CCJ 3024 / CCJ3024 Survey Criminal Justice System MIDTERM LATEST 2020 - $23.49   Add to cart

Exam (elaborations)

CCJ 3024 / CCJ3024 Survey Criminal Justice System MIDTERM LATEST 2020

Question 1 2.5 / 2.5 pts An officer’s initial contact with an individual is considered part of the informal criminal justice process. True False Question 2 2.5 / 2.5 pts Offenders at Level of the “wedding cake” model of criminal justice have typically committed a seriousoffense and will receive a prison term; however, they will not garner much media attention. I III IV II Question 3 2.5 / 2.5 pts Who is not a part of the courtroom work group? Defense attorney Judge Prosecutor Bail bondsman Question 4 2.5 / 2.5 pts At what stage of the formal criminal justice process does the defendant enter a plea of guilty or not guilty? Arraignment Bail hearing Criminal trial Preliminary hearing Question 5 2.5 / 2.5 pts Which of the following is false about the grand jury? It is composed of between 12 and 23 persons. It was created in twelfth-century England. It can protect citizens from false prosecution. Every state uses the grand jury system. Question 6 2.5 / 2.5 pts What are the three main components into which the contemporary criminal justice system is generally divided? Law enforcement, the courts, and the legislature Law enforcement, the correctional system, and the legislature Law enforcement, the courts, and the correctional system The courts, the correctional system, and the legislature Question 7 2.5 / 2.5 pts Which of the following is an extralegal factor? The suspect’s prior record The seriousness of the charge The age of the offender The available evidence surrounding the offense Question 8 2.5 / 2.5 pts According to the criminal justice assembly line model, what is moved down the conveyor belt? Detectives Statutes Cases Laws Question 9 2.5 / 2.5 pts Between 1976 and 1999, 566 people were executed in the United States and 82 individuals awaiting execution were exonerated. This is a ratio of 1 individual freed for every 7 individuals executed. Such serious errors in the criminal justice system are of concern to advocates of the perspective. Due process Crime control Rehabilitation Justice Question 10 2.5 / 2.5 pts The criminal justice process is slowed by congestion and limited resources. True False Question 11 2.5 / 2.5 pts To what can the criminal justice process be compared? Funnel Slingshot Spiral Catapult Question 12 2.5 / 2.5 pts To what criminal punishment are people convicted of Level III crimes typically sentenced? Prison Fines Death penalty Probation Question 13 2.5 / 2.5 pts Which of the following is false about corrections in the United States? Though crime has declined for most of the past decade, the correctional population continues to grow. More than 7 million people are under some form of correctional supervision. Approximately 1.5 million juveniles are handled in juvenile courts each year. The federal correctional budget is larger than state governments’ correctional budgets. Question 14 2.5 / 2.5 pts Which branch of government oversees criminal justice practices and has the power to determine whether existing operations fall within the bounds of the U.S. Constitution? Judicial Correctional Executive Legislative Question 15 2.5 / 2.5 pts In which century did police agencies begin to appear in the United States? seventeenth sixteenth eighteenth nineteenth Question 16 2.5 / 2.5 pts Which courtroom work group member experiences the ethical concern of having obligations to his/her client and the profession? Judge Defense attorney Prosecutor Bail bondsman Question 17 2.5 / 2.5 pts If you were concerned about the potentially stigmatizing effect of community notification laws on sexual offenders, you would be part of the perspective. Restorative justice Equal justice Nonintervention Rehabilitation Question 18 2.5 / 2.5 pts The crime control perspective believes that too many suspects go free because of legal technicalities. True False Question 19 2.5 / 2.5 pts Which branch of government defines the law by determining what conduct is prohibited and establishes criminal penalties for those who violate the law? Legislative Executive Correctional Judicial Question 20 2.5 / 2.5 pts The , created in 1919, was a professional association funded by private contributions, which was integral in getting agencies of justice to work together and getting the work of the criminal justice system recognized. American Bar Foundation Commission Wickersham Commission Chicago Crime Commission President's Commission on Law Enforcement and Administration of Justice Question 21 2.5 / 2.5 pts Correctional officers have significant coercive power over offenders. True False Question 22 2.5 / 2.5 pts The perspective sees the justice system as a mechanism of caring for and treating people who cannot manage themselves, and assumes that people are at the mercy of social, economic, and interpersonal conditions. Crime control Due process Rehabilitation Equal justice Question 23 2.5 / 2.5 pts Complex criminal conspiracies require cooperation of different criminal justice agencies. True False Question 24 2.5 / 2.5 pts The media tends to focus on Level IV cases of the wedding cake model of justice. True False Question 25 2.5 / 2.5 pts Which of the following is false regarding Herbert Packer’s notion of the criminal justice process as an assemblyline? Criminal justice is seen as a screening process where each stage is a decision point. Each of these decisions can have a critical impact on the defendant, the justice system, and society. Most people who commit a crime are punished for it. The criminal justice system suffers from congestion. Question 26 2.5 / 2.5 pts Most criminal cases are processed through the entire formal justice system. True False Question 27 2.5 / 2.5 pts A local police department is noticing that there is an increase in the number of serious felonies that are being committed. The department forms a task force to assess the extent of the problem. Officers from the detective bureau, the vice squad, and the crime analysis division meet to discuss the problem and begin investigating these crimes. After investigating the crimes for over amonth, the task force is able to execute ten arrest warrants.Eight of the offenders are apprehended and arrested. Who is responsible for formally charging the suspects with a specific criminal act? Judge Bailiff Prosecutor Defense attorney Question 28 2.5 / 2.5 pts Which justice perspective views crime as a community-level problem? Crime control Restorative justice Rehabilitation Equal justice Question 29 2.5 / 2.5 pts Which of the following justice perspectives holds that the true purpose of the criminal justice system is to promote a peaceful and just society? Equal justice Nonintervention Restorative justice Rehabilitation Question 30 2.5 / 2.5 pts The equal justice perspective advocates that judges consider extralegal factors in sentencing. True False Question 31 2.5 / 2.5 pts Which justice perspective would advocate diversion programs or mediation programs for juvenile offenders? Rehabilitation Equal justice Crime control Due process Question 32 2.5 / 2.5 pts Who sponsored the research in the 1950s that