NURS 6501 Advanced Pathophysiology Midterm / Advanced Pathophysiology Midterm questions & answers.
NURS 6501 Advanced Pathophysiology Midterm. • Question 1 The action of platelet-derived growth factor is to stimulate the production of which cells? • Question 2 A healthcare professional is educating a patient about asthma. The professional states that good control is necessary due to which pathophysiologic process? • Question 3 What is an expected change in the cardiovascular system that occurs with aging? • Question 4 People diagnosed with neurofibromatosis have varying degrees of the condition because of which genetic principle? • Question 5 When endothelial cells are injured, what alteration contributes to atherosclerosis? • Question 6 A healthcare professional cares for older adults in a skilled nursing facility. What should the professional assess for in these individuals related to cardiovascular functioning? • Question 7 What physical sign does the healthcare professional relate to the result of turbulent blood flow through a vessel? • Question 8 What are tumor cell markers? • Question 9 Once they have penetrated the first line of defense, which microorganisms do natural killer (NK) cells actively attack? • Question 10 Which gastric hormone inhibits acid and pepsinogen secretion, as well as decreases the release of gastrin? • Question 11 What is the single most common cause of cellular injury? • Question 12 A professor has taught the students about the sources of increased ammonia in patients with hepatic encephalopathy. What statement by a student indicates the professor should review this material? • Question 13 Surfactant produced by type II alveolar cells facilitates alveolar distention and ventilation by which mechanism? • Question 14 A patient is brought to the Emergency Department with a gunshot wound to the chest. The healthcare professional assesses an abnormality involving a pleural rupture that acts as a one-way valve, permitting air to enter on inspiration but preventing its escape by closing during expiration. What action by the healthcare professional is the priority? • Question 15 What is the only surface inside the nephron where cells are covered with microvilli to increase the reabsorptive surface area called? • Question 16 A patient is having an IgE-mediated hypersensitivity reaction. What action by the healthcare professional is best? • Question 17 A patient has been diagnosed with a renal stone. Based on knowledge of common stone types, what self-care measure does the healthcare professional plan to teach the patient when stone analysis has returned? • Question 18 Which hormone is required for water to be reabsorbed in the distal tubule and collecting duct? • Question 19 The cardiac electrical impulse normally begins spontaneously in the sinoatrial (SA) node because of what reason? • Question 20 What is one function of the tumor cell marker? • Question 21 When comparing the clinical manifestations of both diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) and hyperglycemic hyperosmolar nonketotic syndrome (HHNKS), which condition is associated with only DKA? • Question 22 Which cAMP-mediated response is related to antidiuretic hormone? • Question 23 The student wants information about a patient's renal function. What test does the healthcare professional tell the student to evaluate? • Question 24 What is the most important cause of pulmonary artery constriction? • Question 25 In teaching a women's community group, which risk factor does the healthcare professional teach is related to high morbidity of cancer of the colon, uterus, and kidney? • Question 26 A healthcare professional is caring for four patients. Which patient does the professional assess for pulmonary emboli (PE) as the priority? • Question 27 What is the second most commonly recognized genetic cause of intellectual disability? • Question 28 A person has acne, easy bruising, thin extremities, and truncal obesity. The healthcare professional assesses the person for which of these? • Question 29 What is the cause of functional dysphagia? • Question 30 What effect is a result of inhibiting the parasympathetic nervous system with a drug such as atropine? • Question 31 Renal failure is the most common cause of which type of hyperparathyroidism? • Question 32 A healthcare professional wants to determine the adequacy of a person's alveolar ventilation. What assessment finding is most important for the professional to consider? • Question 33 The acute inflammatory response is characterized by fever that is produced by the hypothalamus being affected by what? • Question 34 A healthcare professional is caring for four patients. Which patient does the professional assess for neurogenic diabetes insipidus (DI)? • Question 35 Within a physiologic range, what does an increase in left ventricular end-diastolic volume (preload) result in? • Question 36 Which patient would the healthcare professional assess for elevated levels of antidiuretic hormone (ADH) secretion? • Question 37 A student asks why some vaccinations are given orally and some are given by injection. What response by the professor is best? • Question 38 The Bainbridge reflex is thought to be initiated by sensory neurons in which cardiac location? • Question 39 A healthcare professional is caring for four patients. Which patient should the professional assess for hyperkalemia? • Question 40 What is the role of the normal intestinal bacterial flora? • Question 41 A patient diagnosed with diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) has the following laboratory values: arterial pH 7.20; serum glucose 500 mg/dL; positive urine glucose and ketones; serum potassium (K +) 2 mEq/L; serum sodium (Na +) 130 mEq/L. The patient reports that he has been sick with the flu for 1 week. What relationship do these values have to his insulin deficiency? • Question 42 A student asks the professor how a faulty negative-feedback mechanism results in a hormonal imbalance. What response by the professor is best? • Question 43 A healthcare provider notes that tapping the patient's facial nerve leads to lip twitching. What electrolyte value is correlated with this finding? • Question 44 A patient is having a spirometry measurement done and asks the healthcare professional to explain this test. What response by the professional is best? • Question 45 Which characteristic is the most important determinant of immunogenicity when considering the antigen? • Question 46 Which renal change is found in older adults? • Question 47 If a patient develops acidosis, the nurse would expect the oxyhemoglobin dissociation curve to react in which manner? • Question 48 Under anaerobic conditions, what process provides energy for the cell? • Question 49 A patient suffered multiple traumatic injuries and received many blood transfusions within a few days of the injuries. For which medical condition should the healthcare professional monitor the patient for? • Question 50 The student asks the professor to explain what characteristic is demonstrated by lungs with decreased compliance? • Question 