All Introduction to Global Law I Lectures with notes summarized (38 pages)
• Lecture 1: Primary and secondary rules, H. L. A. Hart, chain of authority, rule validity.
• Lecture 2: What is a legal system, a legal tradition and international law, civil law & common law, sovereignty, separation of powers, jurisdiction of courts, level of courts, sources of law/validity, structure of legislation.
• Lecture 3: Types of law, public and private law, Legal subjects, legal acts and legal things.
• Lecture 4: Types of legislation, parts of legislation, methodology.
• Lecture 5: Strategies of interpreting legislation (and conflicts with it)
• Lecture 6: Types of case judgement, parts and structure of a judgment
• Lecture 7: Elements of reasoning with precedent (earlier decisions)
• Lecture 8: Types, conflicts and strategies of legal reasoning
• Lecture 9: The circulation and spread of legal institutions (and its challenges), class assignments and ANP-Approach.
• Lecture 10: Private and Public, subjects and purpose international law, how does it work, is it law? Global law, ANP-approach. Lex lata (the law as it exists, current law), lex feranda (the law as you want it to be, should be, future law), lex specialis (law governing a specific subject matter) trumps lex generalis (general law), lex mercatoria (merchant law, trade law, Commercial law used by merchants, it’s about trade).
• Lecture 11: When is a state a state, what does a subject of international law have, how do you become a state, self-determination. Uti possidetis (that which is possessed).
• Lecture 12: Sources of international law, treaties, ratification, reservations, customary international law, opinio juris sive necessitas (an action is carried out as a legal obligation, a practice must be followed because of the rule of law requiring it), general principles, sources, hierarchy of norms, ius cogens (peremptory norm, no derogation permitted, automatically binding). Pacta sunt servanda (nonfulfillment of obligations towards another party is a breach of pact).
• Lecture 13: Types of jurisdiction, state (officials) immunity, Vienna Convention, diplomatic asylum, sanctions. Jure imperii (acts of state), jure gestionis (acts of non-governmental organisations), persona non grata (foreign person whose entering or remaining in a particular country is prohibited by that country's government), forum prorogatum (If a State has not recognized the jurisdiction of the Court at the time when an application is filed against it, that State has the possibility of accepting such jurisdiction subsequently: the Court has jurisdiction as of the date of acceptance).
• Lecture 14: State responsibility & (settlement of) wrongful acts, consequences & countermeasures, UN Chapter VI, ICJ.
• Lecture 15: Jus ad bellum (before engaging in war) & jus in bello (the conduct of parties engaged in an armed conflict), use of force (breaches & exceptions), International Humanitarian Law, combatants & civilians. Erga omnes (rights and obligations owed toward all), ultra vires (off duty, outside of their official authority), force majeure (superior force, a clause in contracts that frees both parties from liability or obligation when an extraordinary event or circumstance beyond their control prevents one or both parties from fulfilling their obligations under the contract), ratione temporis (temporal jurisdiction, refers to the jurisdiction of a court of law over a proposed action related to the passage of time (has the deadline for litigation expired?).
• Lecture 16: International Organisations, the UN, Security Council, General Assembly, International Economic Law, Bilateral Investment Treaties, WTO. Sui generis (of its own kind, unique).
• Lecture 17: International Human Rights law, (Universal Declaration of) Human Rights, treaties after ratification, Group Rights, Refugee Law, International Criminal Law, right to have rights. Mens rea (one had the intention to commit a crime).
Unit 10 - J Immunity
This is the whole chapter in a pdf. Most students have a hard time studying off the text book using the syllabus. This pdf just combines them both to make your life easier.
Immunity - Revision Notes
Immunity revision notes, containing information on:
- immune responses
- antigenic variation
- active and passive immunity
- antibodies in medicine (including pregnancy testing, cancer cells and an ELISA)
- HIV and viruses
The anatomy and function of the immune system
Describe the response to different pathogens
The function and differences between innate and acquired immunity
Cells & Immunity
In-depth notes on the second chapter of AQA AS Biology. Covers all aspects of the specification. Includes diagrams as well as highlighted key points. Some parts more condensed than others - more difficult concepts consist of more detail with step by step illustrations.
Table of contents:
Lecture 1: microbiology of the cardiovascular system
Lecture 2: microbiology of the liver
Lecture 3: immunity & immunosuppression
Lecture 4: Sepsis
Lecture 5: bone & joint infections
Lecture 6: virology in primary care
Lecture 7: microbiology kids, bugs & drugs
Lecture 8: respiratory microbiology 1
Lecture 9: skin and soft tissue infections
Lecture 10: enteric infections
Lecture 11: hot topics from the tropics
Lecture 12: immunity and immunosuppression 3
Lecture 13: immunity and immunosuppression 2
- intro to immunities
- sovereign immunity (meaning, rationale, absolute --> restrictive model, immunity in jus cogens violations)
- state officials immunity (meaning, whether an individual is entitled to immunity, immunity ratione personae, immunity ratione materiae)
- diplomatic immunity (meaning, vienna convention on diplomatic relations, personal immunities)