revealed that the criminal justice system was composed of agencies that could be connected in an intricate network of decision-making processes? Chicago Crime Commission Wickersham Commission American Bar Foundation project President’s Commission on Law Enforcement and Administration of Justice Question 33 2.5 / 2.5 pts Less serious felonies make up the bottom layer of the criminal justice system wedding cake. True False Question 34 2.5 / 2.5 pts Which justice perspective holds that the proper role of the justice system is to prevent crime through the judicious use of criminal sanctions and demands an efficient system that hands out tough sanctions to those who violate the law? Equal justice Crime control Due process Rehabilitation Question 35 2.5 / 2.5 pts Which branch of government is responsible for the day-to-day operation of justice agencies? Correctional Judicial Executive Legislative Question 36 2.5 / 2.5 pts Which branch of government interprets existing laws and determines whether they meet constitutional requirements? Correctional Legislative Executive Judicial Question 37 2.5 / 2.5 pts Which statement is accurate concerning crime in a historical context in the United States? Crime and violence did not exist when the nation was first formed and are recent social problems. The Old West was the only area where gang activity flourished after the Civil War. Crime and violence have been common since the nation was first formed and are not recent social problems. In a historical sense, crime peaked during Civil War times and has been diminishing since that era. Question 38 2.5 / 2.5 pts If you believe in the concept of “just deserts,” which justice perspective do you favor? Rehabilitation Equal justice Restorative justice Due process Question 39 2.5 / 2.5 pts If a lawyer assists their client in engaging in illegal behavior, they are not subject to criminal charges because of their attorney–client privilege. True False Question 40 2.5 / 2.5 pts Which component of the criminal justice system has the largest budgets? Police Judicial Executive Correctional Question 1 2.5 / 2.5 pts CASE 2.2 Mr. and Mrs. Jones receive a survey that asks them for information about crimes of which they have been victims. They are asked a series of questions to assess whether they individually have been victims of crime but also whether their household has been victimized. About what crime would they not be questioned? Aggravated assault Burglary Murder Sexual assault Question 2 2.5 / 2.5 pts Age is inversely related to criminality. True False Question 3 2.5 / 2.5 pts The ________ was intended to supplement the UCR with more detailed information about victim and offender characteristics. NIBRS NCVS Monitoring the Future Survey Self-report Question 4 2.5 / 2.5 pts CASE 2.1 Your local police department is concerned with this year’s most recent crime statistics. The police chief meets with city officials and his higher-ranking police personnel. They meet to discuss potential policies and procedures in order to reduce the crime rates in their city. The police chief believes that the department needs to focus on crimes like prostitution and drug abuse because the two are interconnected and he believes that both are linked to more serious crimes. Drug use and prostitution are examples of: Economic crimes. Property crimes. Public order crimes. Violent crimes. Question 5 2.5 / 2.5 pts What is suspected to be involved in half of all U.S. murder, suicides, and accidental deaths? Alcohol Drugs Domestic violence Racial tensions Question 6 2.5 / 2.5 pts Which view of crime contends that the definition of crime is subjective? Conflict Interactionist Consensus Constructionist Question 7 2.5 / 2.5 pts CASE 2.3 Mary, a student at a community college in New York, is in the United States on a student visa that allows her to remain in the United States until she obtains her master’s degree in biology. She is considering returning to her home country because she is concerned with the increase in crime at her college and in the surrounding area. Mary attempts to find information on the crime rates in her hometown to compare to those in the city where she currently attends college. After doing research on U.S. crime rates over the past few years, Mary is surprised to learn that: Over the past two decades, violent crimes have been increasing significantly, but property crimes have been decreasing. Over the past two decades, property crimes have been increasing significantly, but violent crimes have been decreasing. Over the past two decades, both violent and property crimes have been increasing significantly. Over the past two decades, both violent and property crimes have been decreasing significantly. Question 8 2.5 / 2.5 pts There is evidence that the reporting accuracy of self-report studies differs among racial, ethnic, and gender groups. True False Question 9 2.5 / 2.5 pts The NIBRS includes all the offenses that occur in an incident, rather than only the most serious offense. True False Question 10 2.5 / 2.5 pts Which of the following is false regarding alternative crime measures? Cohort data involve observing over time a group of people who share certain characteristics. Meta-analysis involves gathering data from a number of previous studies. Sometimes criminologists conduct controlled experiments to collect data on the cause of crime. Data mining creates a graphical representations of the spatial geography of crime. Question 11 2.5 / 2.5 pts Which of the following crimes is not included in the Uniform Crime Report’s list of Part I or index crimes? Criminal homicide Motor vehicle theft Simple assault Arson Question 12 2.5 / 2.5 pts Arrests and court appearances have been shown to be deterrents to chronic offending. True False Question 13 2.5 / 2.5 pts Gang membership has increased over the past decade. True False Question 14 2.5 / 2.5 pts Which crime listed below is not reported in Part I or Part II of the offense section of the UCR? Drug offenses Traffic violations Liquor law violations Sex offenses Question 15 2.5 / 2.5 pts Most boys are socialized to avoid being violent and aggressive. True False Question 16 2.5 / 2.5 pts Which of the following is considered a corporate crime? Bribery Forgery Thwarting competition Murder of a the owner of competing business Question 17 2.5 / 2.5 pts UCR data captures all criminal violations. True False Question 18 2.5 / 2.5 pts Currently, which ethnic group does not dominate organized crime? Russian African American Hispanic Italian Question 19 2.5 / 2.5 pts CASE 2.1 Your local police department is concerned with this year’s most recent crime statistics. The police chief meets with city officials and his higher-ranking police personnel. They meet to discuss potential policies and procedures in order to reduce the crime rates in their city. One higher-ranking police captain believes that the increase in instrumental crimes is the problem. Which of the following is an example of an instrumental crime? A young man who shoots the cashier of a convenience store that he is attempting to rob. A drunken husband who shoots his wife during a late night fight. A parent who strikes his child with a belt. An alcoholic who