PHI 2000 Introduction to Ethics Final Exam Sophia Course/PHI 2000_Capella-Sophia Ethics Milestones, Latest Fall 2020 Complete Test Bank/Exam (elaborations) PHI 2000 Sophia (PHI2000) - $27.89   Add to cart

Exam (elaborations)

PHI 2000 Introduction to Ethics Final Exam Sophia Course/PHI 2000_Capella-Sophia Ethics Milestones, Latest Fall 2020 Complete Test Bank/Exam (elaborations) PHI 2000 Sophia (PHI2000)

Ethics Which of the following statements best describes the relationship between philosophy and science? Philosophy is concerned with how to understand and interpret scientific facts. Which of the following statements best describes the relationship between philosophy and science? Philosophy helps define concepts that are at the center of scientific study. Philosophy pursues truths that cannot be determined through empirical observation. Which of the following is a philosophical question? Is it possible for a computer to have free will? What would life on other planets mean for us? How much freedom should individuals have? Which of the following is a benefit of philosophy? Consistency is maintained between actions and beliefs. People learn to ask questions about the foundations of moral judgments. We learn to recognize and guard against bias Which step of philosophical inquiry has Amy just done? Identify positions on the question In order to approach the question philosophically, what should his first step be? Dan should ask, "What is a sport?" Which of the following actions represents the step, "Advance a Thesis"? A principal says students should focus more on academics than extracurricular activities. Which of the following is an argument? Given my brother's passion for the outdoors, he would make a good forest ranger. Simon's restaurant receives the best reviews from local food critics. Therefore, Simon's restaurant is the best restaurant in the city. Shakespeare wrote The Tempest. The Tempest was written by an Englishman in the 1600s. Therefore, Shakespeare was an Englishman in the 1600s. Consider the following argument: (1) Since eating trans fat increases "bad" cholesterol, (2) and "bad" cholesterol is related to a number of heart problems, (3) eating trans fats is unhealthy. (4) Trans fats have no known health benefits. Which of the four numbered statements is the conclusion? 3 Which one is the conclusion? Jeremy is financially irresponsible. Anthony is sick. Which of the following is an inductive argument? Lisa is an artist. Most artists are extremely talented. Therefore, Lisa is probably extremely talented. Which of the following is a deductive argument? Richard works out three days a week. Everyone who works out multiple times a week is strong. Therefore, Richard is strong. There is no circumstance under which my town will ever cancel fireworks on the Fourth of July. So even if it's pouring rain, the fireworks will happen. 4. Which of the following is a strong inductive argument? Matt is into 1980s hip-hop. Run DMC is one of the most popular hip-hop groups from the 1980s. Therefore Matt is into Run DMC's music. Amy works for a company called Dewey, Cheatum, and Livingston. Some of that company's employees are accountants. Amy is probably an accountant. Which type of argument is this? Weak inductive Everyone named Bethany has exquisite taste in furniture. My sister's name is Bethany. My sister therefore has exquisite taste in furniture. Which type of argument is this? Valid deductive An argument is strong and the premises are all true. Which of the following terms best describes the argument?Cogent An argument is weak, but the premises and conclusion are all true. Which of the following terms best describes the argument?Uncogent An argument is valid, but one of its premises is false. Which of the following terms best describes the argument? Unsound Which of the following statements is true of ethics? Ethics seeks to define the good and the bad. Which of the following statements is true of ethics? Ethics is about determining what is moral and what is immoral. Which of the following statements is true of ethics? Professional and personal interactions depend on ethical behavior. Ethical topics are often closely related to issues of law, etiquette, or religion. Which of the following is an issue of law? Landlord Hank installs working smoke detectors in all of his properties. Which of the following is an ethical consideration for an employee who uses the work printer for personal projects? Does management approve of this behavior? Which of the following statements is an example of descriptive ethics Most people agree that bringing their pet bulls into china shops is morally wrong. Hank creates a concept map to compare how Kantian deontology and virtue-based ethics evaluate eating meat. This is an example of which branch of ethics? Metaethics Which of the following questions is an example of normative ethics? What obligation do children have to their aging parents? Dave and Margaret have hosted Thanksgiving dinner every year for two decades. Despite their family's protests, they've decided not to host this year. Their decision is likely an example of a(n) __________ action. Neutral Jason sees a neighbor