NURSING DL-F TEST WEEK 10/ CHAPTERS 19-20/ Nursing Research - $17.89   Add to cart

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NURSING DL-F TEST WEEK 10/ CHAPTERS 19-20/ Nursing Research

1. Researchers who collect quantitative data typically progress through a series of steps in the analysis and interpretation of their data. Careful researchers lay out a data analysis plan in advance to guide that progress. What phase involves various clerical and administrative tasks? A) Preanalysis B) Preliminary assessments and actions C) Principal analysis D) Interpretation of quantitative results 2. Careful researchers lay out a data analysis plan in advance to guide that progress. What phase involves collection of data on numerous variables? A) Preanalysis B) Preliminary assessments and actions C) Principal analysis D) Interpretation of quantitative results 3. How must quantitative data be coded? A) Missing values B) Letter codes C) Numerical values D) Wild codes 4. What is a wild code? A) Numerical value B) Missing value C) Values that lie outside the normal range of values D) Codes that are not legitimate 5. What is the error prone process that requires verification? A) Outliers B) Data cleaning C) Data entry D) Consistency checks 6. Decisions on handling missing values must be based on the amount of missing data and how missing data are patterned. When is addressing missing data especially important? A) Sensitivity analyses B) Intention-to-treat analyses C) Missing completely at random values pattern D) Missing at random values pattern 7. Steps must almost always be taken to evaluate missing data problems. What occurs with a missing completely at random values pattern? A) Missing values are just a random sample of all cases in the population. B) Missing values are just a random subsample of all cases in the sample. C) Missingness is related to other variables but not related to the value of the variable that has the missing values. D) A pattern in which the value of the variable is missing is related to its missingness. 8. There are two missing values strategies that involve deletion or imputation. What is the analysis of those cases for which there are no missing data? A) Listwise deletion B) Pairwise deletion C) Available case analysis D) Data transformations 9. There are two missing values strategies that involve deletion or imputation. What is the most widely used approach to delete cases selectively on a variable-by-variable basis? A) Listwise deletion B) Pairwise deletion C) Complete case analysis D) Data transformations 10. There are two missing values strategies that involve deletion or imputation. What is occurring with a regression-based estimation of missing values? A) Mean substitution B) Expectation maximization imputation C) Complete case analysis D) Available case analysis 11. What is an activity that is completed during the preanalysis phase? A) Entering, verifying, and cleaning data B) Assessing and handling missing values problems C) Assessing data quality D) Assessing bias 12. A data cleaning procedure involves consistency checks. What does this focus on? A) Internal data consistency B) External data consistency C) Checking for outliers D) Checking for wild codes 13. What is the best method for addressing missing value problems? A) Expectation maximization B) Multiple imputations C) Mean substitution D) Subgroup mean substitution 14. What is the simplest imputation procedure? A) Expectation maximization B) Multiple imputations C) Mean substitution D) Subgroup mean substitution 15. Assessing data quality is an early analytic task. A value is considered an extreme outlier when if it is how many times greater than the interquartile range above the third quartile? A) 1 B) 2 C) 3 D) 4 16. Researchers often undertake preliminary analyses to assess biases. What type of bias should nurse researchers check for when nonrandomized comparison groups are used and compared to the groups' baseline characteristics? A) Nonresponsive B) Volunteer C) Selection D) Attrition 17. Researchers often undertake preliminary analyses to assess biases. What type of bias should nurse researchers check for when there are multiple points of data collection? A) Nonresponse B) Volunteer C) Selection D) Attrition 18. What is occurring with the Kolmorogov-Smirnov test? A) Tests that the distribution deviates significantly from a normal distribution. B) Tests that the median deviates significantly from a normal distribution. C) Tests that the distribution does not deviate significantly from a normal distribution. D) Tests that the median does not deviate significantly from a normal distribution. 19. What effect can occur when a nurse researcher accumulates a sample over an extended period of time to achieve adequate sample sizes? A) Overt effect B) Cohort effect C) Ordering effect D) Carryover effect 20. What type of analysis occurs when test research hypotheses using different assumptions or different strategies? A) Substantive B) Descriptive C) Supplementary D) Sensitivity 1. Qualitative studies use an emergent design. When does the research design evolve? A) During the conduct of the literature review. B) While the researcher develops a conceptual framework. C) During the process of doing constant comparisons. D) While the researcher is in the field collecting and analyzing data. 2. Which design feature can apply to both a qualitative and quantitative study? A) Manipulation of the independent variable. B) Cross sectional versus longitudinal data collection. C) Control over extraneous variables. D) Random assignment of study participants. 