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HISTORY 100 APUSH Study Guide APUSH Study Guide

HISTORY 100 APUSH Study Guide APUSH Study Guide Period 2 1607-1754 • 3 different colonies (English): o Corporate: operated by joint-stock companies (Jamestown) o Royal: under direct authority of king’s government (Virginia after 1624) o Proprietary: under authority of individuals granted charts of ownership by king (Maryland + Pennsylvania) • English brought representative government to colonies unlike French and Spanish colonists • Spanish Armada defeat 1588 gave England reputation of naval power • England population growing while economy depressed so many went to Americas and made corporate colonies • Colonies had self-government (representative assembly voters’ white property), religious toleration, and social mobility (class system based on economics) • Chesapeake Colonies: Virginia and Maryland (slow growth rate bc of new diseases like malaria) o Jamestown: first permanent English colony 1607 (colonial but transition to royal (Virginia) bc sicknesses)  Virginia House of Burgesses (first representative assembly in America)  Headright System: 50 acres of land to immigrants who paid for passage or plantation owner paying for immigrant to America.  1619 Dutch ship with black Africans • First Africans not in bondage for life and children born free (legislation began to pass in House of Burgesses that discriminated) mainly for sugar plantations  Bacon’s Rebellion: 1676 series of raids against American Indian villages on Virginian frontier bc western farmers resented economic and political control of William Berkeley who favored few large planters in Chesapeake. • Showed class difference between wealthy and landless/ poor • Colonial resistance to royal control o King Charles subdivided Virginia colony and chartered new colony on sides of Chesapeake Bay and gave control to George Calvert and Maryland first proprietary colony)  Act of Toleration 1649: religious freedom to Christians (death to others) (Catholics initially emigrated there but taken over by protestant farmers)  Protestant Revolt: (bc of resentment towards Catholic Proprietor) late 1600s won and Act of toleration repealed (became much like Virginia after) o Maryland and Virginia growing demand for tobacco but no labor supply  Indentured Servants (young ppl from British Isles work for couple years and gained freedom and worked for wages/ got land to farm) • New England Colonies: New Hampshire, Massachusetts Bay, Rhode Island and Connecticut o Plymouth and Massachusetts Bay religious (English protestants dissenting from Anglican Church/ Church of England)  Plymouth wanted separate church independent of royal control (separatists and pilgrims)  Massachusetts Puritans (purify church) (strictest colony with religious freedom) o Great Migration: 1630 civil war in England more to Massachusetts o Puritan leaders intolerant (strong religious convictions) and made Rhode Island+ Connecticut (most religious tolerance) o Rhode Island: Roger Williams believed conscious beyond church authority and founded Providence 1636 (bc kicked out of Boston, MA)  Recognized Indian rights and paid them for use of land and allowed Catholics, Quakers, and Jews to worship freely (founded Baptist Church)  Anne Hutchinson: antinomianism (faith alone salvation) and banished from MA founded Portsmouth 1638  1644 Roger Williams granted charter to join 2 and made Rhode Island o Connecticut: Thomas Hooker led Boston Puritans and founded Hartford 1636  Fundamental Orders of Connecticut 1639: First written constitution in American history  New Haven on Connecticut by John Davenport 1637 (self-government and election of governor) o New Hampshire: last colony in NE originally part of MA Bay but King separated hoping to increase royal control 1679 o Halfway Covenant: ppl partial church members even if not had conversion (profound religious experience required to be part of Puritan congregation) (Puritan practices weakened to maintain church membership) o New England Confederation: threatened by American Indians, Dutch, and French so civil wat and 1643 MA, Connecticut, Plymouth, and New Hampshire made confederation (directed by board of 2 representatives from each colony)  King Philip’s War: chief of Wampanoags named Metacom (to colonies King Philips) united tribes against Southern NE but colonies won and ended most Indian resistance in NE  Ended 1684 when rivalries and renewed control of English monarch (established precedent for colonies taking unified action) • The Restoration Period (1660): New colonies founded when English monarch Charles II restored to power after brief Puritan rule with Oliver Cromwell o South Carolina: southern economy based on trading furs and providing food for west indies but by 18th century large rice growing plantations by slaves o North Carolina: Farmers from VA and NE small tobacco farms (smaller than SC and less slavery) popular for democratic view and autonomy from British control o New York: King ordered brother James II or Duke of York to take over Dutch colony New Amsterdam and renamed New York  Treated Dutch to freedom of worship and speak own language  Originally tax without representation and said no assembly in colony but in 1683 allowed for representative assembly  Attracted Jewish settlers (most colonists Protestants) o New Jersey: NY split bc too large and West and East New Jersey made, both proprietors made land offers, religious freedom, and assembly to attract ppl  Eventually sold to Quakers  1702 Crown combined Jersey bc property lines would blur o Quakers: Religious Society of Friends; believed equality of all men/women, nonviolence, and resisted military service (peaceful)  Radical challenge to authority since believed religious authority in soul not church o Pennsylvania: William Penn (Quaker) king owed bc of father and gave land  The Holy Experiment: Frame of Government 1682-1683 (guaranteed representative assembly and written constitution Charter of Liberties 1701 (freedom of worship for all and unrestricted immigration)  Hired agents and published notices throughout Europe to come to colony  Governed from afar since made Philadelphia and treated Indians fairly o Delaware: 1702 separate colony made by Penn o Georgia: last colony 1732 only one to receive financial support from London government and made bc defensive buffer to Spanish Florida threat to SC plantations and thousands imprisoned in England for debt sent to America  Banned rum and slavery (colony did not prosper bc threat of Spanish attack) under James Oglethorpe (proprietary colony)  Switched to royal 1752 so rum and slavery adopted but grew slow with plantation system of SC (still poorest and smallest of colonies) • Mercantilism: trade, colonies, and accumulation of wealth as basis for country’s military and political strength (government should regulate trade and production to become self-sufficient and colonies were to enrich parent countries) o Navigation Acts 1650-1673: 1. Trade to and from colonies carried only by English ships operated by English or colonial crews 2. All goods imported to colonies except some had to pass through England 3. Specified or enumerated goods exported to England only (tobacco)  Good: NE shipbuilding prosper, Chesapeake tobacco monopoly in England, and English military forces to protect colonies  Bad: farmers accept low prices, high prices for manufactured goods, unnecessary (since primary trading partner anyway), and worsened British-colonial relation  Defied acts by smuggling from French, Dutch, etc., o Acts barely enforced but MA bay worst at smuggling to revoked o Dominion of NE 1686: James II (new king) to increase royal control made bigger units and remove representative assemblies (combined NY, NJ, and more NE) and made Sir Edmund Andros governor  Glorious Revolution 1688: James replaced with William and Mary and Dominion ended • Slavery: by 1750 half of Virginia enslaved; popular bc reduced migration (increase wages in England), Dependable workforce (unlike indentured or small farmers), and cheap labor (required land and inexpensive) o Slave Laws: MA first 1641 lawful captives; 1661 Virginia children automatically enslaved o Triangular Trade/ Atlantic Slave Trade: slavery monopolized (first ship from NE with rum to Africa, then Africans through Middle Passage to West Indies for sugarcane, then back to NE) o Outside of south some were free (90% in south) • NE: New Hampshire, MA, Rhode Island, Connecticut// founded by mostly Puritans, a group of like-minded individuals; close-knit and had longer life expectancies than other colonies; economy was a mix of farming and trade o Rocky soil and long winters, farming limited to only what family needed (log building, shipbuilding etc.) o Education: Puritans emphasized Bible and tax-supported schools, and many large schools • Middle Colonies: Penn, NY, NJ, Delaware// most diverse religiously and saw the most immigrants from Europe; economy was based on grain. o Rich soil abundance of wheat/ corn (+some iron making) o Education: church sponsored or private (sometimes teachers lived with students/families) • Southern: Maryland, Virginias, Carolinas, Georgia//The Chesapeake (Maryland and Virginia) relied on indentured servants initially, later replaced by African slaves; Staple crops like tobacco, rice, and sugar made the colonies prosperous. o Diverse geography and climate so agriculture varied: some small and some large plantations-- most plantations on rivers to export directly to Europe (Chesapeake and North Carolina tobacco, Carolinas timber/naval stores, south Caroline and Georgia rice/ indigo) o Education: Parents gave children education (on plantations private tutors) • By 1700 large population boom bc families and immigration (religion, money, etc.) o English (small) compared to German (mainly Pennsylvania Dutch Country and little interest in politics) and Scotch-Irish (little respect for British government) and other Huguenots (French Protestant)  Fueled American Revolution since did not respect government • 90% lived on farms (men landowning and women cooking cleaning etc.) o Women: limited legal/political rights but shared labor and mutual dependence on husband gave protection from abuse and role in decisions • Monetary System: British controlled colonial economy limiting use of money (forced to use hard currency/ gold-silver to pay for imports of British (for domestic trade used paper money but led to inflation) • Horses used to travel overland and rivers for trade • Established Churches: churches financed through government • First Great Awakening (1730s-40s): passionate expressions of religious feeling (protestant evangelicalism) o Jonathan Edwards: expressed ideas in sermons like “Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God” said God rightfully angry with human sinfulness (saved if regretted if not damned) o George Whitefield: New England (came from England 1739) said God all-powerful ad space only those who openly professed beliefs if not damned to hell (thought ordinary ppl with faith could understand gospels without ministers)  Emotionalism became part of Protestant services  Created divisions in churches making New Lights and condemning Old Lights  Started calling for separate church and state as competed for followers  Colonists shared common experience as Americans regardless of class  Changed way ppl viewed authority since did not need higher authority of ministers • Literature in 1700s: John Adams, James Otis, John Dickinson, Thomas Paine, and Thomas Jefferson issued political essays and treatises highlighting the conflict between American rights and English authority. • First colleges promoted religious groups (sectarian) • Spanish Expansion • Ministers only respectful position, physicians not educated, and lawyers’ troublemakers until sparked American revolution in 1760s-70s • Zenger Case: encouraged more freedom of press and encouraged greater risks in criticizing colony’s government • Enlightenment on Americas (basis for American Revolution and Constitution) o John Locke Two Treaties of Government: state supreme but follow natural laws since ppl human  Sovereignty in ppl rather than state and citizens right to revolt against government failed to protect rights o Separation of Powers, consent of governed, etc. • Pueblo Revolt (Pope’s Rebellion): uprising of pueblo people against Spanish colonizers in Santa Fe New Mexico (expelled for 10 years and when got control, allowed some religious accommodation and change approach to Natives- little easier on them) • Anglicization: Process of becoming and acting British (influenced by print culture-newspapers and writings) and communities based on English models Period 3 1754-1800 • Wars 1789-1763 between Great Britain, France, and Spain for supremacy of West Indies/ Canada and to control trade o King William’s War 1689-1697 and Queen Anne’s War 1702-1713: British expeditions to conquer Quebec but failed and prevailed in Queen Anne’s War getting Nova Scotia France and trading rights in Spanish America o King George’s War: attacked by French and Spanish, New England got Louisburg (major French fortress) but British gave back for peace (angered NE colonist) o Seven Years War: unlike other wars fighting began in colonies and spread to Europe; French provoked by building chain of forts in Ohio River Valley (colonial troops surrendered to superior French)  Albany Plan of Union: British government at NY developed by Benjamin Franklin for intercolonial government and system for collecting troops/taxes (each colony too jealous of own taxation powers and never took place- precedent for later)  Treaty of Paris: GB military strategy and got French Canada and Florida  Impact of the 7 Years’ War: France was removed from North America; Great Britain was in massive debt, began to consolidate control over colonies - taxes; many colonists resisted; Made colonists seem unwilling to British while colonists got confidence that could provide own defense. (end of salutary/benign neglect) • Pontiac’s Rebellion: Chief Pontiac attacks colonial settlements and GB sent troops instead of relying on colonial forces o Proclamation Line of 1763: prohibited colonists from settling west of Appalachian (ppl defied) • Sugar Act 1764: duties on foreign sugar and luxurious to raise money for crown (reduce smuggling) • Quartering Act 1765: food and shelter for GB soldiers • Stamp Act 1765: revenue stamps on printed papers+ legal docs o Stamp Act Congress: 9 colonies called own representation for taxes (Patrick Henry and James Otis called for this) (did Boycotts against British imports) o Sons and Daughters of Liberty: secret organization to intimidate tax agents o Declaratory Act 1766: repeal Stamp Act and asserted Parliament right to tax and make laws for colonies in all cases (renewed conflict) • Townshend Acts 1767: new duties on tea, glass, paper, etc. and search private homes for smuggled goods with writ of assistance (general license to search anywhere) rather than warrant o Letters from a Farmer in Pennsylvania by John Dickinson said Parliament could not do duties since form of taxation without colony representation o Circular Letter by James Otis and Samuel Adams: urged to petition Parliament and repel Townshend Acts o Repealed Townshend Acts 1770 o Boston Massacre 1770: colonists harassed guards and killed 5 people (used to inflame against British by Samuel Adams) • Committees of Correspondence 1722: by Samuel Adams that talk about British threats and keep up anti-British feeling o Gaspee: British ship that caught smugglers and colonials burned ship • Tea Act 1773: tea cheaper than Dutch Tea since colonies did not want tea tax o Boston Tea Party: bc did not want to accept taxation without representation • Intolerable Acts: o Coercive Acts 1774: Port Act (prohibit trade out of harbor-Boston- until tea paid for) Massachusetts Government Act ( reduced power of MA legislature while increasing royal governor) Administration of Justice Act (royal officials accused of crimes to