Cultural Celebration and Survival: The Early 20th Century Part I
In early spring in 1942, Miné Okubo was walking her old familiar ground around
Berkeley. She had attended the university here, studying art, several years back. The
faculty had been good to her. After getting her master’s degree, Miné was able to
travel to Europe through a university scholarship. Backpacking around France had
been fun, and she had been exposed to wonderful new ideas and people. She felt lucky
too, catching the last boat out of Bordeaux for America just in time as World War II
escalated and the Nazis occupied Paris. 1 Now a few more years had gone by. Miné
felt her career as an artist was finally taking off. After all, she was just thirty years old
and already had her own solo exhibit at the San Francisco Museum of Art.
Miné Okubo, Citizen 13660.
African-American Art: The Harlem Renaissance
New opportunities to pursue art in the 20th century lead to a cultural renaissance
for African Americans. Unlike the small number of 19th-century black artists
recognized today, many African-American artists of the 20th century have been
recorded in art historical scholarship
Victory march of the 369th Infantry
Regiment, Fifth Avenue, New York
James Van Der Zee, Portrait of a
Couple in a Cadillac Garvey promoted ideas of pan-africanism, advocating for unity among all peoples of
African origin in spite of where one was born or of cultural differences. Pride in African
heritage and solidarity of blacks would lead to justice and freedom from oppression.
Garvey’s movement contributed to a general mood in Harlem at the time that embraced
Africa and African heritage as a source of strength and confidence. Intellectuals, such as
William Edward Burghardt Du Bois and Alain Locke, saw pride in African and
African-American heritage as an instrument to promote social agendas aiding the black
community. W.E.B. Du Bois was editor of Crisis, one of several magazines of the
period dedicated to African-American culture and economic and social improvement.
Another important African-American organization, the National Urban League, and its
journal, Opportunity, also advanced the message of the Harlem Renaissance. Aaron Douglas, Crucifixion, 1927 Jacob Lawrence, The Migration of the
Negro, Panel 1: During the War,
There was a Great Migration North
by Southern Negroes, 1940-41 Jacob Lawrence, The Migration of
the Negro, Panel 10: They were very
poor. Jacob Lawrence, The Migration of
the Negro, Panel 42. Augusta Savage, JW Johnson. Early 20th-Century Asian-American Art
Continuing from the late 19th century, a popular interest in America for things
“Asian” led to a steady market for Chinese and Japanese arts and antiquities in the
20th century. Similar to African, Native American and Mexican arts and crafts, Asian
arts appealed to members of the upper classes, mostly white, because they evoked
romantic and exotic images of other peoples and places. Ironically, however, this
desire for objects from the Orient did not stop the xenophobia of the period that was
evident through the discrimination and racism faced by immigrants from China and
Japan, as well as other Asian countries such as India, Korea and the Philippines.
At the turn of the 20th century, most Chinese workers, including women, continued to
be excluded from entry into the United States due to the Exclusion Act and
subsequent laws. After the 1906 earthquake, however, some Chinese were able to take
paper identities, becoming, for example, a paper son
Jade Snow Wong in her San
Francisco Chinatown pottery studio,
1946 Issei in America: The Beginnings of a Japanese-American Art History
Although the first Japanese workers came in the 19th century, artists from Japan who
worked professionally in the U.S. are not well documented until the turn of the 20th
century. The Issei (First generation) were born in Japan and denied U.S. citizenship.
Most immigrated in the hopes of finding a better life at a time when the economic
situation in Japan left many farmers of the working class in need. They suffered under
heavy taxes the government imposed to help finance the militarization of Japan to
protect against the advancement of Western imperialism. Commodore Perry of the
U.S. Navy had forced Japan open to Western trade in 1854. Art of the Japanese American Internment Camps
After the Japanese bombed Pearl Harbor in December, 1941, hostility towards
Americans of Japanese descent increased to such an extent newspapers voiced popular
sentiment among non-Asian Americans that the Japanese in the U.S. posed a serious Miyatake Family Christmas in
Manzanar Internment Camp Chiura Obata, Hatsuki Wakasa Shot
by M.P., 1943. Chiura Obata, Sunset, Water Tower,
1943. Matsusaburo Hibi, Block #9, Topaz, 1945 Taneyuki Dan Harada, The Barracks, Topaz, 1945 Hisako and her daughter, Ibuki, 1942.
Michael D. Brown, Views from Asian California, 1920-1965 : an Illustrated History (San Francisco: M. Brown, 1992),
2 Miné Okubo, Citizen 13660 (N.Y.: Arno Press, 1946), 17. Okubo recounted the events of this day.
Steven Watson, The Harlem Renaissance: Hub of African-American Culture, 1920-1930 (New York: Pantheon Books,
Eloise E. Johnson, Rediscovering the Harlem Renaissance: The Politics of Exclusion (New York: Garland Publishing,
Inc., 1997), 19.
Victor A. Kramer, “Introduction: The Harlem Renaissance Re-Examined” in Harlem Renaissance Re-examined. Victor
A. Kramer and Robert A. Russ. eds. (New York: The Whitston Publishing Co., 1997), 5.
This was during the Prohibition period when alcohol was illegal.
