.
D. Totipotent stem cells can produce a number of specialized cells, but not a new individual.
12. Leukemia is a condition in which the stem cells in the bone marrow malfunction and produce an excessive number of immature white blood cells.
13. Which of the following are types of vectors used in gene therapy?
A. multipotent stem cells
B. pluripotent stem cells
D. totipotent stem cells
14. Which of the following is NOT a type of stem cell?
15. Traditional vaccines are prepared in a number of ways. Which of the following is NOT one of them?
1. Effective drug therapy is a cost-effective and highly valuable means of controlling total healthcare expenditures and improving quality of life.
2. Drug utilization review (DUR) programs…
A. ...have traditionally been used to ensure the appropriate, safe, and effective use of prescription drugs, but are increasingly shifting their focus to minimizing costs.
B. ...have traditionally been used to minimize costs, but are increasingly focused on ensuring the appropriate, safe, and effective use of prescription drugs..
C. …are increasingly popular, and expected to be used by almost 90% of HMOs in the coming years.
D. …seldom require retrospective monitoring of physicians\' prescribing patterns.
3. DUR programs involve retrospective monitoring of physicians’ prescribing patterns.
4. A formulary is a list of prescription drugs approved by insurance coverage.
5. The history of drug formularies in the U.S. extends back to…
A. ...the 1980s.
B. ...the American Revolution.
C. ...the mid-twentieth century.
D. ...the Victorian era.
6. Which of these is NOT a type of formulary?
A. a closed three-tier formulary in which generic drugs are listed on Tier 1
B. a five-tier formulary that is supplemented by a step therapy program
C. an open formulary that places few restrictions on coverage or access
D. All of these are types of formularies.
7. Which of the following is NOT a recent formulary trend?
A. multi-tier strategies
B. prior authorization
C. step therapy
D. the repeal of Hatch-Waxman
8. What did the Hatch-Waxman Act do?
A. make it easier for generic manufacturers to compete with R&D companies
B. make it more difficult for generic manufacturers to compete with R&D companies
C. make it more difficult for generic manufacturers to manufacture and distribute off-patent drugs
D. none of these
9. What is opportunity cost?
A. the resources required to have multiple opportunities
B. the resources required to make a decision
C. the value of a sacrificed alternative
D. the value of having multiple opportunities
10. According to your manual, the three primary entities that fund pharmaceuticals are employers, the government (Medicare and Medicaid), and ______.
11. Which of these individuals would NOT be a member of a P&T committee?
A. a company\'s medical liaison
B. an attending physician
C. the physician who heads the surgery department
D. All of these people are typically members of the P&T committee.
12. Almost 98% of employed Americans are now covered by a HMO, a preferred provider organization, or a point-of-service plan.
1. Pharmaceutical companies are more interested in acquiring and exploiting another’s brands than in acquiring another\'s R&D and sales and marketing assets.
2. Ideally, when should brand strategy development for a new drug begin?
A. as soon as a clinical need is identified
B. as soon as a lead compound has been discovered
C. during Phase II clinical trials
D. during Phase IV trials
3. Which of the following is an example of a expressive value?
A. I own a BMW because I like feeling the road.
B. I own a BMW because I like the bells and whistles.
C. I own a BMW because I want people to know that I\'m a serious driving enthusiast.
D. I own a BMW because it\'s German like I am.
4. According to your manual, which of the following is NOT an example of a functional value?
5. It is rare for pharmaceutical companies to explore, develop, and promote expressive values with which patients might identify.
6. To be competitive, pharmaceutical brands must be distinctive. They must possess defining characteristics that are perceived by customers to be unique, attractive, and relevant to their needs.
