Introduction to Industrial - Organizational Psychology
Introduction to Industrial - Organizational Psychology What is the ultimate goal of industrial - organizational psychology? All employees loved their jobs and have outstanding performance. Aamodt, 2013 What is your idea about Industrial / Organizati onal Psychology ? Industrial / Organizational / Work / Occupational Psychology Is a branch of psychology that applies psychological theories and principles to organizations and individuals in their places of work Gould, 2018 Industrial / Organizational / Work / Occupational Psychology IO focuses on increasing workplace productivity by improving the physical and mental health of employees. Gould, 2018 2 sides of IO The Industrial Side involves looking at how to best match individuals to specific job roles. people who work in this area usually assess employee characteristics and then match these individuals to jobs in which they are likely to perform well. The Organizational Side understanding how organizations affect individual behavior. Organizational structures, social norms, management styles, and role expectations are all factors that can influence how people behave within an organization. Cherry, 2018 Training and development determine what type of skills are necessary to perform specific jobs as well as develop and evaluate employee training programs Employee selection This area involves developing employee selection assessments, such as screening tests to determine if job applicants are qualified for a particular position. Six Key Areas where IO Psychologists work Cherry, 2018 Ergonomics involves designing procedures and equipment designed to maximize performance and minimize injury Performance management develop assessments and techniques to determine if employees are doing their jobs well. Six Key Areas where IO Psychologists work Cherry, 2018 Work life This area focuses on improving employee satisfaction and maximizing the productivity of the workforce. find ways to make jobs more rewarding or design programs that improve the quality of life in the workplace. Organizational development I-O psychologists who work in this area help improve organizations, often through increasing profits, redesigning products, and improving the organizational structure. Six Key Areas where IO Psychologists work Cherry, 2018 What is the difference between IO Psychology and Business fields? IO psychology examines factors that affect the people in an organization. Business fields deals with the broader aspects of running an organization such as marketing, channels, transportation networks, and cost accounting. Differences between HR Manager and IP Human Resource Manager Industrial Psychologist a member of the management team that plans, directs and coordinates an organization's management functions apply psychology principles to the workplace provide oversight for functions such as recruiting, interviewing and hiring new staff, and handling staff issues related to disputes, disciplinary procedures or employee terminations use their skills to study workplace productivity, morale, employee screening or organizational development usually the organization's expert on legal issues such as equal employment opportunity and sexual harassment, and is the link between senior executives and employees conducting pre-employment testing, providing team-building activities or executive coaching, or conducting climate and culture surveys handle payroll, timekeeping, and other compensation and employee benefits provide scientific research to HR managers for the purpose of strategy development or the decision-making process Greenwood, 2017 Scientists - Practitioner Model Industrial psychologis ts act as scientists when they conduct research Industrial psychologis ts work with actual organizatio n Scientists Practitioner Industrial psychologists act as scientist – practitioners when they apply research findings so that the work they perform with organizations will be of high quality and enhance an organization’s effectiveness. Examine yourselves in your typical day How do you distribute the 24 hours? What are your emotional experiences? History of IO 1903 Walter Dill Scott wrote the Theory of Advertising in which psychology was first applied in business. • 1910 Hugo Munsterberg wrote Psychology and Industrial Efficiency, which was first published in English in 1913. History of IO The common terms used prior to world war 1 Economic Psychology Business Psychology, and Employment Psychology History of IO 1911 Scott wrote the book “Increasing Human Efficiency in Business. I/O Psychology was born in the 1900s Pioneers in the field include James Cattell, Walter Bingham, John Watson, Marion Bills, and Lilian Gilbreth History of IO I / O Psychology made its first impact during World War 1 Alpha Test was used for recruits who could read. Beta Test for recruits who could not read The more intelligent recruits were assigned to officer training and the less intelligent to the infantry History of IO 1920’s Life of Lilian and Frank Gilbreth Improve productivity and reduce fatigue by studying the motions used by workers. 1930 Elton Mayo conducted an experiment “Hawthorn Studies” Psychologists became more involved in the quality of the work environment, as well as the attitudes of employees. History of IO 1960’s Passage of several Civil right legislations which is focused on the attention of HR professionals on developing fair selection techniques 1970’s Brought great strides in the understanding of many organizational psychology issues that involved employee satisfaction and motivation History of IO 1980’s – 1990’s Sophisticated statistical techniques and methods of analysis New interest in the application of cognitive psychology in the performance appraisal and evaluation Increased interest in the effects of work on family life and leisure activities (Work life balance) Renewed interest in developing methods to select employees, also included how do we face downsizing, massive resignation, aging workforce, increased concern about effects of stress, etc. History of IO 2000 Rapid advances in technology – social media outlets “twitter, LinkedIn, facebook, e – learning Employers recruit and screen applicants online, take the tests on line Changing demographic profile of the workforce Careers of IOP Careers of IOP Typical salaries for I-O psychologists vary considerably depending upon such factors as the type of degree held and type of employer. According to the Society for Industrial (SIOP) and Organizational Psychology: Starting salary for Master’s graduate - $64,000 Starting median salary for Ph.D graduate - $78,000 University professors - $103,000 Private sector - $100,000 Highest earners - Top 5% of SIOP members earn from $250,000 to several million each year. How Much Do Industrial-Organizational Psychologists Typically Earn?