The “Golden Age” of Mexican Song and Film
Question 5:What was conveyed to audiences in the film, Flor Silvestre?
Question 4: What is comedia ranchera, and why was it popular?
Question 3: What was the impact of the introduction of film with sound in Mexico, and how was it beneficial/ detrimental?
Question 1:What was the impact of the introduction of radio in Mexico, and how was it beneficial/ detrimental?
“While critics often charge that the commercial entertainment industry negatively influences folkloric musical practice, it might also be argued that the entertainment industry also helped contribute to the vitality of traditional culture in Mexico. How did film and radio both promote and transform the music of the Mexican people?”
“What do you see as positive or negative results the entertainment industry [had] on the trajectory of Mexican folk music? “
MUS337 LISTENING RESPONSES. GRADED 100%
Title of Music “Jesusita en Chihuahua”
Audio Example Number AE 2
Composer and/or Performer(s): Quirino Mendoza y Cortes; Mariachi Los Amigos.
Date of Music: 12/25/1916
Title of Music “El perro” Mariachi “El Capiro de Jalisco”
Audio Example Number AE 10
Composer and/or Performer(s): P.D. courtesy of the National Council for the Traditional Arts and Francisco Castro.
Date of Music: November, 1990.
Title of Music “La malagradecida” from Sentimiento ranchero.
Audio Example Number AE 18
Composer and/or Performer(s): Jose Hernandez; Courtesy of Jose Hernandez and Serenata Records.
Date of Music: 2004.
Title of Music “Alla en el rancho grande”
Audio Example Number AE 12
Composer and/or Performer(s): Silvano R. Ramos; Mariachi Los Amigos; Edward B. Marks Music Company.
Date of Music: 2004.
Title of Music “Jarocho II”
Audio Example Number AE 26
Composer and/or Performer(s): Jesus Guzman; Concert Favorites of Nati Cano’s Mariachi Los Camperos.
Date of Music: 2005.
MAS 337 Exam 1. Graded A
Match the son with its corresponding region.
1. Son istemeno
2. Son Jarocho
3. Son Abajeno
4. Son Jalisciense
5. Son Huasteco
Genre of Mexican folk music distinguished by its strophic form and lively choreography. Its first documented use surfaces in Veracruz in the eighteenth century.
A 12-beat phrase divided into two groups of six beats with varying accentuation sometimes felt in two, sometimes in three
Percussive guitar used especially by calenteno musicians
Guitarra de Golpe
The foot stomping heard in Mexican son that creates rhythmic accents are called?
The son calenteno comes from the hot lands, or Tierra Caliente, in the state of Michoacan.
The singing style found in son jarocho, called pregonero and coro, is likely derived from the prevalent African style of call-and-response.
Jalisco was the exclusive birthplace of mariachi.
Sones from Jalisco and Western Mexico led most directly to the modern Mariachi tradition.
Urbanization following the Mexican revolution led to the integration of regional sones into modern mariachi repertoire and musical practices.
The mega-genre of Mexican dance song, called son, is defined by the three dimensions: music, verse, and instruments
Hosbawn\'s concept of inventing traditions refers to creating cultural memory through selective reinterpretation.
Match the Mariachi musician to the appropraite description.
1. Jose Hernandez
2. Rebecca Gonzales
3. Natividad \"Nati\" Cano
4. Laura Sobrino
1. Innovative musician, director, and composer/arranger who blends mariachi music with other musical forms and feels the need to \"prove\" mariachi music\'s worth
2. The first professional female mariachi who worked with Mariachi Los Camperos in 1970s
3. Groundbreaking musician and director who elevated people\'s opinions about mariachi music and the social status of mariachi musicians.
4. Professional violin player who still sees inequalities in people\'s opinions of women in mariachi music
The recent downturn in the U.S. economy has caused problems between mariachi players because some of them are now undercutting their fellow musicians, causing competition and bad feelings and potentially setting up the profession for lower wages in the future.
Chambas refer to gigs played by a mariachi ensemble who typically works together
Mariachi musicians who play al talon are usually paid by the hour
Two historic events that encouraged migration between Mexico and the U.S. and thus the movement of mariachis, are the U.S. immigration Act of 1924 and women\'s right to vote as granted by the 19th amendment to the U.S. Constitution in 1920
In order to play mariachi al talon, a musician would need to?