3. What discipline does the research tradition known as ethnoscience have its roots? A) Anthropology B) Philosophy C) Psychology D) Sociology 4. What discipline does the research tradition known as ethnomethodology have its roots? A) Anthropology B) Philosophy C) Psychology D) Sociology 5. The research tradition known as hermeneutics is closely allied with what other research tradition? A) Ethnography B) Phenomenology C) Ethology D) Symbolic interaction 6. What do ethnographers strive to acquire? A) Emic perspective of a culture B) Etic perspective of a culture C) Link the etic and emic perspectives into a unified whole D) Review the hermeneutic of the culture 7. What is one method of facilitating bracketing? A) Tacit knowledge B) Bricolage C) Emic perspective D) Reflexive journals 8. What are ethnographers conducting when they study their own culture or group? A) Autoethnography B) Microethnology C) Macroethnology D) Institutional ethnology 9. Which approach aims to discover theoretical precepts grounded in the data? A) Grounded theory B) Ethnography C) Phenomenology D) Ethology 10. The product of ethnographic research is a holistic description of the culture, but sometimes the products are performance ethnographies. What is performance ethnography? A) Interpretive scripts that can be performed B) Focus on the organization of professional services from the perspective of the front-line worker C) Focus on the group or culture to which the researcher belongs D) Putting together an array of data drawn from many sources to arrive at a holistic understanding of a phenomenon 11. What type of qualitative research uses stories as center stage? A) Discourse analysis B) Narrative analysis C) Descriptive qualitative analysis D) Qualitative content analysis 12. What is one type of action research? A) Participatory B) Discourse analysis C) Descriptive qualitative analysis D) Qualitative content analysis 13. What is the greatest strength of a case study? A) Generalize B) Obtain depth C) Use anecdotal material D) Describe peripheral material 14. What can be located in archives that are used by historical researchers? A) Primary and secondary sources B) Primary and tertiary sources C) Secondary and tertiary sources D) Primary secondary and tertiary sources 15. What discipline does the research tradition known as symbolic interaction have as its roots? A) Anthropology B) Philosophy C) Ethology D) Sociology 16. Which approach is associated with symbolic interaction? A) Grounded theory B) Ethnology C) Phenomenology D) Ethology 17. What type of research tradition seeks to understand the rules, mechanisms, and structure of conversations and tests? A) Semiotic analysis B) Ethnoscientific analysis C) Hermeneutics analysis D) Discourse analysis 18. There are three broad types of information sought by ethnographers. What is cultural behavior? A) What members of the culture do B) What people make and use C) What people say D) Where people work 19. Many nurse researchers have undertaken ethnographic studies. What is the first phase of Leininger's observation–participation–reflection enabler model? A) Primary observation and active listening B) Primary observation with limited participation C) Primary participation with continuing observation D) Primary reflection and reconfirmation of results with informants 20. What type of phenomena do phenomenologists investigate? A) Subjective B) Objective C) Cognitive D) Psychomotor Which acronym is used for a widely used statistical software package? A nurse researcher checks responses to a question about the number of children a participant has, which is a question that comes right after a question about whether or not the participant has any children. What is the researcher likely doing? A nurse researcher discovers that the distribution of values for a key outcome variable is skewed, thus violating an assumption for most parametric tests. What might the researcher do in this situation? A nurse researcher is studying stress levels in a sample of 200 clients with cancer. Two participants did not complete the stress scale and so the researcher computed mean stress levels for 198 participants. What method did the researcher use to address missing values? A nurse researcher linked study participants’ change scores on a pain measure to their rating of how much their pain had changed on a 1-item rating scale. Which approach did the researcher use to calculate an MIC for the pain measure? In a clinical trial, a researcher wanted to know if one intervention was equally effective as (not more effective than) another intervention. What would such a trial be called? A researcher collected data at baseline and then again at 1 week and 6 months after an intervention was completed. In this situation, what type of bias should the researcher assess? A nurse researcher wants to use the strongest possible method of dealing with missing values. What method would a statistical consultant likely recommend, assuming that the pattern of missingness was suitable for any method?

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