7. With the global need for new drugs, pharmaceutical brand names are not subject to regulatory approval.
8. How has DTC advertising changed over the last few decades?
A. DTC advertising has become a tactic used only by large brands.
B. DTC advertising has become a tactic used only by small brands.
C. DTC advertising has become an essential marketing tactic for both large and small brands.
D. DTC advertising has become an important marketing tactic all over the world.
9. Which of the following MOST strongly influences physicians\' prescribing habits?
A. doctors\' personal experiences, and their patients\' unique situations
B. DTC advertising
C. other types of pharmaceutical marketing
D. patients\' opinions about DTC advertising
10. Pharmaceutical companies spend more on promotional activities than on R&D.
11. Which of the following would be MOST well-served by mass-market print and TV ads?
A. a brand that treats a rare, acute condition
B. a brand that treats a small but active patient base
C. a brand that treats a very common chronic condition
D. a very expensive brand
1. How do companies use prescriber data?
A. in all of these ways
B. to conduct research
C. to identify individual patients who the physician should speak with about the product
D. to identify patients who can be added to targeted mailing lists
2. Under PhRMA Code, which of the following is acceptable?
A. cash for a meal if the food at an educational event has run out, given that the cash is from the rep\'s own pocket
B. cash for a meal if the food at an educational event has run out, given that the cash is NOT from the rep\'s own pocket
C. modest meals during recreational events at which some educational information is exchanged
D. modest meals for staff members attending educational events
3. Under the AMA Guidelines on Gifts to Physicians from Industry, which gifts are NOT permitted?
A. clipboards and pens worth less than $100
B. drug samples for personal use, given that the physician is retired
C. gifts that are only given to doctors with high prescribing volumes
D. None of these are permitted.
4. Under PhRMA Code, which of the following actions by sales reps are permitted?
A. giving attendees cash from their companies so that they can purchase meals after event food has run out
B. giving attendees cash from their own pockets so that they can purchase meals after event food has run out
C. modest meals during recreational events at which some educational information is exchanged
D. providing modest meals to staff members attending educational events
5. The PhRMA Code on Interactions with Healthcare Professionals is only voluntary and not mandatory.
6. Which of the following would NOT be considered acceptable promotional items under PhRMA Code?
A. journal subscriptions
B. medical text books
C. pens and clipboards designed to be used by patients in doctors\' offices
7. Under PhRMA Code, what is one example of an acceptable patient education item?
A. a pedometer valued under $100
B. a stopwatch valued under $100
C. an anatomical model valued under $100
D. any of these
8. Under what circumstances does PhRMA Code permit a company to provide entertainment or recreational activities to healthcare practitioners?
A. when the activity is intended to facilitate informational exchange
B. when the practitioner is acting as a bone fide advisory board consultant
C. when the practitioner is providing a legitimate service to the company
D. under none of these circumstances
9. Under PhRMA Code, may a company sponsor a lunch at a 3-day conference if part of it includes an educational program for which attendees may choose to receive CME credit?
A. yes, as long as it is modest
B. yes, as long as the group sponsoring the event has approved it
C. yes, but only if the lunch is clearly separate from the CME portion of the conference
D. no, under no circumstances
10. Which of the following is an arm of the Department of Health and Human Services that investigates regulatory infractions, provides compliance advice, and brings enforcement actions?
A. American Medical Association
B. Drug Enforcement Agency
C. Federal Trade Commission
D. Office of Inspector General
1. It is illegal to ask receptionists for personal information about your clients such as home phone numbers, birthdays, or hobbies.
2. Which of the following is NOT a primary goal or function of the P&T committee?
A. to assist in research on investigational drugs
B. to budget the hospital\'s pharmaceutical expenses
C. to educate sales representatives on legal and ethical guidelines for professional behavior
D. to monitor drug utilization
3. Which of the following is a major challenge facing family medicine?
A. fewer and fewer patients, because most people are opting to see specialists
B. managed care policies eroding patient-doctor relationships
C. too many medical students and not enough positions
D. Family medicine faces all of these challenges.
4. According to your manual, family physicians diagnose and treat approximately what proportion of patients they see (as opposed to referring them to specialists)?