commits a DUI and kills a child who is attempting to cross the street. Question 20 2.5 / 2.5 pts Which of the following is true about the relationship between age and crime? Kids who are persistent offenders begin committing crimes during adolescence. Kids who are persistent offenders continue a stable pattern of offending activities during late adolescence. Kids who are persistent offenders begin a rapid acceleration of crime in adulthood. Early starters tend to commit more crimes and are more likely to continue to be involved in criminality over a longer period of crime. Question 21 2.5 / 2.5 pts One of the most important sources of self-report data is the _____ study, conducted annually using approximately 2,500 high school seniors. Monitoring the Future Juvenile Arrest National Center for Information about Crime Juvenile Social Survey Question 22 2.5 / 2.5 pts CASE 2.1 Your local police department is concerned with this year’s most recent crime statistics. The police chief meets with city officials and his higher-ranking police personnel. They meet to discuss potential policies and procedures in order to reduce the crime rates in their city. The mayor is more concerned with violent crimes. She believes that when people hear that her city has experienced an increase in violent crimes, they will no longer come to visit. Since the city is on a beach, tourism is a major source of revenue, so the mayor is concerned that the most recent crime statistics will cause a decrease in these revenues. If the mayor is most concerned with violent crimes, which crime does not concern her as much? Murder Rape Prostitution Robbery Question 23 2.5 / 2.5 pts Marijuana is the current drug of choice of most high school seniors. True False Question 24 2.5 / 2.5 pts In which season do the greatest numbers of reported crimes occur? Summer Fall Spring Winter Question 25 2.5 / 2.5 pts The National Crime Victimization Survey and the UCR are the only methods of crime data collection used in the United States. True False Question 26 2.5 / 2.5 pts Which region of the United States has the highest rates of property crimes and violent crimes? Northeast Midwest South Northwest Question 27 2.5 / 2.5 pts Which laws require that convicted felons spend a significant portion of their sentence behind bars? Three-strike laws Habitual offender laws Mandatory sentencing laws Truth-in-Sentencing laws Question 28 2.5 / 2.5 pts Spree killers: Are motivated by the quest for drug profits and street power. Kill many victims in a single violent outburst. Spread their murderous outburst over a few days or weeks. Kill over a long period of time but typically assume a “normal” identity between murders. Question 29 2.5 / 2.5 pts According to the _______ view of crime, behaviors that become crimes are essentially harmful to a majority of citizens and therefore there is general agreement regarding which behaviors need to be controlled. Conflict Interactionist Consensus Constructionist Question 30 2.5 / 2.5 pts Which of the following is not a problem associated with the National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS)? Overreporting due to victim’s misrepresentation of events Incomplete acts lumped together with completed acts Underreporting stemming from the embarrassment of reporting crime Sampling errors that produce a group of respondents who do not represent the nation as a whole Question 31 2.5 / 2.5 pts CASE 2.3 Mary, a student at a community college in New York, is in the United States on a student visa that allows her to remain in the United States until she obtains her master’s degree in biology. She is considering returning to her home country because she is concerned with the increase in crime at her college and in the surrounding area. Mary attempts to find information on the crime rates in her hometown to compare to those in the city where she currently attends college. Mary was a crime victim once in the three years that she has been in the United States. A female acquaintance assaulted Mary while Mary was out celebrating her birthday at a local bar with some friends. The offender was drunk and became agitated when she thought that Mary had taken her seat. With regard to female criminality, all of the following are true except: Female sex hormones account for more aggressive female behavior. Females are socialized to avoid being violent and aggressive. Female criminals are troubled, alienated at home, and pursue crime as a means of compensating for their disrupted personal lives. Girls have been found to be superior to boys in verbal ability, which enable them to diffuse conflict more easily. Question 32 2.5 / 2.5 pts Which view of crime promotes that there is a class struggle between the rich and the poor? Conflict Interactionist Consensus Constructionist Question 33 2.5 / 2.5 pts Self-report surveys are conducted most often on which of the following groups? Juveniles Death row inmates Prisoners Police officers Question 34 2.5 / 2.5 pts In terms of becoming a victim of a violent crime, you are more at risk of being assaulted by someone you know or are in a relationship than by a stranger. True False Question 35 2.5 / 2.5 pts What is the name of the effect stating that the values held by the baby boomers will influence the behavior of all citizens, even crime-prone teens? Apathy Contagion Permissiveness Relativity Question 36 2.5 / 2.5 pts Which of the following is a public order crime? Prostitution Embezzlement Domestic violence Hate speech Question 37 2.5 / 2.5 pts Which of the following viewpoints regarding the definition of crime states that white collar crime is punished less severely than other crimes because the perpetrators are likely affluent members of the ruling class? Interactionist Conflict Consensus Crime control Question 38 2.5 / 2.5 pts The peak age for property crime is 16; and the peak age for violent crime is: 16. 18. 21. 25. Question 39 2.5 / 2.5 pts CASE 2.1 Your local police department is concerned with this year’s most recent crime statistics. The police chief meets with city officials and his higher-ranking police personnel. They meet to discuss potential policies and procedures in order to reduce the crime rates in their city. One improvement that pleases the police chief is that over 45% of all of the cities’ Part I crimes have resulted in arrest. When an offender is arrested and charged with a crime the offense is considered: Adjudicated. Cleared. Disposed. Finished. Question 40 2.5 / 2.5 pts Which of the following explanations is no longer considered valid in explaining the differences in offending patterns between males and females? Gender-based traits such as hormonal differences Differences in socialization between males and females Better verbal abilities in females that promote talking to diffuse conflict as opposed to fighting The use of sex by females to control and influence male behaviors. Quiz Score: 100 out of 100 Question 1 2.5 / 2.5 pts Cesare Lombroso’s views on crime causation were discredited. True False Question 2 2.5 / 2.5 pts Which of the following is not considered a biochemical factor? Testosterone Hypoglycemia Genetic abnormality Environmental constraints Question 3 2.5 / 2.5 pts Which