be tried in GB not colonies) Quartering Act ( GB troops in homes) o Quebec Act 1774: Roman Catholicism official religion of Quebec, government without representative assembly, and boundary to Ohio River (took away colony land) • Enlighten Ideas thought God made natural laws and believed rationalism and human reason • American Revolution 1774-1787 • First Continental Congress Sep 1774: delegates in Philadelphia after Intolerable acts wanted to protest parliamentary infringements of their rights and restore relationship like salutary neglect o Suffolk Resolves: immediate repeal of Intolerable Acts and resist them with military preparations and boycotting British goods o Declaration and Resolves: (moderate delegates) restore colonial rights and recognize Parliament’s authority to regulate commerce o Continental Association: network of committees to enforce economic part of Suffolk Resolves o Declared if rights not recognized meet again May 1775 o Lexington and Concord: British force to seize colonial military) o Bunker Hill: British attack colonists’ position and thousands died • Second Continental Congress May 1775: one group for independence other for negotiate new relationship o Declaration of the Causes and Necessities for Taking Up Arm and called colonist to provide troops (George Washington chief and navy/marine made) o Olive Branch Petition July 1775: pledged loyalty to king if intercede with Parliament for protection of colonial rights (bc colonies wanted better relationship)  Parliament’s Prohibitory Act Aug 1775: colonies in rebellion and later forbade all trade and shipping between British and colonies • Common Sense: Thomas Paine English immigrant Enlightenment thinker; urged that it was "Common Sense" that colonies should break away from Great Britain • Declaration of Independence: Inspired by Common Sense and Enlightenment ideals; inspired France and countries in Latin America to experience revolutions o Richard Henry Lee introduced idea and Thomas Jefferson wrote/adopted July 4, 1776 o Patriots: (mainly in NE and Virginia) but soldiers did not want to fight outside own region (Africans fought with them bc British offered freedom to enslaved so they did same) o Loyalists/Tories (majority party in Parliament): usually more conservative and wealthier (most government officials and Anglican clergy remained loyal to crown) o American Indians: neutral but sometimes support GB bc colonial attacks • Continentals: paper money by congress became worthless bc inflation and economic downfall with war • Yorktown: surrender of large GB army o Reasons for Patriot Victory: Colonists' familiarity with the land; political and military leadership (Washington); ideological commitment (Natural Rights); France ally after Saratoga victory o Treaty of Paris: 1. GB recognize US as independent nation 2. Mississippi River western boundary 3. fishing rights off Canada coast 4. would pay GB merchant debts and honor Loyalists claims for property confiscated during war • New Governments: conservative (law and order) or liberals (rights and preventing tyrannies), list of rights, separating of power (legislative power 2 house, executive to governor, judicial to court), voting (white males with property) • Women: cooks and nurses; some in battle (Molly Pitcher/ Mary McCauley for husband and Deborah Sampson dressing as man) did not achieve more rights • Republican Motherhood: Expectation that women would instill Republican values in children and be active in families; helped increase education for women • Articles of Confederation (1781): First governing document of US by John Dickinson - created a WEAK central government (could not regulate commerce or collect taxes or enforce laws); different currencies in each state (one house congress no executive or judicial o Northwest Land Ordinance: banned slavery in NW territory (OH, MI, IN, etc.); created a process for admitting new states (60,000 inhabitants)  Slavery continued in South as they deemed it essential to economy o Land Ordinance 1785: policy for selling western lands o Shay’s Rebellion: Captain Daniel Shays led farmers in uprising against high taxes, imprisonment for debt, and paper money (showed weakness of articles) o Did not restore property to loyalist or pay debts and too weak to stop GB from military outposts on western frontier and restricting trade o Annapolis Convention: meeting to talk about articles but only 5 states showed (another meeting at Philadelphia to fix articles)  The Framers/Delegates: George Washington chairperson, Benjamin Franklin soother; federalists (took control of meeting and larger cities): James Madison (father of constitution), Alexander Hamilton and Anti-Fed: (smaller farmers or west) Thomas Jefferson, George Mason, Patrick Henry, James Winthrop, John Hancock, and George Clinton • Constitution May 1790: separation of power; did not address problems of slavery (Bill of Rights added for Anti-feds support and ratification) o Virginia Plan favored large states and New Jersey Plan small states; Roger Sherman made Connecticut Plan/Great Compromise: 2 house Congress (senate equal representation, House of Representatives by population) o Three-Fifths Compromise: slaved 3/5 of person and guarantee slaves imported for 20 years o Commercial Compromise: regulate interstate and foreign commerce but prohibit taxes on exports (north want regulation but South afraid of export taxes) o Electoral College (bc afraid of mob rule), veto, and limited president term to 4 o BOR: 1. Freedom of speech, press, etc. 2. Gun 3. Home for soldier without consent 4. No unreasonable searches 5. Due process 6. Defense in trial 7. Right of trial by jury 8. No cruel punishment 9. Not deny rights 10. Not listed powers to states/people • Executive Departments (secretary of state Thomas Jeff, secretary of treasury Alexander Hamilton, secretary of was Henry Knox) • Judiciary Act of 1789: Supreme Court 1 justice and 5 associate+ 13 courts and 3 appeals • Hamilton Financial Program: 1. Pay off national debt 2. High tariffs 3. National bank (support northern merchant, Thomas Jefferson +antifeds against since states lose power) • French Revolution (antifeds sympathized) but Proclamation of Neutrality 1793 (Jefferson resigned bc of this) o Citizen Genet: French minister appealed to American to help o Jay Treaty 1794: GB evacuate western frontier (said nothing of seizing ships) so angered antifeds • Pinecky Treaty 1795: Spanish open lower Mississippi and New Orleans for trade and accept 31st parallel for border of Florida (did bc foe GB and becoming friendly so did same) • Northwest Confederacy: tribes against Americans (GB supplying arms) but defeated at Battle of Fallen Timbers and agreed on Treaty of Greenville (surrender Ohio Territory and open to settlement) o This + Jay treaty gave land so Land Act 1796: dividing and selling lands at low prices • Whiskey Rebellion 1794: ppl attacked revenue collectors since did not want to pay whiskey tax by Hamilton (Washington used strong military) (shows strength unlike Shay’s Rebellion) • Washington’s Farewell Address: Warned of entangling foreign alliances and political parties; helped inspire foreign policy until after WWII (John Adams Presidency after-federalist) o Federalists for financial plan (north and federal power) and antifeds/ Democratic-Republicans for Thomas Jefferson (south/western frontier and states’ rights) • John Adams Presidency: (increased US navy) o XYZ affair: French tried bribing Americans since seizing ships—avoided war and sent new ministers o Alien & Sedition Acts: anger to French strength to Federalists and got majority in both houses and passed Naturalization Act (increased years for immigrant citizenship) and alien (president to deport aliens/detain and sedition (illegal for news to criticize president) (since antifeds immigrant)  Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions: states could nullify federal law  Federalists lost majority after 1800 election and repealed acts • Election/Revolution of 1800: Thomas