8 Sharon F. Patton, African-American Art (Oxford ; N.Y. : Oxford University Press, 1998), 142.
Samella S. Lewis, African American Art and Artists (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2003), 72.
Regenia A. Perry, Free Within Ourselves: African-American Artists in the Collection of the National Museum of American
Art (Washington, D.C.: National Museum of American Art, 1992), 109.
Quoted in Romare Bearden and Harry Henderson, A History of African-American Artists : From 1792 to the Present
(N.Y.: Pantheon Books,1993), 140.
Anthony W. Lee, Picturing Chinatown : Art and Orientalism in San Francisco (Berkeley: University of California
Press, 2001), 220.
Quoted in Anthony W. Lee, ed., Yun Gee: Poetry, Writings, Art, Memories (Seattle: University of Washington
Press, 2003), 56.
Lee, Picturing Chinatown, 201.
Ibid, 218. Several of Gee’s writings have been reprinted in Lee, Yun Gee: Poetry, Writings, Art, Memories.
Paul Karlstrom, “A Modernist Painter’s Journey in America” in Yun Gee: Poetry, Writings, Art, Memories. Anthony
W. Lee, ed. (Seattle: University of Washington Press, 2003), 32.
Lee, Yun Gee, 15.
Irene Poon, Leading the Way : Asian American Artists of the Older Generation (Wenham, Mass.: Gordon
College, 2001), 25.
Quoted in Iris Chang, The Chinese in America: A Narrative History (N.Y.: Viking Press, 2003), 203.
24 Ibid, 203-205.
Ronald Takaki, Strangers From a Different Shore: A History of Asian Americans (N.Y.: Back Bay Books, 1998), 260-
Kathleen Hanna, “She Finds Her Hands” in Jade Snow Wong: A Retrospective (San Francisco: Chinese Historical Society of
America, 2002), 7.
Ibid, 295, 302.
Ibid, 186, 270-271, 294.
Quoted in Takaki, 324-325.
Ronald Takaki, A Different Mirror: A History of Multicultural America (N.Y.: Back Bay Books, 1993), 246.
Timothy A. Burgard, Great Nature: The Transcendent Landscapes of Chiura Obata (San Francisco: M.H. de Young
Memorial Museum, 2000), 2.
Kimi Kodani Hill, Topaz Moon: Chiura Obata's Art of the Internment Camps (Berkeley: Heyday Books, 2000), 5.Copyright © 2006 C. Cadge-Moore. All rights reserved. 190
Janice T. Driesbach and Susan Landauer, Obata’s Yosemite: The Art and Letters of Chiura Obata from His Trip to the
High Sierra in 1927 (Yosemite National Park: Yosemite Association, 1993), 18.
Deborah Gesensway and Mindy Roseman, Beyond Words: Images from America’s Concentration Camps (Ithaca: Cornell
University Press, 1987), 41.
Diversity 2 - Summary of ALL Articles
Summary of all articles for Diversity 2: Fiske & Taylor, Hornsey & Hogg, Beukeboom & Burgers, Cuddy et al., Johns et al., Homan et al., Vos & van der Zee, Castilla & Bernard, Ely & Thomas, Van den Brink, Waaijer et al., Ryan & Haslam, Stout & Dasgupta, Cankaya, Cankaya, Bonilla-Silva, Warren, Gündemir et al. -> all 18 articles.
Samenvatting Onderzoek 3 C-cluster CEOBON3
Dit is de samenvatting voor het tentamen CEOBON3 dat gemaakt is door Jouke van der Zee, docent van de opleiding Small Business and Retail Management aan de Hogeschool van Arnhem en Nijmegen.
Het tentamen wordt nog maar twee keer aangeboden. In T5 2017/2018 en in T1 2018/2019.
Summary Intercultural Communication
Summary of 'Introducing Intercultural Communication, 2nd Edition' by Shuang Liu, Zala Volcic, and Cindy Gallois.
Includes information from the lectures; CH 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 13; article by Hendriks et al. (2005); article by Berry (2005); and article Van der Zee et al. (2013)
Van der Zee et al - Culture Shock or Challenge? The Role of Personality as a Determinant of Interculural Competence
A summary of Van der Zee et al on culture shock or challenges. The role of personality as a determinant of intercultural competence. Used in IBC - Radboud University - Intercultural Communication
Samenvatting hoorcolleges Neurobiologie van Veroudering
Samenvatting van de powerpoints van docenten: Van der Zee, Kampinga, Schoemaker, Reijne en Eisel
Summary of all the articles - High quality
Summary of all the articles for the course: SS4S – Diversity 2 – Diversity is about thinking beyond boundaries - Fiske & Taylor, Hornsey & Hogg, Beukeboom & Burgers, Cuddy et al., Johns et al., Homan et al., Vos & van der Zee, Castilla & Bernard, Ely & Thomas, Van den Brink, Waaijer et al., Ryan & Haslam, Stout & Dasgupta, Cankaya, Cankaya, Bonilla-Silva, Warren, Gündemir et al.
High quality - My average grade is a 7,8