All of the above:
- Have a vast repertoire of music from which to draw
- be able to improvise as needed and stock introductions and endings to songs
- Communicate well and have a good rapport with the public
Plantas are performance jobs?
Occuring with regular frequence
Natividad \"Nati\" Cano, founder and director of Mariachi Los Camperos, explained that the social status of mariachi musicians:
changed a great deal over his lifetime, going from being discriminated against to well respected once they were established in the urban centers and flourished in new locations
A unique economic and living space for mariachi musicians in Boyle Heights, Los Angeles is called?
Mariachi groups established outside Mexico, such as Nati Cano\'s Mariachi Los Camperos in Los Angeles, have had the following unprecedented impact(s) on the Mariachi tradition
Wider recognition and valuing of mariachi music
Mariachi groups established in U.S. schools, such as Belle and Juan Ortiz\'s program in the San Antonio Independent School District have had the following innovative impact(s) on the mariachi traditions
All of the Above:
- the education of children about mariachi music
- the education of children about Mexico and Mexican culture
- the establishment of youth mariachi groups
Mariachi festivals, such as Tucson International Mexican Festival, have had the following important impact(s) on the mariachi traditions?
-Creation of competition, performance-oriented contexts for mariachi ensembles
- Increased awareness of mariachi music throughout the world
Social movements in the U.S. such as Chicano Movimiento and Women\'s Liberation, have had following influential impact(s) on the mariachi tradition:
The adoption of mariachi as a symbol of pride and identity
Modern technology and media, such as the internet, Youtube, and Facebook, have had the following recent impact(s) on the Mariachi tradition
- increased exposure of mariachi music
- increased rate of change to the mariachi tradition
The women in Companeras faced many obstacles not typically faced in mariachi, such as:
All of the Above:
- the cultural expectation that they marry and have children
- lower pay
- a non-traditional style of learning mariachi music
Female mariachi musicians from the film discussed what seemed to be \"unacceptable\" instruments to play by those around them due to their perception of being masculine. Two instruments deemed the most masculine and least appropriate for women were the?
Trumpet and Guitarron
While the young, female mariachis from Mariachi Reyna de Los Angeles were passionate, goal-oriented, and committed to mariachi music, they became less committed and goal-oriented as time went on due to a lack of ability to earn a living wage playing mariachi, need to take their children, focus on school, and development of alternative careers,
In Mulholland\'s article, \"Mariachi, Myths, and Mestizaje\" (2007), she asserts that mariachi represents an \"imagined\" nation of Mexico through the symbolism of the macho mestizo male and its telling of national history and of origins
Match the dates with the events:
1. Augustin de Iturbide (1783-1824) becomes Emperor of Mexico
2. Father Hidalgo delivers the \"Grito de Dolores\", the call for independence
3. Mexican-American War
4. Waves of migrants from Europe and the Middle East arrive in Mexico
5. Second Wave Invasion in Mexico
6. Caste of War of Yucatan
7. Guadalupe Victoria (1755-1843) becomes first president of the Republic of Mexico
3. 1846 - 1848
4. 1820s- 1840s
Match the Composer with its composition:
1. Jose Mariano Elizaga
2. Vicente Riva Palacios and Sebastian Iradier
3. Paddy Maloney and The Chieftains
4. Ricardo Castro
1. \"Ultimas Varicaciones para Piano\"
2. \"Adios, Mama Carlota\"
3. \"March to Battle Across the Rio Grande\"
4. \"Aires Nacionales\"
The nation\'s first indigenous president, ___________, was elected in 1861 and began a series of long-reaching reforms
Napolean III installed the Austrian archduke, ________________, as emperor of Mexico, a post he held until 1866.
Independence day in Mexico
Adaptation of European violin and dance music, that helped rally Mayas to rebellion
\"Ultimas Variaciones para Piano\" represents Mexico\'s:
All of the Above:
- desire to emulate fashionable European-style music
- ability to create music on par with other parts of the world
- stratification of social and economic classes
One of the primary reasons the Cruzoobs utilized indigenous Mayan rituals and music in their fight against the Yucatan was:
to symbolize who they were and create a sense of identity different from the people who were of European descent
\"Aires Fandango\" is an example of Mayapax music.