Jefferson (dem/rep took control of houses) peaceful change Period 4 1800-1848 • Under Jefferson: expanded territorially, survived war, and strengthened democratic/nationalistic spirit (problems: slavery, Indian treatment, and loyalty to local interests) o Maintained national bank and debt repayment (to keep fed happy) but reduced military, eliminated federal jobs, repealed taxes, and lowered national debt o Louisiana Purchase 1803: Spanish closed New Orleans and revoked right of deposit (tax-free use of port in Pinecky Treaty) so bought New Orleans and more (doubled size, removed Europe from nation borders, increased Jefferson Popularity, and sowed federalist weak since against it)  Lewis and Clark Expedition 1804-06: scientific exploration of west and gave greater geographic/scientific knowledge of region, stronger claims to Oregon Territory, better Indian relations, and more maps for fur trappers/settlers o Suspended Alien and Sedition and tried impeaching judges (failed just made them more careful) • 2nd Jefferson Term: o Quids- those in same anti fed party but against Jefferson bc abandon principles o Aaron Burr (Quid) dueled Hamilton and shot him o Barbary Pirates: ruler of Tripoli demanded tribute from Jefferson and sent US ships (begun navy) o Chesapeake-Leopard Affair: Britain and France kept seizing ships; British Leopard warship fired Chesapeake (increased anti-British and wanted war—Jefferson resorted to diplomacy)  Embargo Act 1807:no US ships to foreign port (greater economic hardship on US) • James Madison Presidency (dem/rep): o Nonintercourse Act 1809: trade with all except Britain and France o Macon’s Bill No. 2 1810: Britain or France respect US and prohibit trade with foe  Napoleon’s Deception 1811: agreed to Macon’s but continued to seize ships • War of 1812: French helped American Revolution and had own revolution; Britain seizing worse+ British on frontier (US wanted lands) o Shawnee brothers (Indians) at Battle of Tippecanoe 1811 and put end by William Henry Harrison who got Indiana Territory (GB blamed for starting rebellion) o War Hawks: led by Henry Clay, only way to defend US was war (pressured Madison to war) o West, south, Penn, and Vermont for war; NE, NY, and NJ against o Quids, NE merchants, and Federalists against o Invaded Canada and Naval Battles (Lake Erie battle 1813 American won) o Chesapeake Campaign: 1814 Napoleon defeated so British stronger and set fire to government buildings o Southern Campaign: South commanded by Andrew Jackson won at Battle of Horseshoe Bend (end GB power at Creek nation and eliminated Indians) o Treaty of Ghent 1814: halted fighting, got territory back to prewar, and recognized Canada border (stalemate no gain for either side—ratified 1815) o Hartford Convention: Federalists in NE wanted secession voted bc against war (2/3 vote of both houses for war) but after treaty made and labeled Feds unpatriotic and came to an end o Legacy: US respect of other nations, Canada British, Indians surrender to whites, nullification precedent, nationalism grew and US factories build/ self-sufficiency since British blockade, more aggressive nationalistic approach to other nations • Supreme Court John Marshall (federalist judge): strengthened central government at expense of states (favored federal government and rights of property against states’ rights) o Marbury v. Madison 1803: judicial review (supreme court declare federal unconstitutional) o Fletcher v. Peck 1810: declare state law unconstitutional o Martin v. Hunter’s Lease 1816: Supreme Court jurisdiction over state court cases involving constitutional rights o Dartmouth College v. Woodward 1819: contract for private corporation could not be struck down by state o McCulloch v. Maryland 1819: state could not tax federal institution bc power to tax is power to 18destroy and federal laws over state and Constitution gave implied power to create national bank o Cohens v. Virginia 1821: Supreme Court could review state decision involving powers of federal government o Gibbons v. Ogden 1824: federal government control of interstate commerce • James Monroe (1816-1825): Acquired Florida, agreed on Missouri Compromise, and Monroe Doctrine o Era of Good Feelings (1816 to Panic of 1819): nationalism, optimism, and dem-rep dominated but still fight with national bank, internal improvements, and public land sales (dem-rep soon split) o New generation of younger patriots and wanted westward expansion o Political movement to support growth of economy by internal improvements and protecting US industries from European  Tarff of 1816: (before 1812 war low tariffs for government revenue but raised tariff to protect US manufacturers from competition---self-sufficiency (only NE opposed) o Henry Clay American System: protective tariffs, national bank, and internal improvements (tariffs for east and internal for growth of west/south and bank for all)  Only internal improvements not in place since both Madison and Monroe believed federal money not for roads so left states to do it on their own o Panic of 1819: fault of Second Bank of US which tightened credit to balance inflation (worst in west so they began calling for land reform and strong opposition to bank + debtor prison) o Dem-Rep adopted some federalists like maintaining large army/navy and national bank  Many Divided like John Randolph (stuck to old party ideals of limited government and strict interpretation of Constitution) or Daniel Webster (against tariffs then for)  1824 election 4 republicans for election which split dem-rep parties o Migration to West: Indiana territory and Florida open; southern plantation owners needed to land to replace soil exhaust, building of roads, and European immigrants bc cheap land  Westerner Interest: cheap money/ easy credit from state banks, low priced for land, and improved transportation (sparked slavery issue when Missouri applied for statehood o Tallmadge Amendment by James Tallmadge 1819: prohibiting further slaves to Missouri and children of slaves emancipated after 25 (enraged southerners) o Missouri Compromise (Compromise of 1820) by Henry Clay: Maine free, Missouri slave, everything above 36˚30’ latitude line free, everything below slave (applied to ONLY the Louisiana Purchase---30-year peace undone by the Kansas-Nebraska Act) o More aggressive nationalistic approach to other nations while peace  Rush-Bagot Agreement 1817: limited naval armament on Great Lakes and Canada border  Treaty of 1818: better GB relationship 1. Shared fishing rights off Newfoundland coast 2. Joint occupation of Oregon Territory for 10 years 3. Northern limits of Louisiana territory at 49th parallel---Canada boundary  Jackson’s Military Campaign 1817-1818: Seminoles (runaway slaves) crossed border so General Jackson cross over and destroyed villages/British • Florida Purchase Treaty (Adam-Onis Treaty) 1819: Spain gave Florida and Oregon Territory and gave up Texas  Monroe Doctrine 1823: John Quincy Adams convinced Monroe message to Europe to NOT colonize any land in Latin America + US stay out of European affairs.  