collapse from a heart attack on her front lawn. Which of the following decisions would likely constitute an obligatory action in that moment? Jason has his son call 911 while he begins CPR. Most academic institutions have severe penalties for students who attempt to pass off another's work as their own. Such academic dishonesty is thus generally considered to be a(n) __________ action. Impermissible Which of the following statements reflects relativism? Jesse thinks that right is whatever a person feels comfortable doing. Which of the following statements reflects objectivism? Lorraine believes that murder is wrong, regardless of a person's culture Which of the following statements reflects conventionalism Torture is acceptable because we've been doing it here for many years. Prep Milestone 1 An argument is strong, and all its statements are true. 1 Which of the following terms best describes the argument? • Uncogent • Sound • Unsound • Cogent 2 Which of the following statements is true of ethics? • Ethical decisions should be made using a consistent framework. • Ethics relies on passions and subjective situations. • Ethical reasoning is about justifying your own beliefs. • Ethics is not technically part of philosophy. 3 Which of the following statements reflects relativism? • Ethical standards override individual preferences. • The same ethical standards apply everywhere in the world. • The same standard must be used to evaluate all actions. • A single universal standard for ethical truths does not exist. 4 Which of the following is a deductive argument? • Every time I’ve walked past that store, the proprietor has smiled and waved. So, the next time I walk past the store, he will smile and wave. • It has rained on opening day of the golf tournament every year since we’ve begun. Therefore, it will rain on opening day this year. • It’s very hot today. When it’s hot outside, Joel goes swimming. Joel will go swimming today. • Cole was playing baseball in the yard nextdoor to the broken window. It follows that Cole broke the window. 5 Two musicians are discussing whether rap counts as music. In order to come to a conclusion, they decide to ask, "What is music?" 5 In order to continue their philosophical inquiry, what should their next step be? • They should evaluate arguments from famous rappers. • They should make an argument that rap is music and provide justification. • They should find as many positions on the question as possible. • They should look for arguments against rap as music. Ethics is often confused with issues of religion, social etiquette, and law. 6 Choose the action that is an issue of religion. • Hank opens the door for his wife when they go on a date. • The city repaired a pothole on the street in front of my house. • I go to church every Sunday. • I wear my wedding ring on my left hand. 7 Which of the following decisions would likely constitute a neutral action? • Frank and Inez have their driveway repaved. • Frank and Inez let their dog play in their neighbors' yard. • Frank and Inez invite their new neighbors to dinner to get to know them. • Frank and Inez put an addition onto their house without pulling the required permits. 8 Consider the following argument: (1) My baby is six months old. (2) Most babies get their first teeth around six months of age. (3) My baby will get her first tooth soon. Which of the three numbered statements (if any) is the conclusion? • 3 • • 2 • • All three statements are premises. • • 1 9 Which of the following considerations is ethically relevant to an employee who stocks the break room snacks? • Who reimburses me for the snacks I buy? • Is it my place to force my coworkers to eat healthy? • What are my favorite kinds of snacks? • How much food do I need to get? 10 Katrina calls her grandmother every week because she believes it is her moral obligation. 10 Which branch of ethics is represented by this belief? • Normative ethics • Metaethics • Descriptive ethics 11 Which of the following statements best describes the relationship between philosophy and science? • Scientific arguments require support, whereas philosophical arguments do not. • Philosophy uses the scientific method to uncover truths about the world. • Philosophy examines evidence and support for scientific arguments. • Philosophy is a less objective discipline than science. 12 All mammals have lungs. Iguanas have lungs. Iguanas are therefore mammals. Which type of argument is this? • Weak inductive • Valid deductive • Invalid deductive • Strong inductive 13 Which of the following is a benefit of philosophy? • Philosophy provides concrete answers to scientific questions. • Subjective thinking leads to recognition of bias. • Philosophy encourages agreement by focusing on compassion. • The logical organization of ideas improves communication. 