occurs when the victims used threats? Cursory precipitation Active precipitation Passive precipitation Solitary precipitation Question 4 2.5 / 2.5 pts ______ suggests that some people adopt the goals of society but lack the means to attain them and will therefore seek alternatives, such as crime. Differential association theory Social learning theory Strain theory Self-control theory Question 5 2.5 / 2.5 pts Consideration of IQ and attachment are a part of what type of theory? Sociological theory Psychological theory Choice theory Sociobiological theory Question 6 2.5 / 2.5 pts Johnny is arrested for driving under the influence of alcohol. As a result, he is convicted and serves a short stint in jail. Johnny’s incarceration is an example of which of the following concepts? Specific deterrence General deterrence Just desserts Situational prevention Question 7 2.5 / 2.5 pts Developmental theories are concerned with trying to understand why people commit crime. True False Question 8 2.5 / 2.5 pts Target hardening techniques are examples of which type of situational crime prevention tactic? Reducing the rewards for committing the crime Inducing guilt or shame over the crime Increasing the risks of committing the crime Increasing the effort needed to commit the crime Question 9 2.5 / 2.5 pts Which of the following is not one of the three factors linked to predatory crime rates in routine activities theory? Supply of motivated offenders Absence of effective guardians for protection Extent of relative social deprivation Supply of suitable targets Question 10 2.5 / 2.5 pts Under the general theory of crime, criminal acts are attractive because they provide instant gratification for the offender. True False Question 11 2.5 / 2.5 pts Under critical criminal justice, white collar crimes would likely be prosecuted with much less vigor. True False Question 12 2.5 / 2.5 pts According to critical criminologists, which behavior is the biggest problem? Racism Rape Robbery Burglary Question 13 2.5 / 2.5 pts According to situational crime prevention, if punishment is severe enough, known criminals will never be tempted to repeat their offenses. True False Question 14 2.5 / 2.5 pts A subculture occurs in disorganized neighborhoods marked by apathy, cynicism, helplessness, and distrust that is passed from one generation to the next, creating a permanent underclass. This subculture is called: Collective efficacy The truly disadvantaged Focal concerns The culture of poverty Question 15 2.5 / 2.5 pts __________ theory focuses on a person’s bonds to society as a factor in preventing crime. Choice Social control Social disorganization Social learning Question 16 2.5 / 2.5 pts CASE 3.1 Mary and Louise are both 15 years old. Each was arrested and charged with stealing a vehicle. Mary stole a car from the teacher’s parking lot at her school. Louise stole her neighbor’s car when she decided that she wanted to drive to her boyfriend. They both meet with Mr. Brown, a juvenile probation officer, who is to recommend whether or not they should be detained in a juvenile detention center prior to the disposition of their cases. When Mr. Brown asks Mary if she thought twice about stealing the car from the teacher’s parking lot, she replied, “when I saw that the gate was open and there was no security officer around, I had no fear of stealing the car.”What situational crime prevention tactic could have prevented this crime from occurring? Reduce the rewards for committing the crime Increase the risk of committing the crime Remove excuses Increase the effort needed to commit the crime Question 17 2.5 / 2.5 pts CASE 3.2 Warden Smith supervises 2000 male inmates who are incarcerated for various reasons, including murder, rape, robbery, drugs, theft, and arson. He meets with every inmate who is sentenced to his prison to get an understanding of where each inmate came from and how he can possible help each inmate to not return to his institution once released. Warden Smith also reviews the background and criminal history of all offenders who enter his prison.He notices a common theme—many of his inmates began offending at a very early age and they continued to offend well into adulthood.These inmates are considered to be: Adolescent-limited offenders. Passive persisters. Life-course persisters. Active persisters. Question 18 2.5 / 2.5 pts The field of criminology is not concerned with the control of criminal behavior, only its causes. True False Question 19 2.5 / 2.5 pts CASE 3.2 Warden Smith supervises 2000 male inmates who are incarcerated for various reasons, including murder, rape, robbery, drugs, theft, and arson. He meets with every inmate who is sentenced to his prison to get an understanding of where each inmate came from and how he can possible help each inmate to not return to his institution once released. Warden Smith meets Jamaal.He was sentenced to 20 years in prison for armed robbery.Jamaal is argumentative and is a firm believer that the criminal justice system is just a mechanism to control the poor.He thinks that the government should be focusing on the crimes that the wealthy commit and not those of the lower-class community.Jamaal would most likely support which theory? Social learning Choice Critical Psychodynamic Question 20 2.5 / 2.5 pts Social process theories suggest that criminal behavior is learned. True False Question 21 2.5 / 2.5 pts Social disorganization leads to which of the following? The development of a cognitive landscape that views violence as an acceptable means to resolve conflict All of the above Weakened informal social control Residents’ frustrations over their perceived inability to attain the “American Dream” Question 22 2.5 / 2.5 pts Which age group is linked to the early onset of criminal behavior? Early adolescence Toddlers Mid-twenties Late teens Question 23 2.5 / 2.5 pts What is the process in which criminal behavior becomes embedded because antisocial behavior erodes social ties that encourage conformity and creates incentives to commit crime? Victim precipitation State organized Latent traits State dependence Question 24 2.5 / 2.5 pts Excessive levels of ___________ have been linked to violence and aggression. Estrogen Progesterone Testosterone Serotonin Question 25 2.5 / 2.5 pts Cognitive psychologists are concerned with the way people perceive and mentally representthe world in which they live. True False Question 26 2.5 / 2.5 pts Situational crime prevention falls under _____ theory. Sociobiological Choice Developmental Psychological Question 27 2.5 / 2.5 pts What does lifestyle theory posit about victimization? Victimization is a function of social strain and precipitation. Victims are just as likely to become offenders as offenders are to become victims. The victim invariably precipitates their own victimization. Crime is not a random event, and the probability of a crime occurring is dependent on the activities of the victim. Question 28 2.5 / 2.5 pts CASE 3.1 Mary and Louise are both 15 years old. Each was arrested and charged with stealing a vehicle. Mary stole a car from the teacher’s parking lot at her school. Louise stole her neighbor’s car when she decided that she wanted to drive to her