to US protect South America from European power (British George Canning idea for joint but denied since would restrict US expansion in hemisphere) • British angry but would protect with navy bc US not enough power to uphold yet • First Industrial Revolution (1790-1840)/ Market Revolution: raised capital, Samuel Slater brought US factory in 1791 (NE leading manufacturer since waterpower and seaports, and decline in farming made laborers) o Roads: Lancaster Turnpike; National or Cumberland Road (federal and state money) o Canals: (Erie Canal NY 1825) joined Mississippi with Rivers connected west and north (lower east food prices and more immigrants in West) o Steamboats: First Clermont 1807 by Robert Fulton o Railroads and ^^^ changed small western towns into booming commercial centers expanding national economy like Cincinnati, Detroit, Chicago, and Cleveland o Inventions: Eli Whitney cotton gin 1793, interchangeable parts, Steal plow John Deere, mechanical reaper Cyrus McCormick, (textile industry) o Growth of banking and insurance; factories (Lowell System: women in factories—rare) + child labor, Unions (increased and small businesses closed) (obstacles: immigrants replaced workers, state laws outlawing unions, and economic depressions with unemployment) o Commercial Agriculture 1800s: new/larger markets with internal improvements and cheap land  Cotton main crop in south now which increased slavery o Market Revolution: specialization on farm, growth of cities industrialization, development of modern capitalism ended self-sufficiency and made interdependence on people +standard of living increase (gap between rich and poor widen) (slavery increase with cotton) (goods increasingly made outside home  Women: no longer worked with husbands on farm (working teaching or domestic service or Lowell) but left jobs when married (less arranged marriage and less kids) • Sectionalism: o North: Industry/Northeast (organized Labor had textile industry and more, growth in population with immigration and birth rates, barely any free Africans but mainly in north but still racism—strikebreakers) Agriculture/Old Northwest (Ohio Indiana Illinois Michigan Wisconsin and Minnesota// used innovations and new cities at key transportation points  Commonwealth V Hunt 1842: right to negotiate labor contracts with employees (labor victory)  Immigration bc inexpensive/rapid transport, famine/ revolution in Europe, and economic opportunity +political freedom (Irish: tenant farmers, dem, anti-British, worked hard, local politics; Germans: some skill as farmers/artisans, homesteads in northwest, strongly support education against slavery, Roman Catholicism)  Nativists: take jobs distrusted religion and antiforeign society Supreme Order of the Star-Spangled Banner (became American party/ Know-Nothing party in 1850s) o South: (11 out of 15 join confederacy- Delaware, Maryland, Kentucky, Missouri) produced and sold cotton/King Cotton (increase capital in slaves so less capital for industry) Classes (wealthy planters, farmers, poor, mountain ppl, slaves---New Orleans largest city)  Code of Chivalry: wealthier ppl protects womanhood, and paternalistic attitude over inferior ppl like slaves  Education: limited to farming, ministry, or military (slaves could not read or write)  Nat Turner Rebellion 1831: gave hope since made nonslaveholders more critical  Religion: Baptist + Methodist support slavery so more popular while Unitarians, Catholics, and Episcopalians decline bc against slavery o West: Great Plains temporary place for 1850 Indian exodus (horses allowed for nomadic hunting of buffalo), concept of frontier fresh start, mountain men guides to settle across mountains, disease/malnutrition common (hard lives  Women: shorter lifespan, more freedoms (cook, doctor, teachers, etc.)  Environmental Damage: burn forests and exhaust soil (beaver almost extinct) • 1824 election/ Corrupt Bargain:4 republicans John Quincy Adams won bc Henry Clay used influence in House (alienated Jackson Supporters with money for internal improvements and observatory) o Tariff of Abominations/ 1828: high tariff satisfying northerner manufacturers but against southern planters (Jacksonians saw all this as waste of money and violation of constitution) • Revolution/Election of 1828: Old Hickory (Jackson) to office with southern/western discontent and mudslinging campaign (war hero and common man winning) o Jackson now democrat while Whig supported Henry Clay (was like federalist Hamilton) (both wanted westward expansion and industrial economy though) disagreed on role and powers of the federal government, national Bank, tariffs, federally funded internal improvements • Common Man/Age of Jackson 1829-1837: spread democracy and equality governing principle of US o Universal Male suffrage (began in west) started 1816 to 1840s (before Jackson common man started) o Caucuses (political leaders choosing nominees) replaced by party nominating conventions 1830s o Popular Election of President (states slate of electors) 1832 o Third Parties began to happen like Anti-Masons o Jackson did: More federal positions elected rather than appointed, Popular campaigning and Spoils System (government jobs for party loyalty) and Rotation of Officeholders (limiting one term office to give another democrats opportunity) o Jackson: no college education and support from social; opposed increase federal spending +national debt, narrowingly interpreted Congress powers (vetoed 12 bills more than all presidents), and kitchen cabinet (not official cabinet appointed so official had less influence)  Peggy Eaton Affair 1829-31: common woman targets of gossip (wife of secretary of war) so cabinet forced to accept, and many resigned like vice president John C Calhoun (Martin Van Buren replaced) o Indian Removal Act 1830: sympathized with land-hungry so resettled to west of Mississippi (Bureau of Indian Affairs 1836 to assist resettled tribes)  Cherokee Nation v. Georgia 1831: not foreign nation to sue by Supreme Court  Worcester v. Georgia 1832: high court laws of Georgia no force within their territory (could not enforce without president support)  Trail of Tears 1838 (deaths of thousands to moved west) o Nullification Crisis: nullification theory (state right to decide to obey law) Calhoun South Carolina wanted to nullify tariff of abominations and new 1832 tariff  Jackson did Proclamation to the People of South Carolina saying nullification treason and Force Bill to militarily act against South Carolina  Suggested lowering tariff so SC postponed nullification but did anyway and Jackson used military to force retreat (Jackson wanted to preserve Union but not extend African rights) o Bank Veto: Henry Clay favored Bank and recharter bill 1832, but Jackson vetoed  Pet Banks: withdrawed federal funds and treasury Roger Taney transferred to state banks  Species Circular: future purchases of federal lands in specie (gold/silver) to try to reduce inflation (made Panic of 1837 happen) • Election of 1836: Martin Van Buren (loyal to Jackson) o Panic of 1837: Whigs blamed democrats for laissez faire when Van Buren took office • Log Cabin and Hard Cider Campaign 1840: humble origins for William Henry “Tippecanoe” Harrison for Whigs and they won (but died after 3 months from pneumonia) o President Tyler took over (barely Whig as favored southerners and expansionist Democrats) o Jackson era at end with Mexican war and increase focus on slavery • Antebellum Period: years before civil war 1861; diverse reformers like free public school, improving mentally ill, abolishing alcohol, rights for women, and abolishing slavery • Second Great Awakening: reaction against rationalism during enlighten and American revolution and began among educated like Reverend Timothy Dwight (President of Yale) who motivated young men to become evangelical preachers (Opportunity for salvation for all) (mainly in NE barely in south) o Charles G Finney NY/NE Presbyterian minister 1823 revivals appealed to emotions and fear of damnation (everyone saved through faith and work) (western NY known as “burned-over district” bc of him) o Baptists and Methodists: (Ex: Peter Cartwright) travel from place to place (largest Protestant group in country) o Millennialism: William Miller preached a date for world ending (not true) but continues as Seventh Day Adventists o Mormons: Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints founded by Joseph Smith 1830 wrote Scripture (Book of Mormon: connection with Indians and lost tribes of Israel)  Leader killed in mod at NY, so Brigham Young migrated them to west and made New Zion (utopia) and practice polygamy (multiple wives) but aroused hostility in US gov. o New divisions in society between new evangelical sects and older Protestant churches • Transcendentalists: (NE thinkers + society) shifted from rationalism to romanticism (feelings, intuition, etc.) o Ralph Waldo Emerson 1803-1882: essays/lectures expressing individualistic and nationalistic spirit of