\"Himno Nacional\" is important as a symbol in Mexico\'s construction of nationhood.
The establishment of El Conservatorio de la Música and Orquesta Típica de la Ciudad de la México was important during the reign of President Díaz in representing a modern national identity for Mexico and demonstrating its cosmopolitanism as a nation.
\"Sobre las olas\" is a famous zarzuela composed by Juventino Rosas.
The development of modern cosmopolitan cities was an important goal of the reform policies of President Porfirio Díaz.
Musical piece in Chin Chun Chan based upon a creolized version of a Spanish dance with the habanera rhythm pattern.
The themes embodied by Chin Chun Chan characterize this period of the Mexican Republic
Spanish genre of musical theatre characterized by a mixture of sung and spoken dialogue
Match the person to the composition.
1.) Juventino Rosas
2.) Luis Gonzaga Jorda
3.) Miguel Lerdo de Tajado
4.) Ernesto Elorduy
1.) \"Sobre las Olas\"
2.) Chin Chun Chan
Match the person to the occuation.
1. first director of Mexico\'s Conservatorio Nacional de la Música
2. librettist, journalist, and co-founder of the Mexican Society of Authors of Music Theater
3. founder and director of Mexico\'s Orquesta Típica
4. wealthy patroness of the arts in Mexico
5. President of Mexico
6. Mexican Pianist
7. musicologist who studied Zulema
1. Agustín Caballero
2. José Elizondo
4. Calixta Gutierrez
5. Porfirio Díaz
6. Silvia Navarette
7. Leonora Saavedra
Match the Performer to the song
1.) El corrido de Heracio Bernal
2.) General Francisco Villa
3.) Carabina 30-30
1.) Trio Nava
2.) Los Cuatezones
3.) Los Lobos
4.) Lydia Mendoza
Match the definiton to the term
1.) Quatrain (cuatrain)
1.) A four-line stanza used to organize poetry
2.) a farewell
3.) stereotyped symbol of the virtuous Mexican woman
4.) female revolutionary soldier in Mexico
Ballads narrating stories that became popular during the Mexican Revolution
Guitar-like instruments with six double courses associated with conjuntos nortenos
What do cuernos de chivo really refer to in narcocorridos?
Contemporary topics of corridos include
All of the Above (US immigration, mexican work ethic, drug trafficking)
Los Tigres del Norte use doble sentido in their lyrics in order to \"cover their tracks\" when talking about sensitive information, a common tactic in songwriting throughout time and history
To be successful, corridos should tell a story, almost like a musical newspaper
Emilio \"El Indio\" Fernandez is regarded by man as the greatest of the Mexican cinema directors of the golden era
Silent films in Mexico began in the mid- to late- 1920s
A feminist critique of some of the golden era Mexican films is that women characters are portrayed as both saints who are dependent upon men and sinners who control men through temptation, not as a person with complex feelings, motivations, and abilities
The most popular genre of Mexican film, which took its cue from revistas, zarzuelas, and comedias teatrales
The 19th century Cuban dance from that later developed in Mexico
Singer-actor who became the idealized representative of the handsome, heroic rancher
In the 1930sm radio personality __________, composed many romantic songs of international fame, and captured the hearts of Mexican listeners, especially housewives in their homes.
Soundtracks of golden era films in Mexico helped create iconic cultural heroes, such as the singing cowboy, and promoted musical forms like the
All of the above (Cancion ranchera, mexican bolero, corrido)
Match the following performer with the films who show showcased their music
2.) Alla en al Rancho Grande
3.) Flor Silvestre
1.) Agustin Lara
2.) Jorge Negrete
3.) Lucha Reyes
In the late 1960s and early 1970s, Chicano music became politicized and gave voice to social commentary and movements (Vietnam war, Chicano movement, brown beets, Cesar Chavez)
\"Las ratas no tienen alas\" is a hit rock song by the Mexican band, Maldita Vecindad, expressing the comparison of the Mexican police to rats who persecute ordinary citizens
The massacre at Tlatelolco in the year 1958 and the festival at Avandaro in the year 1961 marked a turn in the direction of rock music in Mexico
Las Posadas are Christmas traditions of song and pageantry recalling Joseph and Mary\'s search for lodging and the birth of the infant Jesus.