boyfriend. They both meet with Mr. Brown, a juvenile probation officer, who is to recommend whether or not they should be detained in a juvenile detention center prior to the disposition of their cases. When Mr. Brown meets with Louise, he asks her the same questions he asked Mary about her background. Louise explains that she has been arrested ten times before for various charges, including drug possession, burglary, and assault.Louise also explains that she has been diagnosed with ADHD and learning disabilities and that she does not always know why she does the things she does.Which biosocial view of crime would best explain Louise’s behavior? Genetic Biochemical Neurological Precipitation Question 29 2.5 / 2.5 pts Which is not a behavior associated with antisocial personality? Lack of remorse Repeatedly performs acts that are grounds for arrest Needs to plan ahead Reckless disregard for the safety of others Question 30 2.5 / 2.5 pts Which theory posits that antisocial behavior is learned through observation? Psychodynamic theory Moral development theory Social learning theory Social disorganization Question 31 2.5 / 2.5 pts In recent years there has been increased interest in the biology of crime, including biochemical, neurological, evolutionary, and genetic concerns. True False Question 32 2.5 / 2.5 pts According to Sampson and Laub, what are the two most critical turning points in a criminal career? Victimization and social bonds Employment and imprisonment Marriage and employment Children and imprisonment Question 33 2.5 / 2.5 pts When individuals provoke or encourage criminal behavior, this is referred to as: Lifestyle theory Latent trait activation Cognitive abuse of the victim Victim precipitation Question 34 2.5 / 2.5 pts CASE 3.1 Mary and Louise are both 15 years old. Each was arrested and charged with stealing a vehicle. Mary stole a car from the teacher’s parking lot at her school. Louise stole her neighbor’s car when she decided that she wanted to drive to her boyfriend. They both meet with Mr. Brown, a juvenile probation officer, who is to recommend whether or not they should be detained in a juvenile detention center prior to the disposition of their cases. According to the routine activities theory Mary would be considered a: Capable guardian Suitable target Motivated offender Suitable offender Question 35 2.5 / 2.5 pts According to the principles of choice theory, in order for punishment to most effectively deter crime, it must meet the following three conditions: Intense, lasting, and cumulative Severe, certain, and punitive Strict, sure, and swift Swift, satisfactory, and certain Question 36 2.5 / 2.5 pts Under critical criminal justice, the criminal justice system is viewed as a means of controlling the poor. True False Question 37 2.5 / 2.5 pts The general theory of crime suggests that differences between individuals in the tendency to commit criminal acts stems from: Their tolerance for social strain The level of relative deprivation in their immediate environment The perceived value of social injustice in the community Their level of self-control Question 38 2.5 / 2.5 pts ______ theory is not a type of developmental theory. Social strain Age-graded Life course Latent trait Question 39 2.5 / 2.5 pts CASE 3.1 Mary and Louise are both 15 years old. Each was arrested and charged with stealing a vehicle. Mary stole a car from the teacher’s parking lot at her school. Louise stole her neighbor’s car when she decided that she wanted to drive to her boyfriend. They both meet with Mr. Brown, a juvenile probation officer, who is to recommend whether or not they should be detained in a juvenile detention center prior to the disposition of their cases. Louise also explains that she was diagnosed with a psychiatric disorder.She cannot remember the name of the disorder.Mr. Brown is waiting for her case file to see her diagnosis.Which of the following psychiatric disorders is Louise unlikely to have? Oppositional defiant disorder Strain disorder Alexithymia Conduct disorder Question 40 2.5 / 2.5 pts According to the routine activities theory, police officers would be considered: Suitable targets Motivated offenders Capable targets Capable guardians Quiz Score: 100 out of 100 Question 1 2.5 / 2.5 pts Which of the following was not one of Sir Robert Peel’s nine principles of policing? The basic mission for which the police exist is to make arrests and aid in convictions. The ability of the police to perform their duties is dependent on public approval of police actions. Police must secure the willing cooperation of the public in voluntary observance of the law in order to secure and maintain public respect. Police preserve public favor by constantly demonstrating absolute impartial service to the law. Question 2 2.5 / 2.5 pts Which of the following is not an advantage of high-definition surveying? Investigators can manipulate every piece of evidence. The perspective of the crime scene can be manipulated. Crime scene contamination is limited. It relies on photographic evidence and two-dimensional drawings. Question 3 2.5 / 2.5 pts Which is the oldest federal law enforcement agency? U.S. Marshals FBI DHS IRS Question 4 2.5 / 2.5 pts Where was the first formal police department created in the United States in 1838? New York Philadelphia Boston Texas Question 5 2.5 / 2.5 pts Which of the following is not a task performed by private police? Surveillance via CCTV cameras Escorting a fired employee out of the building Providing a night watch to deter trespassing Enforcing traffic laws by issuing citations to motorists Question 6 2.5 / 2.5 pts AFIS is a (n): National database of DNA records. Computerized fingerprint system. Automated stolen vehicle database. Continually updating fugitive identification system. Question 7 2.5 / 2.5 pts The early nineteenth century was an era of widespread urban unrest and mob violence, which led local leaders to realize that a more structured police function was needed to keep the peace. True False Question 8 2.5 / 2.5 pts Immigration and Customs Enforcement is part of the Department of Homeland Security. True False Question 9 2.5 / 2.5 pts English police officers are known as bobbies because: The tails of the horses they rode were cut short (bobbed). Sir Robert (Bobbie) Peel was responsible for their creation. The first name Robert and its accompanying nickname Bobbie were extremely common among the first generation of English police. They were paid in shillings, for which the slang term was “bob.” Question 10 2.5 / 2.5 pts Law enforcement in colonial America paralleled the _________ model. British Chinese Japanese Spanish Question 11 2.5 / 2.5 pts What was the name of the organized private police that patrolled in eighteenth-century England? Constables Shire reeves Bobbies Thief takers Question 12 2.5 / 2.5 pts Which term is used to describe the use of computer software to conduct analysis of behavioral patterns in an effort to link open cases to known perpetrators? Crime mapping CODIS Data mining Systems analysis Question 13 2.5 / 2.5 pts Which of the following is an example of hard technology used by law enforcement? Ignition interlock systems Facial recognition software Crime