Summary Chapter 8: variation in chromsome structure and number
The course is in English so the summary is also in English. This summary consists of 7 pages.
This is a summary of chapter 8 of Genetics Analysis and Principles 6th edition by Robert Brooker. The following learning outcomes are included in the summary:
8.1=1. Describe the characteristics that are used to classify and identify chromosomes.
8.2=1. Compare and contrast the four types of changes in chromosome structure.
8.3=1. Explain how deletions and duplications occur. 2. Describe how deletions and duplications may affect the phenotype of an organism. 3. Define "copy number variation". 4. Interpret the results of an experiment that uses the technique of comparative genomic hybridization.
8.4=1. Define pericentric inversion and paracentric inversion. 2. Diagram the production of abnormal chromosomes due to crossing over in inversion heterozygotes. 3. Explain two mechanisms that result in reciprocal translocations. 4. Describe how reciprocal translocations align during meiosis and how they segregate.
8.5=1. Define euploid and aneuploid. 2. Compare and contrast polyploidy and aneuploidy.
8.6=1. Explain why aneuploidy usually has a detrimental effect on phenotype. 2. Describe examples of aneuploidy in humans.
8.7= 1. Describe examples in animals that involve variation in euploidy. 2. Define endopolyploidy. 3. Outline the process of polytene chromosome formation. 4. Discuss the effects of polyploidy among plant species and its impact in agriculture.
8.8= 1. Describe how meiotic and mitotic nondisjunction occur and identify their possible phenotypic consequences. 2. Compare and contrast autopolyploidy, alloploidy, and allopolyploidy. 3. Explain why allotetraploids are more likely than allodiploids to be fertile. 4. Describe how colchicine is used to produce polyploid species.