NR 283 Week 6 Pre-Class Answers
Chapter 9: Musculoskeletal System Disorders Chapter 16: Endocrine System Disorders Chapter 25: Immobility and Associated Problems Chapter 28: Environmental Hazards and Associated Problems (Chapters 9, 16, 25, & 28) *Refer to chapter worksheets to study for chapters 25-28 as well Chapter 9: Musculoskeletal System Disorders 1. What is the all-important process that takes place in the bone marrow? Hematopoiesis→ metabolic function of making new bloodcells 2. Whatisthedifferencebetweenredandyellowbonemarrow?Redbonemarrowpresentat birth with yellow (fatty) bone marrow replacing red marrow within the longbones a. Where does hematopoiesis occur? Red BoneMarrow b. Where is red marrow found in adults? Cranium, vertebrae bodies, ribs, sternum,ilia 3. What is the function of osteoblasts and osteoclasts? Osteoblasts are responsible for secreting the matrix of the bone; Stimulated by Calcitonin; Constantly producing new bone; w/osteoclasts they provide homeostasis of the bone; derivative of osteoprogenitor cells which are derivatives of embryonic mesenchymal cells; Osteoclasts reabsorb bone tissue; derivative of macrophage progenitor cell; Stimulated by Parathyroid Hormone; Multi-nucleated cells that contain numerous mitochondria &lysosomes 4. What does bone resorption mean? Which cells do it? Osteoclasts reabsorb bone;process where osteoclasts break ↓ tissue in bones & release minerals → transfer calcium from bone tissue →blood 5. What are the four basic functions of skeletalmuscle? a. Facilitate body movement by musclecontraction b. Maintain body position by continuing muscletone c. Stabilize joints & prevent excessivemovement d. Maintain body temperature by producing heat through musclecontraction 6. What is the purpose of synovial fluid? Facilitate movement of joints & provides nutrientsto articular cartilage; Joint cavity(space) between articulating ends of bones is filled w/this fluid; Prevents articular cartilage of the 2 surfaces from damaging each other. Fluid produced by synovial membrane (synovium) → lines joint capsule to edge of articular surface w/lots of blood vessels. 7. Describe each type offracture: a. Complete: Bone is broken to form 2 or more separatepieces b. Incomplete: Bone only partially broken; like greenstick → not all the waythrough c. Open: “Compound”; skin is broken; bone fragments may be angled & protrude through skin; ↑ damage to soft tissue, blood vessels, & nerves; ↑ risk ofinfection d. Closed: Skin is NOT broken at fracturesite e. Simple: Single break in bone but alignment positionremains f. Comminuted: Multiple fracture lines & bone fragments (many littlepieces) g. Compression: Vertebrae → bone is crushed or collapses into small pieces h. Impacted: 1 end of bone is forces/telescoped into adjacent bone; neck offemur crushed againstpelvis i. Pathologic: Weakness in bone structure d/t underlying comorbid condition; break occurs spontaneously or w/very little stress onbone i. What is a common disease that is the cause of a pathologic fracture?Osteoporosis j. Stress: “Fatigue Fracture”; repeated excessive stress; tibia, femur, 2nd/3rdmetatarsal i. What type of sport would this be common in? Full contactsports k. Depressed: Skull; broken section forced inward onto thebrain l. Transverse: Fracture across thebone m. Linear: Fracture along the axis of thebone n. Oblique: Fracture at an angle to the diaphysis (shaft) of thebone o. Spiral: Fracture angles around the bone; twistinginjury 8. What are the factors that affect healing of the bone? #1 Amount of local damage done to bone & soft tissue; prolonged inflammation or extensive damage to periosteum or blood vessels impairs healing; #2 Secondary problem like foreign material or infection delays healing; #3 Systemic factors delay healing like circulatory problems, anemias, diabetes mellitus, drugs like glucocorticoids, or nutritional deficits, as well as AGE; #4 Closer to the end of the bone → smaller the amount of bone to repair so if diaphysis broken it will take longer then epiphysis (growthplate). 9. What are the clinical manifestations of a fracture? Compound fractures & obvious deformity is obvious; Swelling, tenderness at site, altered sensation, inability to move broken limb, crepitus, immediate pain (can be delayed w/compound/multiple fx d/t nerve function temporarily lost); Severe pain → shock, pallor, diaphoresis, hypotension, tachycardia,n/v a. What is crepitus? Grating, creaking, cracking, or popping sound if ends ofbone fragments move over eachother.