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NR 283 Week 7 Pre-Class Answers

Chapter 4 – Pain Chapter 14 – Neurological System Chapter 24 – Complications of Aging Chapter 26 – Substance Abuse and Associated Problems Chapter 27 – Substance Abuse and Associated Problems (Chapters 4, 14, 24, 26, & 27) Chapter 4 – Pain: 1. Why is important to feel pain? Bodies defense mechanism & warning of acuteproblem; variable characteristics → subjective & impossible to accuratelymeasure. 2. What are possible causes of pain? Infection, ischemia, tissue necrosis, tissue stretching, chemicals , burns, hemorrhage, stretched capsule d/t inflammation; stretching of tendons, ligaments, & joint capsules → inflammation or musclespasm; a. What is the cause of chest pain? Muscle strain w/inflammation of muscles & tendons around ribs, injured ribs, peptic ulcers, GERD, asthma, collapsed lung.Atherosclerosis b. What is the cause of gas pain? stomach & intestines → inflammation ofmucosa, ischemia, distention, or musclespasm 3. Describe the following types ofpain: a. Superficial somatic pain: pain of skin (cutaneous); sharp or burning feeling;localized b. Deep somatic pain: pain in the muscle/bone;localized c. Visceral pain: pain originating in organs; achy &dull d. Referred pain: pain perceived at site distant from source; visceral damage of abdominal organs but perceived on surface of body in differentarea e. Phantom pain: felt after loss of limb → pain w/in a limb that is no longer there; chronic pain prior to surgery can also produce phantom pain followingsurgery 4. What are nociceptors? Pain receptors → free sensory nerve endings present inmost tissues; stimulated by thermal, chemical, or mechanical/physicalmeans a. Describethethreewaystheyaresimulated(wayswefeelpain):Thermal→extreme temperatures; Chemical → acids or compounds produced in body [Bradykinin, Histamine, or Prostaglandin]; Mechanical/Physical →pressure 5. Whatisthedifferencebetweenpainthresholdandpaintolerance?PainThreshold→level of stimulation required to activate nerve ending sufficiently for person to perceive pain; relatively constant over time & among individual. Pain tolerance → ability to withstand pain or perception of intensity, varies w/past experiences & overall state ofhealth. 6. Whatarephysicalclinicalmanifestationsthatsomeoneisinpain:locationofpain;descriptive terms (aching, burning, sharp, throbbing, widespread, cramping, constant, periodic, unbearable, or moderate); Time of pain or w/activity or pressure applied to area;physical

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