Americans by urging to not imitate Europe but create own culture (wanted self-reliance, independent thinking, and primacy of spiritual over material) leading critic of slavery in 1850s o Henry David Thoreau 1817-1862: 2-year experiment of living in woods; wrote Walden 1854 (pioneer ecologist + conservationist), for nonviolent protests (essay On Civil Disobedience) so refuse to pay tax that supporter Mexico War, and inspired nonviolent movements (Ghandi) • Communal Experiences/ Utopias: (Mormons) inspired by west land, transcendentalists, and awakening o Brook Farm 1841: George Ripley started in MA to have more natural union between intellect and manual labor (remembered for artistic creativity, innovative school, and appeal to NE intellectuals) o Shakers 1840s: property in common and women men separated (lack of recruits so died out) o Amana Colonies: Germans in religion Pietism (emphasized simple communal living like Shakers) but allowed marriage and community still prospers o New Harmony: nonreligious experiment by Welsh industrialist + reformer Robert Owen which took away Industrial Revolution results (failed bc money and disagreements inside) o Oneida Community 1848: John Humphrey Noyes NY perfect social and economic equality (shared property and marriages) prospered economically by selling silverware o Fourier Phalanxes: French socialist Charles Fourier work and housing communities (died out bc Americans too individualistic to live communally) • Art: Genre painting (everyday life) like George Caleb Bingham, William S. Mount and Landscape painting o Hudson River School: (art movement) expressed romantic age’s fascination with natural world o Architecture: adapted to Greek styles to glorify democratic spirit • Literature: After war of 1812 more nationalistic o James Fenimore Cooper Leatherstocking tales: series of novels of glorifying American setting o Nathaniel Hawthorne The Scarlet Letter 1850: questioned intolerance and conformity in America o Herman Melville’s Moby-Dick 1855: theological and cultural conflicts of era • Reformations: improve behavior through moral persuasion (first sermons and pamphlets then political action) o Temperance: high rate of alcohol in 1820 made target of social ills  Began as moral exhortation 1826 Protestant ministers concerned with drinking and made American Temperance Society (persuade drinkers to abstinence  1840 argued disease in Washington (Maine 1851 first to prohibit alcohol) (issue of slavery overshadowed in 1850s)  German and Irish largely opposed while factory owners/politicians joining since could reduce crime and poverty o Public Asylums: humanitarians’ attention to criminals, ill, etc. so set up state-supported prisons, mental hospitals, poorhouses, etc. hoping to cure them with discipline.  Mental Hospitals: Dorothea Dix launched crusade to show treatment in mental illness centers and improved institutions  School for Blind and Deaf Persons Thomas Gallaudet  Prisons: (structure and discipline-moral reform) Penn. took lead building penitentiaries (new prisons) with solitary confinement to reflect on sins (dropped bc suicide) • Auburn system NY similar: rigid forms of discipline with moral instruction o Public Education: (motivated for fears of future with growing uneducated poor) free public schools to all; Horace Mann lead on public school (compulsory attendance and more teacher preparation)  Moral Education: basic literacy and moral principles; William Holmes McGuffey, series of elementary textbooks to teach which showed punctuality, hard work, sobriety  Higher Education: religious enthusiasm of awakening fueled private colleges so Protestant groups made small colleges • Family role changes: economic value of kids reduced, birth control, women leisure time for religion and moral (New York Female Moral Reform Society: to keep women out of prostitution) o Cult of Domesticity: traditional family’s men moral leaders, then took outside wages so women switch to take care of household (this is cult) o Women’s Rights: resented secondary roles and prevention of political discussion  Sarah and Angelina Grimke objected to male opposition in antislavery activities; Sarah Grimke wrote Letter on the Condition of Women and the Equality of Sexes (1837)  Lucretia Mott and Elizabeth Cady Stanton campaigned for women’s rights after barred from antislavery convention  Seneca Falls Convention 1848: leading feminists NY first women convention; Declaration of Sentiments (all ppl equal and listed grievances) wanted voting, legal, and property rights (Susan B. Anthony) • Antislavery: awakening made many Christians view slavery as sin o American Colonization Society 1817: transporting slaves back to Africa (supported by racist whites wanting to remove blacks from society) and made settlement in Liberia but unsuccessful o American Antislavery Society 1831: The Liberator (abolitionist newspaper) by William Lloyd Garrison beginning radical abolition and condemned it (repent for sins by freeing slaves) o Liberty Party: split in abolition from moral (Garrison) to political party led by James Birney o Black Abolitionists: escapes/free slaves outspoken like Frederick Douglass made antislavery journal North Star 1847 (Harriet Tubman, David Ruggles Sojourner Truth, etc. underground railroad) o Violent Abolition: Nat Turner Rebellion 1831 killed whites (David Walker and Henry Highland Garnet blacks advocating) this but end to antislavery talk in south since afraid • Other reforms: American Peace Society (abolishing war), dietary reforms (eating whole bread), pantalettes instead of long skirts (dress reform by Amelia Bloomer, and phrenology (science bumps on skull for person’s character and ability) Period 5 1844-1877 • Manifest destiny (40s + 50s): US divine mission to extend power and civilization across America (Access to natural and mineral resources, economic opportunities for settlers, religious refuge-Mormons) o Driven by nationalism, population boom, technology, rapid economic development, and reform ideals o Northerners argued expansion was for southerners to spread slavery to west. • Aroostook War/Battle of Maps 1842: Maine-Canada boundary dispute with treaty negotiated by Daniel Webster and GB Alexander Ashburton (Webster Ashburton treaty of 1842) settled territory (getting Mesabi range in America) • Election of 1844: dark horse (lesser known candidate) for dem James K. Polk (protege of Jackson) and slogan Fifty-four fort or fight (54 50 line of Oregon territory since wanted it) and won • Texas: Mexico wanted to attract settlers to farm so Moses Austin (US banker) got large land gray and son Stephen Austin got families to settle (outnumbered Mexicans by 1830s) o Mexico outlawed slavery and needed immigrants to convert to Roman Catholics and Americans upset so closed Texas to Americans but Americans ignored and went o General Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna dictator of Mexico 1834 and American declared independent republic March 1836 with revolt led my Sam Houston  Mexico led army but forced Mexican to sign treaty recognizing independence (Mexican legislature refused to recognize this) o Applied for US annexation but Jackson and van Buren put it off because opposition with northerners and John Tyler Whig worried of influence in GB but US rejected annexation (threat of war made expansionist want land more) o North against expansion bc slavery but with 1844 Polk election made Tyler (old president) push for annexation and got it • Oregon Treaty 1846: Compromise with Britain for 49th parallel with US grant of Vancouver Island to British so it could navigate Columbia River (Senate agreed to compromise bc war at broken out with Mexico and did not want GB war) • Mexican American War 1846-1848: annexation of Teas started trouble and Pol sent John Slidell to try to get California and settle Texas border but failed and Mexican army attacked American (northern Whigs opposed bc doubted that American blood shed first) (most of the war in Mexico and both houses approved war) o Bear