5. Which of the following is NOT one of the steps on the Product Adoption Continuum?
D. These are all steps on the continuum.
6. Which of the following would be classified as a type of somatic psychiatric treatment?
A. drug therapy
B. family therapy
7. Why is the last 10 minutes of each hour usually the best time to make office visits to psychiatrists?
A. Psychiatric research has shown that people are more open-minded at that time.
B. Psychiatric research has shown that people are more relaxed at that time.
C. Psychiatrist often see patients on the hour for 45 minutes.
D. Psychiatrists are usually on their way to the hospital at that time.
8. What is/are an advantage/s of selling to residents?
A. All of these are advantages of selling to residents.
B. It is easier to meet one-on-one with residents than with more established physicians.
C. Residents are often more open-minded.
D. You do not need to face the challenges of a group-selling environments.
9. What is drug utilization review (DUR)?
A. a PBM’s participation in a health plan
B. acceleration of recovery of patients
C. an MCO’s practice of monitoring prescribing patterns
D. the FDA’s approval process and dates of drug delivery
10. Used in the treatment of manic-depressive illness and schizoaffective disorder:
B. Antianxiety agents
C. Mood stabilizers
D. Antipsychotic agents
1. What is the focus of the short call protocol?
A. Asking a quick yes-or-no questions so that you can move to the close
B. beginning with a specific clinical study
C. beginning with a specific patient type
D. Just asking for a few more minutes so that you do not need to bother them again
2. Who is the Medical Science Liaison (MSL)?
A. Someone employed by a hospital who coordinates sales representatives’ visits
B. Someone employed by a hospital who heads the P&T committee and manages the formulary
C. Someone employed by a pharmaceutical company who builds relationships with thoughts leaders and acts as an informational resources
D. Someone employed by a university who coordinates privately funded clinical studies
3. What type of education do MSL’s typically have?
A. bachelor’s degrees
B. graduate-level science degrees
C. master’s degrees
D. only a little college, because their sales experience is far more important
4. How do companies typically judge the MSL team’s contributions?
B. return on education
C. the individual MSL’s sales records
D. the projected sales potential of the MSL’s sales representatives
5. What differentiates push through programs from pull through programs?
A. Push through programs focus on individual patients.
B. Push through programs take place at the physician level.
C. Sales representatives are more involved in pull through programs.
D. Sales representatives are more involved in push through programs.
6. Which of these is NOT a type of pull through program?
B. educational support
C. therapeutic intervention
D. All of these are types of pull through programs.
7. Because pharmaceutical sales reps work mostly out of their homes, it is not important that they work well in a team environment.
8. What is the MOST LIKELY reason that a doctor would lack interest in one of your clinical studies?
A. A competitor has told the doctor to ignore you.
B. The doctor does not like the way you are presenting it.
C. The doctor would prefer to feel like you are selling rather than educating.
D. The doctor’s receptionist has warned him about you.
9. Which of the following is NOT an effective method for reaching the 65 market?
A. being a Medicare Part D information resource
B. knowing the physician-payer mix
C. taking advantage of partnership programs
D. All of these are effective methods for reaching the 65 market.
10. When a physician visits your hospital display, you should begin conversation by asking. “Can I help you?”?
1. Which of the following is NOT a rule in making the most out of your sales calls?
A. counterpart coordination
B. no data dumping
C. reading the environment
D. your agenda, not theirs
2. Specialty care products are more often prescribed by generalist physicians.
3. Side effects that might be considered merely minor annoyances in acute treatment can be a powerful barrier to adoption in chronic therapies.
4. Acute medications, such as antibiotics, are used to address short-term illnesses or symptoms.
5. In some medical cases, a therapy may be initiated by a specialist and monitored and maintained by a primary care physician.
6. Blockbuster drug status typically translates into sales of just under $10 million annually.
7. A generic drug manufacturer\'s greatest challenge is often to replicate drug formulation factors that affect the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic characteristics of the original drug.
8. What differentiates an orphan drug from a blockbuster drug?
A. By FDA Law, orphan drugs have been previously rejected by the FDA
B. Orphan drugs are pediatric therapies.
C. Orphan drugs typically generate far more revenue.
D. Orphan drugs typically treat rare conditions.
9. How long are most calls and visits to physicians\' offices (excluding waiting and driving time)?
A. only a few minutes
B. 15-30 minutes
C. 30-45 minutes
D. about an hour
10. Which of the following is NOT a step in managing rumors?
B. counter attack
11. According to the text, which of the following is considered going to the next level?
A. becoming a micro-thinker
B. meeting the clients\' every need
C. minimizing rumors
D. staying focused
12. What is one of the primary job responsibilities of a retail pharmacist?
A. dispensing pharmaceuticals
B. managing formularies
C. manufacturing pharmaceuticals
D. prescribing pharmaceuticals
13. What is NOT one of the ways in pharmaceutical companies and representatives categorize their customers?
A. acute care vs. chronic care
B. office-based vs. hospital-based
C. primary care vs. specialty care
D. Companies and agents categorize their patients in all of these ways.
1. Which of the following are relatively new prescription drug benefits covered under the Medicare Prescription Drug Improvement & Modernization Act?
A. HMO Plan 2006
B. Medicare Part A
C. Medicare Part B
D. Medicare Part D
2. Which term means “disease producer”?
3. Which type of blood cell plays the most prominent role in fighting infection and disease?
A. red blood cell
B. stem cell
C. validated blood cell
D. white blood cell
4. Which of the following generally resides on a cell surface (or in the cytoplasm) and causes a biological change or activity when stimulated?
5. Renal pertains to:
6. What term denotes the practice of locating genes on a chromosome?
A. gene delivery
B. gene mapping
C. gene therapy
7. What field is MOST concerned with drug effects due to slight genetic differences?
8. Which entity or entities fund/s the National Institutes of Health (NIH)?
B. Pharmaceutical Companies
C. United Nations
D. United States Federal Government
9. With respect to the material in your manual, what does IDN stand for?
A. immunodeficient drug
B. independent drug network
C. integrated delivery network
D. internal doctors network
10. What is SS an abbreviation for?
B. senior specialist
C. Stark Law I & II
D. successful sale
11. What term is used to denote drugs that are non-biological (i.e., chemical) in nature?
B. large molecule
C. parenteral drug
D. small molecule
12. When referring to medication dosage, which medical abbreviation denotes “hour”?
13. Which of the following terms denotes the study of drugs\' beneficial and toxic effects on living cells, tissues, and organisms?