Amparo Ochoa was one of the most celebrated and influential singers who performed songs of social concern and helped to develop the musical tradition of canto nuevo (nueva cancion) in Mexico
Spanish-language versions, or covers, of English-language hit rocanrol songs
El Tri was founded in 1968 by the bass guitarist and composer
Counter-cultural song movement that spread throughout the American in the 1980s
A derogatory term for preferring things foreign as better and more valuable
Influential Chicano musician who toured with the Big Bopper, Buddy Holly, and Frankie Sardo, but died at 17 yrs. old in small fight (\"the day the music died\")
Match the composer to the composition.
1.) El renacuajo paseador
1.) Silvestre Revueltas
2.) Jose Pablo Moncayo
3.) Manuel Enriquez
4.) Mario Lavista
5.) Marcela Rodriguez
Match the composer to the social/cultural/historical description.
1.) Represented post-revolutionary sentiment in music drawing upon urban and popular musics
2.) Represented nationalism in music drawing from local sounds and musics
3.) Represented post-nationalistic music using unidentifiable sounds and experimentation
4.) Infuses literacy and philosophical though into music asking how sound itself is musical
5.) Bridges artistic endeavors between drama and music and highlights female characters and musicians in compositions
1.) Silvestre Rivueltas
2.) Jose Pablo Moncayo
3.) Maunel Enriquez
4.) Mario Lavista
5.) Marcela Rodriguez
LAS MAS MUS 337 FA19 001Quiz #5. Graded A
Question 1 (4 points) Saved Match the mariachi musician to the appropriate description. Question 1 options: José Hernández Natividad \"Nati\" Cano Laura Sobrino Rebecca Gonzales 1. Groundbreaking musician and director who elevated people\'s opinions about mariachi music and the social status of marichi musicians 2. Innovative musician, director, and composer/arranger who blends mariachi music with other musical forms and feels the need to \"prove\" mariachi music\'s worth 3. The first professional female mariachi who worked with Mariachi Los Camperos in the 1970s 4. Professional violin player who still sees inequities in people\'s opinions of women in mariachi music Question 2 (1 point) Saved The first mariachi group founded in the United States was Los Changuitos Feos. Question 2 options: True False Question 3 (1 point) Saved Chambas refer to gigs played by a mariachi ensemble who typically works together. Question 3 options: True False Question 4 (1 point) Saved Mariachi musicians who play al talón are usually paid by the hour. Question 4 options: True False Question 5 (1 point) Saved The first mariachi conference held in Tucson was in April, 2006, inspired by the well-known mariachi conferences in Mexico that started in the 1980s. Question 5 options: True False Question 6 (1 point) Saved In order to play mariachi al talón, a musician would need to: Question 6 options: have a vast repertoire of music from which to draw. be able to improvise as needed and add stock introductions and endings to songs. communicate well and have a good rapport with the public. All of the above Question 7 (1 point) Saved Plantas are performance jobs: Question 7 options: A) Occurring with regular frequency. B) played in areas with high vegetation growth. C) designed to showcase many mariachi ensembles in a staged performance at a festival. D) All of the above Question 8 (1 point) Saved Natividad “Nati” Cano, founder and director of Mariachi Los Camperos, explained that the social status of mariachi musicians: Question 8 options: A) changed a great deal over his lifetime, going from being well respected to discriminated against once they crossed the border into the United States. B) has always been high with people giving them respect and seeing them as bearers of cultural heritage. C) has always been low with people failing to recognize the dedication needed to perform and the importance of their contribution to Mexican culture. D) Changed a great deal over his lifetime, going from being discriminated against to well respected once they were established in urban centers and flourished in new locations. Question 9 (1 point) Saved A unique economic and living space for mariachi musicians in Boyle Heights, Los Angeles is called: Question 9 options: Mariachi Plaza Charro Hotel Esquina de Mariachi Calle de Chamba
Perspectives on Mariachi & Mexico and an Introduction to MariachiAND 2: Mariachi Ensembles and Musical & Poetic Forms
Mariachi KWL Chart
Mariachi is a traditional Mexican music and a fundamental element of Mexican culture. Traditional mariachi groups, made up of two or more members, wear regional costumes adapted from the charro costume and interpret a broad repertoire of songs on stringed instruments. Ensembles playing ‘modern mariachi’ include trumpets, violins, the vihuela, and guitarrón (bass guitar), and may have four or more musicians. The wide repertoire includes songs from different regions, jarabes, minuets, polkas, valonas, schottisches, waltzes, and serenades, in addition to corridos (typical Mexican ballads narrating stories of battles, outstanding deeds and love affairs) and traditional songs depicting rural life. Modern mariachi music has adopted other genres such as ranchera songs, the bolero ranchero, and even the cumbia from Colombia. The lyrics of mariachi songs portray love of the earth, hometown, native land, religion, nature, fellow countrywomen, and the strength of the country. Learning by ear is the main means of transmission of traditional mariachi, and the skill is usually passed down from fathers to sons and through performance at festive, religious, and civil events. Mariachi music transmits values of respect for the natural heritage of the regions of Mexico and local history in the Spanish language and the different Indian languages of Western Mexico.”