Flag Republic: John C Fremont overthrew Mexican and Cali and independent republic o Zachary Tayler victory at Buena Vista and the Winfield Schott to invade central Mexico and captured Mexico City o Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo 1848: recognized Rio Grande southern border of Texas and got Mexican Cession (California and New Mexico)  Whigs opposed bc effort to expand slavery while southern democrats wanted more land  Wilmot Proviso 1846: no slavery in new Mexican territory (denied but sparked slavery issue again) • More Western Land: o Ostend Manifesto: to buy Cuba from Spain Franklin Pierce 1852 (leaked to press and angry reaction of antislavery Congress so dropped) o Walker Expedition 1856: William walker southern adventurer (scheme for proslavery central America) o Clayton Bulwer Treaty 1850: GB and US agreed to no exclusive control of future canal route in Central America since both wanted canal through Central America (undone with Hay Paunceforte Treaty giving US power to build canal without GB in 1901) o Gadsden Purchase 1853: strip of land to American Southwest for railroad from Mexico (under Franklin Pierce Presidency) • Westward Settlement: o Fur Traders/mountain men first individuals in far west to guide immigrants (dangerous journey) o California Gold Rush 1848 to west and population boom (many Chinese) and western cities with mineral wealth attracted business owners/professionals o Preemption Acts of 1830s-40s: low prices for land (but needed money to travel) (rural communities formed), land subsidies for railroads and Homestead Act • Economy: factory production growth bc sowing machine by Elias Howe and telegraph Samuel F.B. Morse and railroads grew and linked west/north (government gave them loans) o Scheduled shipping, demand for whale oil, improved ships (clipper ships replaced by steamboats bc more space/lower cost) o Kanagawa Treaty 1854 (US trade expansion since enter two Japanese ports--- led to commercial agreement on trade) o Panic of 1857: Prices specially for western farmers dropped and unemployment in north increase (south barely suffered making them think economy superior and north not needed) • Free Soil Party 1848: Northern Democrats and conscience Whigs against slavery In Mexican Cession (also homesteads + internal improvements) • Squatter/ Popular Sovereignty: Lewis Cass compromise with slavery decided by voting of region • Election of 1848: General War Hero Zachary Taylor (took no side on slavery) died in 1820 so Stephen A Douglass replacement and do compromise o Compromise of 1850: Henry Clay California free, divide Mexican Cession into Utah and New Mexico to decide slavery by vote, ban slave trade in District of Columbia (but allow slaves), and adopt Fugitive Slave Law  John C Calhoun against compromise because South given equal rights in acquired territory  Compromise added to north power since Cali free but slave law bad (track down fugitive slaves and bring them back to South) • Underground Railroad: network to help slaves to North or Canada (Harriet Tubman, Frederick Douglass, etc. who worked on this worked for emancipation when Civil War broke out) o Uncle Tom’s Cabin Simon Legree 1852: slave owners’ monsters o Impending Crisis of the South Hinton R Helper 1857: statistics to show slavery bad • Southerners believe slavery good for mastery and slave and sanctions by bible o George Fitzhugh questioned equal rights for unequal men and said capitalist wage system worse than slavery (Cannibals All! 1857 and Sociology for the South 1854) • Election of 1852: Northern Democrat Franklin Pierce won since for Fugitive Slave Law o Kansas-Nebraska Act 1854: Undid Missouri Compromise by Stephen A Douglass because wanted to build railroad and needed southern approval; divide Kansas and Nebraska and popular sovereignty decide slavery (but north of 3630 parallel)  Bleeding Kansas: ppl moved there for vote, fighting broke out; proslavery (Border ruffians) made legislature in Lecompton while antislavery in Topeka  Lecompton supported by Buchanan, but Congress said no and free state o Sumner Brooks incident 1856: Charles Sumner verbally attacked Democrats/ Andre Butler in The Crime Against Kansas and Butler nephew hit him with cane (outraged north) • Whigs downfall: Know Nothing Party (rise of Nativist sentiment---not popular bc sectionalism) and Republican Party 1854 (direct reaction to Kansas-Nebraska and made of Free Soilers and antislavery Whigs/democrats---oppose spread of slavery, repeal of Kansas/Nebraska and fugitive slave law, probusiness protective tariff) • Election 1856: James Buchanan Democrat (but strong Republican) (settled Bleeding Kansas) o Dred Scott v. Sandford 1857: slaves’ property and Missouri compromise unconstitutional (made northern belief of southern conspiracy more likely and republicans gained audience) o Lincoln-Douglass Debates: Douglass senator campaign no clear position on slavery (had to support popular sovereignty bc Dred Scott and cause bleeding Kansas) Lincoln Freeport Doctrine (slavery not exist if did not pass slave codes maintaining) lost Senate but Republican candidate  Douglass Alienated southern democrats as did not support Dred Scott enough • John Brown’s Raid at Harpers Ferry 1859: small slave uprising and killed some people (north condemned violence but southerners suspicious---martyr for north---celebrated in Civil War) • Election of 1860: (Lincoln won) o Divided Democrats: Stephen Douglass (for popular sovereignty and fugitive slave law) and John C Breckinridge (proslavery and annex Cuba) o Republican Lincoln for protective tariff, free land for homesteaders, internal improvements (appealed to northerners and westerners) o Constitutional Union Party: John Bell and pledged preserving Union • Confederate States of America 1860: Georgia, FL, Mississippi, Louisiana, and Texas; president senator Jefferson Davis (Constitution same except limits on government power and tariffs, little money) seceded bc Lincoln • Crittenden Compromise: amendment with right to hold slaves in all territories south 3630 but Lincoln said not allow this (southerners did it in tradition of revolution of 1776 • Civil War/2nd American Revolution 1861-1865: o Fort Sumter cut off by Southerners, Lincoln sent food and southerners attacks  Made Virginia, NC, Tennessee, and Arkansas secede too (west Virginia loyal) o Executive Power: Lincoln called volunteers, spending for war, and suspended habeus corpus (see judge when arrested) o Border states stayed (allowed keeping slavery) o North: more population, use US navy, dominated economy, preserving union, well established central government/order  Strategy: Winfield Scott (Navy to block ports, control of Mississippi River, and train army to conquer Richmond, capital) • Anaconda Plan: naval blockade  Peninsula Campaign: George B. McCallan long period of training invaded Virginia 1862 but had to retreat  John Pope but then trapped so back to McCellen but too sow so to Ambrose Burnside too reckless but then Ulysses S Grant (war by attrition---wearing down army) o South: shorter distance than Union, military leaders, defensive war, weak organization, large border (no blockades) (Robert E. Lee lead general) o Beginning Battles: Bull Run (union defeat), 2nd Bull Run (Pope put into trap), Antietam (McCellen had copy of Lee plans and won but did not pursue army---decisive battle since confederates did not get foreign aid), Fredericksburg (many loses with reckless attack)  No GB aid bc could find king cotton elsewhere, no decisive victory, and union antislavery after emancipation proclamation made Union appeal to GB working class o Monitor vs. Merrimac: ended in draw but Monitor (Union) did not let confederates break blockade o Grant took Fort Henry and Fort Donelson on Cumberland River which allowed Union to take Mississippi o Trent Affair: Confederates on GB Trent for aid, Union stopped and took them, but released to not get in war with GB o Confederate commerce raiders: ships from Britain to attack Union merchant ships and