51 What is one function of the tumor cell marker? • Question 52 Vaccinations are able to provide protection against certain microorganisms because of what? • Question 53 A student asks the healthcare professional to describe exotoxins. Which statement by the professional is best? • Question 54 A class of students has learned about contributing factors to duodenal ulcers. What statement indicates to the professor that the students need a review? • Question 55 A healthcare professional is caring for a patient who has a delay in electrical activity reaching the ventricle as seen on ECG. What ECG finding would the healthcare professional associate with this problem? • Question 56 How do free radicals cause cell damage? • Question 57 What causes the edema that occurs during the inflammatory process? • Question 58 A student learns what information about acute pancreatitis? • Question 59 A student asks why carbon monoxide causes tissue damage. What response by the professor is best? • Question 60 The healthcare professional working with older adults teaches general infection-prevention measures as a priority for this age group due to which change in lymphocyte function? • Question 61 A healthcare professional is caring for a patient who has continuous increases in left ventricular filing pressures. What disorder would the professional assess the patient for? • Question 62 Why is leakage of lysosomal enzymes during chemical injuries significant? • Question 63 A patient has diabetes mellitus. A recent urinalysis showed increased amounts of protein. What therapy does the healthcare provider educate the patient that is specific to this disorder? • Question 64 A student asks the professor to explain what effect natriuretic peptides have during heart failure when the heart dilates. Which response by the professor is best? • Question 65 Which type of immunity is produced by an individual after either natural exposure to the antigen or after immunization against the antigen? • Question 66 A patient has a history of excessive use of magnesium-containing antacids and aluminum-containing antacids. What lab value does the healthcare professional correlate to this behavior? • Question 67 A student asks the healthcare professional to explain the function of the papillary muscles. What response by the professional is best? • Question 68 A healthcare professional is assessing a child whose parents report poor grades in school, trouble paying attention, and naughty behaviors that have become so frequent the child is always in trouble. For which health condition should the professional facilitate testing? • Question 69 The pathophysiologic process of edema is related to which mechanism? • Question 70 During the cardiac cycle, why do the aortic and pulmonic valves close after the ventricles relax? • Question 71 A patient's urinalysis came back positive for glucose. What does the healthcare professional expect the patient's blood glucose to be at a minimum? • Question 72 The student asks the healthcare professional to explain how pulmonary edema and pulmonary fibrosis cause hypoxemia. What description by the professional is best? • Question 73 What does vomiting-induced metabolic alkalosis cause? • Question 74 What pathologic change occurs to the kidney's glomeruli as a result of hypertension? • Question 75 A patient has a peptic ulcer related to h. pylori bacteria. What treatment does the healthcare professional educate the patient on? • Question 76 A patient is in severe shock and is receiving vasopressin. A student asks the health care professional to explain the rationale for this treatment. What response by the professional is most accurate? • Question 77 What is apoptosis? • Question 78 Free radicals play a major role in the initiation and progression of which diseases? • Question 79 An amniocentesis indicates a neural tube defect when an increase in which protein is evident? • Question 80 A patient had a thyroidectomy and now reports tingling around the mouth and has a positive Chvostek sign. What laboratory finding would be most helpful to the healthcare professional? • Question 81 A patient's chart indicates Kussmaul respirations. The student asks the healthcare professional what this is caused by. What response by the professional is most accurate? • Question 82 A pregnant woman has Graves disease. What test/s does the healthcare professional advise the woman about? • Question 83 A healthcare professional is assessing a child who has complete trisomy of the twenty-first chromosome. What findings does the professional relate to this condition? • Question 84 Where is two thirds of the body's water found? • Question 85 A healthcare professional is working with a person who drinks several 6-packs of beer a week. What testing does the professional encourage the person to get? • Question 86 After a partial gastrectomy, gastric bypass, or pyloroplasty, clinical manifestations that include increased pulse, hypotension, weakness, pallor, sweating, and dizziness are the results of which mechanism? • Question 87 A patient has portal hypertension-induced splenomegaly. Which lab value would the healthcare professional associate with this condition? • Question 88 Oxygenated blood flows through which vessel? • Question 89 A student studying biology asks the professor to describe how the ras gene is involved in cancer proliferation. What explanation by the professor is best? • Question 90 What is the blood type of a person who is heterozygous, having A and B alleles as codominant? • Question 91 The healthcare professional explains to a student that the amount of volume of blood in the heart is directly related to the _____ of contraction. • Question 92 Which statement is true about phagocytosis? • Question 93 Which primary characteristic is unique for the immune response? • Question 94 A professor has taught a student about skeletal alterations seen in chronic kidney disease. Which statement by the student indicates the professor needs to give more information? • Question 95 A patient reports dumping syndrome after a partial gastrectomy. What does the healthcare professional teach this patient? • Question 96 What is the process that ensures mitral and tricuspid valve closure after the ventricles are filled with blood? • Question 97 A student asks the professor to differentiate Type 2 diabetes mellitus from Type 1. The professors' response would be that Type 2 is best described as what? • Question 98 What organic compound facilitates transportation across cell membranes by acting as receptors, transport channels for electrolytes, and enzymes to drive active pumps? • Question 99 What is the major determinant of the resistance that blood encounters as it flows through the systemic circulation? • Question 100 A patient has been admitted for a possible small intestinal obstruction. What is the first sign the healthcare professional assesses for that would indicate the presence of this condition? • Question 101 When completing this exam, did you comply with Walden University's Code of Conduct including the expectations for academic integrity?