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Bio Final exam review REESE CAMPBELL SUM 2019 q's and answers

Body fluids of an osmoconformer would be ________ with its _________ environment. a. hyperosmotic; freshwater b. isotonic; freshwater c. hyperosmotic; saltwater d. isoosmotic; saltwater e. hyposmotic; saltwater 2. A freshwater fish was accidently placed in salt water, and died after several minutes. Why? a. Loss of water by osmosis in cells in vital organs resulting in cell death and organ failure. b. Salt diffused into all of the fish’s cells causing them to swell and lyse. c. The kidneys were not able to keep up with the water removal necessary in the hyperosmotic environment. d. The gills became encrusted with salt, causing inadequate gas exchange and asphyxiation. e. Brain cells lysed due to increased osmotic pressure in a hyperosmotic environment. 3. Where does urea come from? a. glycogen in the liver b. NH3 and CO2 in the liver c. glucose in the kidneys d. glycerol in the kidneys e. uric acid and water in the bladder 4. What is the advantage of excreting wastes as urea rather than ammonia? a. urea can be exchanged for sodium ions b. urea is less toxic than ammonia c. urea requires more water for excretion than ammonia d. urea does not affect the osmolar gradient e. less nitrogen is removed from the body 5. The transfer of fluids from the glomerulus to Bowman’s capsule a. results from active transport b. transfers large molecules as easily as small ones c. is very selective as to which subprotein sized molecules are transferred d. is mainly a consequence of blood pressure in the capillaries of the glomerulus e. usually includes the transfer of red blood cells to the Bowman’s capsule 6. What substance is secreted by the proximal-tubule cells and prevents the pH of urine from becoming too acidic? a. bicarbonate b. salt c. glucose d. ammonia e. NaOH 7. Proper functioning in the human kidney requires considerable active transport of sodium in the kidney tubules. If active transport were to stop completely, you would produce a higher / lower than normal amount of hyperosmotic / hypoosmotic / isoosmotic urine. 8. Which structure contains blood in a normally functioning nephron? a. vasa recta b. Bowman’s capsule c. loop of Henle d. distal tubule e. collecting duct 9. Which structure passes urine to the renal pelvis? a. vasa recta b. Bowman’s capsule c. loop of Henle d. distal tubule e. collecting duct 10. Which structure descends deep into the renal medulla only in juxtamedullary nephrons? a. vasa recta b. Bowman’s capsule c. loop of Henle d. distal tubule e. collecting duct 11. Which structure increases the reabsorption of Na when stimulated by aldosterone? a. vasa recta b. Bowman’s capsule c. loop of Henle d. distal tubule e. collecting duct 12. Processing of filtrate in the proximal and distal tubules accomplishes what important function? a. sorting plasma proteins according to size b. converting toxic ammonia to less toxic urea c. maintaining a constant pH in body fluids d. regulating the speed of blood flow through the nephron e. reabsorbing urea to maintain osmotic balance 13. What is unique about the transport epithelial cells in the ascending loop of Henle in humans? a. They are the largest epithelial cells in the body. b. They are not in contact with interstitial fluid. c. Their membranes are impermeable to water. d. 50% of their cell mass is comprised of smooth endoplasmic reticulum. e. They are not affected by high levels of nitrogenous wastes. 14. What causes the increased urine production after drinking alcoholic beverages? a. increased aldosterone b. increased blood pressure c. inhibition of ADH d. increased reabsorption of water in the proximal tubule e. osmoregulator cells in the brain increase their activity 15. __ADH____ monitors appropriate osmolarity by reabsorption of water, and __RAAS__ maintains osmolarity by stimulating Na reabsorption, thus maintaining homeostasis. Chapter 45 16. What is the mode of action of aspirin and ibuprofen? a. They inhibit the synthesis of prostaglandins. b. They inhibit the release of nitric oxide, a vasodilator. c. They block paracrine signaling pathways. d. They stimulate the release of oxytocin. e. They stimulate the release of endorphins. 17. A cell that contains proteins enabling a hormone to selectively bind to its plasma membrane is called a(n) a. secretory cell b. plasma cell c. endocrine cell d. target cell e. regulatory cell 18. Which hormone would you expect to be active in times of food shortages? a. epinephrine b. glucagon c. oxytocin d. ADH e. insulin 19. Which hormone would you expect to be expressed in high levels during extreme stress? a. epinephrine b. glucagon c. oxytocin d. ADH e. insulin 20. Which hormone would you expect to be active during active labor and uterine contractions? a. epinephrine b. glucagon c. oxytocin d. ADH e. insulin 21. Which hormone would you expect to be active following a large meal? a. epinephrine b. glucagon c. oxytocin d. ADH e. insulin 22. Which hormone would you expect to be lower in someone who has ingested alcohol? a. epinephrine b. glucagon c. oxytocin d. ADH e. insulin 23. If a person ingests large volumes of water in a short period of time, he or she might die of water toxicity. ADH can prevent water retention through interaction with target cells in the a. anterior pituitary b. posterior pituitary c. adrenal gland d. bladder e. kidney 24. Iodine is added to commercially-prepared table salt to help prevent deficiencies. Which gland requires iodine to function properly? a. parathyroids b. adrenal c. thyroid d. pancreas e. pituitary 25. Blood samples taken from a fasting individual should normally exhibit a. high levels of insulin b. high levels of glucagon c. low levels of insulin d. low levels of glucagon e. Both B and C f. Both A and D Manny Ramirez was suspended for 50 games when he tested positive for LH and HCG, fertility drugs commonly used to treat women. (HCG is produced by the placenta!) These hormones affect men by stimulating production of testosterone and can be prescribed to men whose testicles do not function due to long-term steroid abuse

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