mapping Gunshot location devices Question 14 2.5 / 2.5 pts Which is the correct hierarchical order of law enforcement agencies? Federal, county, state, metropolitan Federal, state, county, metropolitan Federal, state, metropolitan, county Federal, metropolitan, state, county Question 15 2.5 / 2.5 pts CASE 5.1 Danny is a new police recruit. He is amazed at the technology that is used at his police department. His goal is to become a detective who works in the crime scene investigation unit of his police department. Because of this goal, when he responds to a call he pays particular attention to the technology used by his police department. Danny is surprised to learn that DNA evidence collected at local crime scenes in his jurisdiction are sent to a federal database titled “Combined DNA Index System.” Which federal agency maintains this CODIS database? DEA FBI CIA DHS Question 16 2.5 / 2.5 pts ___________ enables the police to target and direct resources to geographic hot spots of predatory crime. Biometrics Crime mapping AFIS CODIS Question 17 2.5 / 2.5 pts CASE 5.1 Danny is a new police recruit. He is amazed at the technology that is used at his police department. His goal is to become a detective who works in the crime scene investigation unit of his police department. Because of this goal, when he responds to a call he pays particular attention to the technology used by his police department. One call that Danny responds to is a shooting in which the offender is believed to be hiding ina vacant office building. What device are the officers using to detect whether the suspect is actually hiding in this vacant office building? Biometrics Data mining DNA testing Thermal imagers Question 18 2.5 / 2.5 pts There are more than two million employees involved in private policing. True False Question 19 2.5 / 2.5 pts Private police focus largely on prevention. True False Question 20 2.5 / 2.5 pts In the late nineteenth century, police work was not desirable because it paid less than most other blue-collar jobs. True False Question 21 2.5 / 2.5 pts Which federal agency enforces the Gun Control Act of 1968 and the Organized Crime Control Act of 1970? ATF FBI DHS Secret Service Question 22 2.5 / 2.5 pts The _____ was created in 1326 under the watch system of policing to assist the shire reeve in controlling the county. Deputy position Constable position Bobbie position Justice of the peace Question 23 2.5 / 2.5 pts CASE 5.2 Chief Jones has been a police officer since 1960. He was hired by the New York City Police Department in 1960 when he was 20 years old. He is now 72 years old and will be retiring as the police chief of a police department in a city located 60 miles outside of New York City. He has seen many changes in policing over the past fifty years. Chief Jones is concerned that too many public policing responsibilities are being shifted to the private sector. He is a firm believer that policing should be left to the government, not private corporations. All of the following are common criticisms of private policing except: Motives are more important than the protection of public safety. Private policing could replace public police. Private police have unbridled authority over citizens and public police officers. Private security guards are not subject to the same search and seizure standards as public police officers. Question 24 2.5 / 2.5 pts Customs and Border Patrol (CBP) and Immigrations and Customs Enforcement (ICE) are branches of the Department of Homeland Security (DHS). True False Question 25 2.5 / 2.5 pts In medieval England, who was expected to make a hue and cry to assemble his helpers and warn the village when trouble occurred? Constable Sheriff Shire reeve Tythingman Question 26 2.5 / 2.5 pts The shire reeve was considered the first police officer in the United States. True False Question 27 2.5 / 2.5 pts Police during the nineteenth century were regarded as incompetent and corrupt and were disliked by the people they served. True False Question 28 2.5 / 2.5 pts The defining event that helped shape police reforms in the 1990s was the: Creation of the International Association of Chiefs of Police. Creation of the Law Enforcement Assistance Administration. Growth of police unions. Beating of Rodney King. Question 29 2.5 / 2.5 pts Which federal agency is responsible for the transporting of federal prisoners? U.S. Marshals FBI Department of Homeland Security Secret Service Question 30 2.5 / 2.5 pts How did police reformer August Vollmer contribute to police professionalism? Instituting university training for young officers Establishing the first formal police academy in the United States Becoming the first president of the IACP Creating the first SWAT team Question 31 2.5 / 2.5 pts Which is the following was not a problem faced by the police during the 1960s? Skyrocketing crime rates Pressure from police reform groups such as the IACP Vietnam protests Race riots Question 32 2.5 / 2.5 pts The Metropolitan Police Act established the first organized police force in London. True False Question 33 2.5 / 2.5 pts Which was the first major technological breakthrough in early policing? Bicycle patrols Community policing Telegraph communication Hand-held radios Question 34 2.5 / 2.5 pts Who heads the U.S. Department of Justice? U.S. Attorney General Secretary of the Treasury Chief Justice of the Supreme Court Secretary of State Question 35 2.5 / 2.5 pts CASE 5.1 Danny is a new police recruit. He is amazed at the technology that is used at his police department. His goal is to become a detective who works in the crime scene investigation unit of his police department. Because of this goal, when he responds to a call he pays particular attention to the technology used by his police department. Because of his commendable performance during his first year as a police rookie, Danny is being assigned to a task force that will be investigating counterfeiting and other financial crimes. With which federal agency will Danny most likely work as part of this task force? ATF DHS Secret Service U.S. Marshalls Question 36 2.5 / 2.5 pts All of the following are reasons for the growth in private policing except: The desire for nongovernmental service provisions. Growth in mass private property. A belief that the private sector can do a better job than the public sector. Private police are better trained. Question 37 2.5 / 2.5 pts The _______________ is an investigative agency with jurisdiction over all law enforcement matters in which the United States is an interested party. Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) Department of Homeland Security (DHS) Department of Justice (DOJ) U.S. Secret Service Question 38 2.5 / 2.5 pts The U.S. Marshals work with law enforcement authorities at the federal, state, and local levels to apprehend felons. True False Question 39 2.5 / 2.5 pts CASE 5.2 Chief Jones has been a police officer since 1960. He was hired by the New York City Police Department in 1960 when he was 20 years old. He is now 72 years old and will be retiring as the police chief of a police department in a city located 60 miles outside of New York City. He has seen many changes in policing over the past fifty years. The officers continue to ask Chief Jones about Immigration and Customs Enforcement. Some of them want to know what type of law enforcement opportunities exist in this agency. Chief Jones discusses the components of ICE. All of the following are components of ICE except: Office of Investigations Office of Detention and Removal Operations Office of Intelligence Witness Security Question 40 2.5 / 2.5 pts Which of the following is not a mission of the U.S. Secret Service? Investigate counterfeiting and other financial crimes, including financial institution fraud, identity theft and computer fraud. Investigate threats against protected officials. Protect the President and Vice-President. Conduct and coordinate international investigations involving transnational criminal organizations responsible for the illegal movement of people, goods, and technology into and out of the United States Question 1 2.5 / 2.5 pts Which term is used to describe the concern with making decisions that are arrived at through procedures that are viewed as fair? Due process Procedural justice Individual rights Crime control Question 2 2.5 / 2.5 pts CASE 6.2 A few concerned citizens made an appointment to meet with the chief of police in Anytown, USA. They are concerned with the productivity of the police department in their city. They are also concerned with the lack of coordination between the residents of the city and the police department. Mrs. Stern expresses that she is pleased that the crime rate in her area has decreased as a result of proactive efforts of the police department. At the same time, Mrs. Joseph complains that the crime that disappeared in Mrs. Stern’s neighborhood has now moved to her neighborhood. This effect is known as: Substitution. Displacement. Advancement. Replacement. Question 3 2.5 / 2.5 pts An advantage of hiring civilians to work in police departments is that they are often paid less than police officers. True False Question 4 2.5 / 2.5 pts One of the goals of Intelligence-led Policing is to shift the focus of police work to be more reactive as opposed to proactive. True False Question 5 2.5 / 2.5 pts Which of the following was not one of the reasons behind the evolution of community policing? Move toward a crime control perspective Citizen frustration with police detachment Desire to improve the public image of the police Inability of patrol to reduce certain types of crime Question 6 2.5 / 2.5 pts Patrol officers have a great deal of discretion in how they handle individual incidents. True False Question 7 2.5 / 2.5 pts CASE 6.2 A few concerned citizens made an appointment to meet with the chief of police in Anytown, USA. They are concerned with the productivity of the police department in their city. They are also concerned with the lack of coordination between the residents of the city and the police department. Mr. Smith is one resident who brings up at the meeting that there are a few locations, known as hot spots of crime, that are the biggest concern for the residents. All of the following are considered to be potential hotspots of crime except: Bus depots. Schools. Malls. Bars. Question 8 2.5 / 2.5 pts Which model of policing believes that police need to aggressively target low-level quality-oflife offenses? Rapid response Community-oriented policing Procedural justice policing Broken windows policing Question 9 2.5 / 2.5 pts CASE 6.1 Chief Williams is a newly hired police chief in the city of Middletown. He was hired to implement changes in the police department. After five consecutive years of increasing crime rates, low-level quality-of-life crimes seem to be on the rise. He was brought in from an outside agency in the hope that he would restructure the police department. The first changes Chief Williams wants to implement are to the most visible members of the police department. Which division is the most visible to the public? Patrol Detective bureau Special operations Dispatch Question 10 2.5 / 2.5 pts A Florida-based police department is interested in cutting costs. One tactic they are considering implementing is absorbing some units with fewer than ten personnel into larger units. This process is known as what? Pooling Sharing Informal arrangement Consolidation Question 11 2.5 / 2.5 pts CASE 6.1 Chief Williams is a newly hired police chief in the city of Middletown. He was hired to implement changes in the police department. After five consecutive years of increasing crime rates, low-level quality-of-life crimes seem to be on the rise. He was brought in from an outside agency in the hope that he would restructure the police department. Chief Williams believes that the designated patrol areas need to be made smaller for the patrol officers. What are these designated patrol areas known as? Beats Divisions Zones Quarters Question 12 2.5 / 2.5 pts Who is assigned to enforce morality-based laws, such as those addressing prostitution and gambling? Ace squads Morality squads Justice squads Vice squads Question 13 2.5 / 2.5 pts CASE 6.2 A few concerned citizens made an appointment to meet with the chief of police in Anytown, USA. They are concerned with the productivity of the police department in their city. They are also concerned with the lack of coordination between the residents of the city and the police department. The police chief is concerned with the residents’ request, as he believes that his police department should stress proactive problem solving. This type of management style is referred to as: Intelligence-led policing. Community-oriented policing. Reactive policing. Problem-oriented policing. Question 14 2.5 / 2.5 pts Highly focused, as opposed to randomized, policing efforts are currently believed to be most effective at solving street-level crime problems. True False Question 15 2.5 / 2.5 pts Foot patrol efforts were aimed at forming a bond with community residents by acquainting residents with the individual officers who patrolled their neighborhood. True False Question 16 2.5 / 2.5 pts The goal of the Kansas City Patrol Study was to evaluate: The effectiveness of different patrol models. Police use of force standards. The time-in-rank system of promotion. Command and control structures. Question 17 2.5 / 2.5 pts Which is the term used to describe an effect that occurs when criminals move from an area targeted for increased police presence to another that is less well protected. Displacement Replacement Differential association Routine activities Question 18 2.5 / 2.5 pts What was the principal finding of the Kansas City Patrol Study? Patrol techniques can significantly impact citizens’ satisfaction with police. The type of patrol model adopted has a significant impact on crime. Patrol techniques can have a significant impact on citizens’ attitudes. There is little evidence to suggest that increased police patrol deters crime. Question 19 2.5 / 2.5 pts Which concept of policing aims to treat citizens with dignity and respect? Community policing Broken windows Intelligence-led policing Procedural justice Question 20 2.5 / 2.5 pts Which type of intelligence includes gaining or developing information related to threats of terrorism or crime and using this information to apprehend