Test bank for porths pathophysiology 10th edition by Norris chapter 26- disorders of blood flow in the systemic circulation
Chapter 26: Disorders of Blood Flow in the Systemic Circulation
1. If a virus has caused inflammation resulting in endothelial dysfunction, an excessive
amount of endothelins in the blood can result in
A) arterial wall weakening resulting in aneurysm formation.
B) release of excess fatty plaque causing numerous pulmonary emboli.
C) contraction of the underlying smooth muscles within the vessels.
D) overproduction of growth factors resulting in new vessel production.
Endothelial dysfunction describes several types of potentially reversible changes in
endothelial function that occur in response to environmental stimuli. Inducers of
endothelial dysfunction include cytokines, bacterial, viral, and parasitic products that
cause inflammation. They also influence the reactivity of underlying smooth muscle
cells through production of both relaxing factors (nitric oxide) and contracting factors
2. A nursing instructor is explaining the role of vascular smooth muscle cells in relation to
increases in systemic circulation. During discussion, which neurotransmitter is primarily
responsible for contraction of the entire muscle cell layer thus resulting in decreased
vessel lumen radius?
A) Nitric oxide
B) Adrenal glands
C) Fibroblast growth factor
Nerve cells and circulating hormones are responsible for vasoconstriction of the vessel
walls. Because they do not enter the tunica media of the blood vessel, the nerves do not
synapse directly on the smooth muscle cells. Instead, they release the neurotransmitter,
norepinephrine, which diffuses into the media and acts on the nearby smooth muscle
cells, resulting in contraction of the entire muscle cell layer and thus reducing the radius
of the vessel lumen. This increases the systemic circulation.
Page 13. A 55-year-old male who is beginning to take a statin drug for his hypercholesterolemia
is discussing cholesterol and its role in health and illness with his physician. Which of
the following aspects of hyperlipidemia would the physician most likely take into
account when teaching the patient?
A) Hyperlipidemia is a consequence of diet and lifestyle rather than genetics.
B) HDL cholesterol is often characterized as being beneficial to health.
C) Cholesterol is a metabolic waste product that the liver is responsible for clearing.
D) The goal of medical treatment is to eliminate cholesterol from the vascular