Charles Francis Adams made GB not sell Liard rams to Confederates since risk war with US o Confiscation Acts: (1861-2) power to seize enemy property (slaves) and ppl enslaving free against US o Emancipation Proclamation 1862: free all enslaved (military necessity) (applied only to slaves outside Union so border states kept slaves but freed slaves into army called Army of Freedom) o Triumphs: (since Confederates economy desperate and freed slaves) Vicksburg (surrendered), Gettysburg (hoped for peace but bloodiest battle---George Picket charge---Lee retreated) o Sherman’s March: led by William Tecumseh destroying south (total war) (helped break Confederate spirit) o Surrender at Appomattox April 9, 1865: restoration of Union o Lincoln killed April 14, 1865 by John Wilkes Booth (confederate sympathizer) • After War: political (most dem supported war but criticized Lincoln; Peace democrats/Copperheads opposed war and wanted peace) o Ex Parte Milligan 1886: Supreme Court said suspended habeus corpus wrong at times o Conscription Act 1863: 20-45 liable for military service (could not go if paid but poor opposed since thought could be replaced by blacks) o Nullification ceased to be issues, abolition of slavery, democracy around world o Financing War: raised tariffs, prices, and made national bank 1863 (first since Jackson 1830s) o Economy: wages did not keep up with inflation (concentration of capital in new class of millionaires) (Republican control strengthened capitalist economy for future)  Morrill Tariff Act 1861: raised tariffs to protect revenue  Homestead Act 1862: settlement of Great Plains with 160 acres free to family who farmed  Morrill Land Grant Act 1862: sale of federal land grants to maintain agricultural colleges  Pacific Railway Act 1862: transcontinental railroad over north route to link Cali/ west with eastern states o Women: took up labor during war but returned to normal when came back; however, opened nursing to women, and gave more meaning to women rights movement • Amendments 13(free all slaves), 14 (citizenship and equal protection), and 15 (universal male suffrage) o 15th Amendment split women’s’ rights bc they wanted suffrage • Reconstruction: little help to whites or black in South bc belief that Americans can provide for themselves (physical rebuilding left to states/individuals while political issues federal) • Reconstruction Plan of Lincoln: o Proclamation of Amnesty and Reconstruction 1863: pardons to confederates loyal to Union and accepted no slave, and state government reestablished if 10% voters took loyalty oath (meant Southerners had to rewrite constitutions without slaves and to add weight to Emancipation Proc.)  Wade-Davis Bill 1864: object to 10% plan^^^ so wanted 50 percent but did not pass o Freedmen’s Bureau 1865: welfare agency to help those affected by war (freed slaves and homeless); at first resettled on confiscated land but eventually gave those back (greatest success education with schools for blacks) • Reconstruction Plan of Johnson (1865-67): (white supremacist to try to encourage pro Union Dem) o Policy: same but had disfranchisement (loss of right to vote and hold office) to leaders in Confederates and rich (however could give individual pardons---many southerners back in office by 1865) o Southern Government did not extend right to vote to blacks and made Black Codes (prohibited from borrowing money or owning land, freedom into semi bondage to sign work contracts, and prohibited testifying against whites) o Johnson Vetoes against freedmen’s bureau and nullification of black codes, and full citizenship (marking end of presidential reconstruction) • Congressional Reconstruction 1867-1877: (radical republicans with military to enforce) o Civil Rights Act 1866: override Johnson vetoes and made Africans US citizens (led to 14 amendment 1866--- first time states and federal uphold rights of citizens) o Joint Committee 1866: Confederacy no representation in Congress and presidents no power to reenter states so own plan with 14th amendment  Election of 1866: Andrew Johnson won by waving bloody shirt o Reconstruction Acts of 1867: 5 military districts under Union control + 14th amendment and right to vote for blacks to reenter Union o Andrew Johnson Impeachment made Tenure of Office Act 18667 (prohibited president removing official commander without Senate approval) and Johnson challenged so impeached (in Senate did not impeach bc bad precedent to impeach bc just did not like him) • Election of 1868: Ulysses S. Grant Republican won (15th amendment passed 1870) o Civil Rights Act of 1875: equal accommodation in public spaces (abandoned bc north tired) • South Reconstruction: Scalawags (southern Republicans) and Carpetbaggers (northern newcomers) o Increased corruption in government (failure) while more schools, debt relief, etc. (success)  Spoils men rise 1870s (business bosses and political bosses to enrich at public’s expense)  Credit Mobilier Affair, Whiskey Ring, Tweed Ring/Boss Tweed (corruption associated with Grant) o Black Communities: autonomy seen in churches made after war (and desire for education in new schools) many stayed in south, but many left to north like Kansas o Sharecropping: contracts for labor but blacks wanted autonomy so provided seed and other supplies for share of harvest (in debt to merchants) • Election of 1872: Grant Republicans won bc waved bloody shirt o Panic of 1873: northern laborers jobless and homeless (farmers wanted greenback paper money, but Grant sided with gold)  Made Northerners lose spirit for Reconstruction since they needed help now o End of Reconstruction as redeemers took control (Southern conservatives believed in states’ rights, reduced taxes, reduced spending on social programs, and white supremacy)  KKK 1867: Force Acts of 1870-71 to give government power to stop their violence o Amnesty Act 1872: removed last restrictions on Confederates • Election of 1876/ Compromise of 1877: Democrats allowed Republican Rutherford Hayes win if withdrew troops from south and support southern railroad • South resistance of 13, 14, 15 amendments: Segregation (Jim Crow laws) Violence (KKK and White League) Supreme Court Decisions (Plessy v. Ferguson (“Separate but equal”) Local political tactics (poll taxes, literacy tests, and grandfather clauses) Period 6 1865-1898 (Gilded Age) • 2nd (second) Industrial Revolution 1870-1914: (leading industrial by 1900) bc raw materials, labor supply, growing population, capital plentiful, technology, probusiness policies, etc. o Inventions: workable telegraph Samuel F.B. Morse, transatlantic cable (communication revolution, telephone, typewriter, cash register, calculating machine, camera, etc.  Edison: first modern research laboratory (working together) (made phonograph, incandescent lamp)  Westinghouse: airbrake, high voltage alternating current, etc. o Marketing increased (packaged foods, advertising, consumer culture shopping pastime), standard of living increase, larger middle class  Horatio Alger Myth: man of modest means becomes wealthy (helped ignore growing gap between rich and poor)  Iron Law of Wages David Ricardo (justified low wages)  Working women: low wages so sometimes had to work (feminine jobs like textile) barely any worked when married (only 5%) o Railroads: divided country into 4 times zones and 1st big business (encouraged mass production)  Eastern Trunk Lines: smaller routes combine into one between large cities) (NY Central Railroad 1867, Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, Pennsylvania Railroad, etc.)  Western Railroads: promoted western settlement (Homestead Act but much land given to companies not ppl), land grants bc increase value of lands and carried gov. mail/troops • Promoted corruption/poor construction (many failures as business as supply greater than demand)  Transcontinental Railroads: Union Pacific (employed German/Irish) and Central Pacific (many Chinese employed)  Fraud: had rebates (discounts) a

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