offenders, harden targets, and use strategies that will eliminate or mitigate the threat. Strategic intelligence Unified intelligence Actuarial intelligence Tactical intelligence Question 21 2.5 / 2.5 pts Aggressive patrol in New York City during the 1990s aimed at vandalism, panhandling, and graffiti has been credited with a reduction in what type of crime? White-collar crime Drug dealing Prostitution Violent crime Question 22 2.5 / 2.5 pts Detective Jones is investigating a murder. As a seasoned investigator, Jones uses the threepronged approach to solving cases. At the onset of his investigation, Jones visits the crime scene, interviews witnesses, and collects evidence. This is known as what? General coverage Intelligence gathering Specific focus Informative data gathering Question 23 2.5 / 2.5 pts Which model sees the role of the police as maintainers of community order and safety? Community-oriented policing Broken windows policing Rapid response Procedural justice policing Question 24 2.5 / 2.5 pts The detective bureau is considered the backbone of policing. True False Question 25 2.5 / 2.5 pts The first experiments in community-oriented policing involved: Decentralized, neighborhood-based precincts. Streamlining in the number of ranks in a department. Foot patrol. Storefront mini-stations. Question 26 2.5 / 2.5 pts The average police officer can expect to make between ten and fifteen arrests per month for serious crimes. True False Question 27 2.5 / 2.5 pts Which of the following is not a concept associated with broken windows policing? The use of preventive patrol throughout a jurisdiction to deter offending and improve police and community relations. Neighborhoods give out crime-promoting signals. Police need to aggressively target low-level quality-of-life crimes. Neighborhood disorder creates fear. Question 28 2.5 / 2.5 pts Police stopping motorists to issue citations and aggressively arresting suspicious persons is an example of what type of policing? Reactive Neighborhood Proactive Community Question 29 2.5 / 2.5 pts While police patrol has many objectives, most police experts agree that the majority of police patrol efforts are devoted to: Crime fighting Deterring crime Responding to emergencies Order maintenance Question 30 2.5 / 2.5 pts Studies have found that foot patrols are effective at reducing crime. True False Question 31 2.5 / 2.5 pts The concept of hot spots of crime is most closely associated with which model of policing? Community-oriented policing (COP) Police-community relations (PCR) Problem-oriented policing (POP) Intelligence-led policing Question 32 2.5 / 2.5 pts How do most municipal police departments determine promotion eligibility? Physical agility Arrest performance Time-in-rank Testing Question 33 2.5 / 2.5 pts Fusion centers provide the means for community input. True False Question 34 2.5 / 2.5 pts CASE 6.2 A few concerned citizens made an appointment to meet with the chief of police in Anytown, USA. They are concerned with the productivity of the police department in their city. They are also concerned with the lack of coordination between the residents of the city and the police department. Mr. Smith also expresses concern that the division that is supposed to investigate allegations of police misconduct does not take his complaints seriously. He recently filed a complaint that one officer used aggressive techniques when dealing with his son on a traffic stop. Which unit is responsible for investigating these allegations? Internal affairs Investigative affairs Community affairs Department affairs Question 35 2.5 / 2.5 pts Civilian employees are helpful in minimizing costs for police departments and can be used in all of the following capacities except: Traffic control. Investigations. Clerical work. Communications gear. Question 36 2.5 / 2.5 pts Conducting an interview with a family member of the victim who was present at the crime scene would fall into the ________ investigative stage. General coverage Informative data gathering Specific focus Victim/suspect time lines Question 37 2.5 / 2.5 pts Which term is used to describe organized groups of detectives who deceive criminals into openly committing illegal acts or conspiring to engage in criminal activity? Vice squad Proactive patrol Detective bureau Sting operations Question 38 2.5 / 2.5 pts Who are considered the backbone of a police department? Vice squad Detectives Uniformed police officers Chiefs Question 39 2.5 / 2.5 pts Community-oriented policing and problem-oriented policing are closely associated. True False Question 40 2.5 / 2.5 pts Which of the following is not a program or policy to try to improve patrol effectiveness? Rapid response Targeting of specific crimes Decrease the number of arrests Aggressive patrol Question 1 2.5 / 2.5 pts With whom do African American women police officers report having difficult relationships? African American women police officers African American male police officers White male police officers Hispanic women police officers Question 2 2.5 / 2.5 pts An officer who approaches a group of teenagers drinking beer, checks everyone’s IDs, and arrests everyone who is underage would typify which style of policing? Crime fighter Social agent Law enforcer Watchman Question 3 2.5 / 2.5 pts CASE 7.2 Detective Smith is a fourteen-year police veteran who has been working in internal affairs for the past four years. He was assigned to internal affairs to investigate allegations of police misconduct and corruption. While working as a police officer, he put himself through law school in the evenings and received his law license six years ago. Although he enjoyed being a road patrol officer, he feels it is more important to protect the citizens of the community against the few corrupt police officers who may exist on his police force. One of Detective Smith’s first investigations as an internal affairs detective is on a seventeen-year police veteran who is being accused of demanding bribes from local drug dealers and helping them transport their narcotics in the trunk of his police car. If the allegations are true, this officer can be classified as a: Grass eater. Candy eater. Meat eater. Beer drinker. Question 4 2.5 / 2.5 pts How many styles of police work seem to fit the current behavior patterns of most police officers? 2 4 6 8 Question 5 2.5 / 2.5 pts According to research, which of the following is not a benefit associated with higher education for police officers? They behave more professionally. Fewer citizen complaints are generated. Crime-fighting ability is enhanced. They have greater self-confidence. Question 6 2.5 / 2.5 pts Which term is used to describe the way a person outwardly manifests his or her personality? Attitude Character Demeanor Identity Question 7 2.5 / 2.5 pts Studies have shown that female officers are just as capable of performing the job well as are their male counterparts. True False Question 8 2.5 / 2.5 pts Which of the following statements about female officers is false? Female officers are less likely than male officers to be charged with improper conduct. Female officer recruits are more likely to fai

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