Traditionally, typically all strings
Violin (melody): like European counterpart
Requinto guitar (melody/harmony): smaller, deeper body, higher-pitched, & 6 nylon strings (plucked)
Vihuela Mexicana (harmony/rhythm): derived from Spanish vihuela; guitar-like, but with vaulted back & 5 nylon strings; like small guitarrón
Guitarra de golpe (rhythm): slightly bigger than vihuela with 5 bronze strings
Guitarrón (bass): looks like a big vihuela with 6 nylon strings
Arpa (bass & melody): served purposes of violin and guitarrón originally; now not as common
Trumpet added in the 1940s
After the Mexican Revolution (ca. 1910-1920), there was a big migration from people from different regions to Mexico City.
Urban mariachi groups integrated regional sones. Jesus Járegui challenges the common claim that Jalisco was the single geographical birthplace of mariachi. (Sturman, p. 198)
Urbanization and exchange caused variations and changes to occur in melody, rhythm, lyrics, structure, and instrumentation of mariachi.
Essential genres in mariachi music Canción ranchera
Theme 5: Regional Responses to Imported Musical Traditions (Part I) MUS 337 Corso Module 5
Regional specializations of music…why?
Music of the colonial era:
Cultivated in royal chapels and, thus, written archives remain
Conveyed through oral tradition and, thus, information comes from narratives
Hobsbawn’s concept of “inventing tradition”: Cultural memory through selective reinterpretation
What does this mean, and why is it important?
Broad category of Mexican folk musics and dances
1500s: Origins of son practices traced to Spanish theater
1766: First documented use of the term, son, in a set of verses from Veracruz
Tonadillas escénicas: short popular entertainment used between acts of longer, formal staged dramas
Gave way to other later genres of musical theatre, like zarzuela
“Vicente T. Mendoza (1984) believed that the best record of the tonadilla lives on in the popular songs of the Mexican nation,” (Sturman, p. 105).
“As musicians perform sones, they also reinforce their connections to complex historic legacies, linking modern concerns and contexts to valued past traditions,” (Sturman, p. 104).
Son divino (sacred)
Remember “Son de la Danza de los Mixes” played by the wind band (AE 4.9)?
Son profano (secular)
Often associated with particular ethnicities, for example the Yaqui in the northern borderlands, or the Zapotec in the south
Many used for ritual or ceremonial purposes
Rooted in regional sones, refer to sones played by modern mariachis
From Veracruz, from the southern regions of that gulf coast state, and the northern region of the state of Tabasco
“Jarocho” used to be a derogatory term for rural people from the region.
Dates to colonial period and is one of most celebrated forms of son
Sheehy says in 1940s, harpist Andrés Huesca changed the style by moving from the small arpa jarocha to a large harp in order to play faster.
AE 5.14: “Sones de mariachi” (1940) composed by Blas Galindo and performed in the video by OFUNAM (National Autonomous University of Mexico\'s Philharmonic Orchestra)
What do you hear?
What do you see?
What does this performance represent?