14. What are specialized cells and tissues that work together to perform a specific body function for a common purpose?
15. What is the mechanism of action?
A. a dose of medication that keeps/maintains the necessary plasma concentration levels for therapeutic benefit
B. the method by which a medication produces its therapeutic effects
C. time period between administering a medication and noticing a therapeutic effect
D. typically oral or parenteral
16. What is plasma?
A. the fluid portion of the blood
B. the fluid portion of the lymphatic system
C. the lining of the lungs
D. the lining of the small intestine
17. What is anaphylaxis?
A. a type of chemotherapy
B. An extreme sensitivity and reaction to a foreign substance, including medications
C. An interaction in which one medication reduces the effects of another medication
D. When a medication produces active metabolites
1. Which of the following is NOT a way in which CNS agents are used?
A. as analgesics
B. as anesthetics
C. as anti-convulsants
D. They are used in all these ways.
2. How do cholinergic agonists work?
A. by inhibiting the actions of acetylcholine
B. by inhibiting the actions of GABA
C. by mimicking the actions of acetylcholine
D. by mimicking the actions of GABA
3. Which of the following is considered a sympathomimetic drug that stimulates the alpha-adrenergic receptors?
D. Lung surfactant
4. Which of the following is NOT a type of gastrointestinal agents?
A. gallstone solubizing agents
B. H2 antagonists
D. prolactin inhibitors
5. What is one of the main functions of a tocolytic agent?
A. to decrease urine pH
B. to increase urine pH
C. to induce labor
D. to suppress labor
6. Which of these conditions is NOT treated with antiandrogens?
C. masculinization in women
D. polycystic ovarian syndrome
7. Which types of patients are MOST likely to receive immune globulins?
A. patients with inflammatory conditions
B. patients with weakened immune systems
C. transplant recipients
D. all of these
8. What is iron\'s primary function in the body?
A. carrying oxygen
B. inhibiting dopamine
C. mimicking dopamine
D. neutralizing gastric pH
9. Which of the following is NOT a type of anti-infectant?
B. antimalarial agents
10. What is one difference between entry-level and experienced résumés?
A. Entry-level résumés are more likely to begin with the education section than the experience section.
B. Entry-level résumés are more likely to contain a Summary of Qualifications.
C. Experienced résumés are more likely to contain an Objective.
D. Experienced résumés contain more extracurricular activities.
11. Which statement about targeted cover letters is true?
A. Targeted cover letters are always solicited.
B. Targeted cover letters are always tailored to specific companies.
C. Targeted cover letters are only written for vacant positions.
D. Targeted cover letters should be written in the third-person.
Bewijzen van Analyse 2
The evidence given by this document the following topics: - Test for divergence - The integral test - The estimation of the remainder by an integral - The alternating series test with the estimation of the remainder - The ratio test - If a function Has A power series expansion, this expansion must be the Taylor series - Taylor's inequality using the formula for the remainder of the Taylor series - The sketch of the idea of Fubini's theorem - Deriving the formula for changing variables for the case of polar coordinates - Formula for implicit differentiation - gradient gives the direction of steepest descent - gradient is orthogonal to level curves and level surfaces - Directional derivative can be computed as the dot product of the direction and the gradient - A function f: R ^ n⟶R ^ m is linear as and only if the function can be written in the form y = Ax, where a is a constant matrix. - The collection of all multi-linear transformations between vector spaces fixed is itself a vector space, and thus also in particular L (V, W) as well as V '. - V and W are normed spaces, then L (V, W) also a normed space. - Let f be a function of the R to R ^ n and for i = 1, ..., n f_i: R⟶R the component functions of f, i.e., f (t) = (F_1 (t), ..., f_n (t)) ^ '. Then f is continuously in a a∈R point if and only if, for i = 1, ..., n the functions f_i are all continuous. - If f is a negligible function, then -f negligible. - For functions from R to R 17 is defined equivalent to the old definition of Stewart and secondary school, ie f ^ '(x) = lim┬ (h → 0) 〖(f (x H) -f (x)) / h〗 - Let f and g be differentiable functions from V to W. Prove That fg is differentiable, too, and That d (fg) df = dg. - Let F and G be functions or X Such That F (X) G (X) is defined. Prove That d (FG) = (dF) GF (dG) if F and G are differentiable. - Let f: R ^ m ^ n⟶R and g: R ^ p ^ m⟶R be functions. Note f be differentiable at c and g be differentiable at f (c). Prove g∘f That is differentiable in c and That D (g∘f) (c) = (Dg (f (c))) (DF (c))