14 Which of the following is an argument? • If it rains, then I won't go outside. • Rainy days are the best. I like to put on a sweater and read a good book. • It's going to rain today because the meteorologist says it will. • Everyone should experience standing out in the rain. 15 Which of the following is a philosophical question? • What is friendship? • On average, how many people get married every month? • Who do you spend the most time with? • How many friends do you have on social media? OFFICIAL MILESTONE 1 1 Which of the following is an argument? • I got eight hours of sleep and ate a healthy breakfast. Therefore, I am going to have a great day. • Every time your phone rings, your brain releases a chemical called dopamine. • If you don't water your plants, they will wilt. If you water them, they will be healthy. If you fertilize them, they will be healthier. • Donuts are the best breakfast food. I had one this morning. 2 Which of the following is an inductive argument? • My new cell phone charges to full capacity in 30 minutes. My best friend’s new cell phone does the same thing, and so does my sister’s. It follows that all new cell phones recharge in 30 minutes. • Bruce is not feeling well. If Bruce is ill, he will not be able to attend classes today. Therefore, Bruce will not attend classes today. • There are seven employees that are on assignment today. There are two employees that are in the office. There are no other employees. Therefore, there are nine employees. • Michael and Laura and their two children make a family of four. Michael and Laura have blond hair. Their children have blond hair, too. Thus, all members of the family have blond hair. 3 Which of the following statements about philosophy is true? • Philosophy is quite interesting, despite having little or no application in other fields. • Philosophy is obsolete due to advances in scientific inquiry. • Philosophy is a way to answer questions about the physical universe without observation. • Philosophy is concerned with seeking and recognizing knowledge. 4 Ricardo and Monica volunteered to serve food at their church picnic during the 8-10 AM shift. At the end of their shift, they noticed that the kitchen was still pretty busy, so they continued to help through the next shift. Most people would likely say their decision is an example of a(n) __________ action. • obligatory • neutral • impermissible • supererogatory Susan is studying the morality of taking terminally ill patients off life support. After thorough research and consideration of many different views, she argues that doctors have a moral obligation to use whatever means are available to preserve a patient's life. 5 Which step of philosophical inquiry has Susan done? • Identify positions on the question • Evaluate positions • Specify your question • Advance a thesis and justification 6 Which of the following is a weak inductive argument? • Most nurses are good people. Andrew is a nurse. Andrew is probably a good person. • Krista's favorite composer is Tchaikovsky. Jason also likes Tchaikovsky. Jason and Krista probably have a lot in common. • Things that are blue are sad. The sky is blue, so it must be sad. • People who like wine think they're a big deal. Aaron thinks he's a big deal, so he must like wine. 7 Many people confuse topics of religion, social etiquette, and law with ethical topics. Select the example related to law. • Jack allows a woman with children to board the airplane first. • I am the only insured driver, so my daughter cannot drive the rental car. • Nancy was baptized when she was a baby. • We tipped the server 25% because he did an excellent job. 8 Which of the following considerations is relevant to a person whose elderly parents are sick but refuse to make an appointment at the doctor? • Which days of the week are appointments available? • Does she have medical expertise? • Is it her place to make decisions for her parents? • Who has treated their illnesses in the past? 9 Which of the following is a benefit of philosophy? • Philosophy improves critical thinking skills. • Philosophy harnesses passion to reveal truths. • Philosophy makes everyone's opinion equal. • Philosophy more easily explains social problems. 10 Which of the following statements is an example of metaethics? • Kantian deontology is the correct ethical theory. • Killing whales is always wrong, no matter the reasoning. • Most people believe in some form of utilitarianism. • Boy Scouts have a moral obligation to help the elderly cross the street. 11 Which of the following is a philosophical question? • How do we define what counts as art? • On average, how many babies are born a day? • What is the average top speed of a cheetah? • Would you rather see a movie or a play? 12Which of the following statements reflects conventionalism? • Moral truths differ from person to person. • Moral truths differ from culture to culture. • Moral truths do not exist. • Moral truths are universal. An argument is strong and the conclusion is true, but both premises are false. 13 Which of the following terms best describes the argument? • Sound • Unsound • Uncogent • Cogent 14 Which of the following statements is true of ethics? • Objectivity is vital to ethical thought. • Ethical behavior has little to do with interpersonal interaction. • Ethical principles are just personal opinions. • Ethics is not subject to the same level of rigor as other philosophical pursuits. Consider the following argument: 15 (1) Mortgage rates are at an all time low. (2) It is therefore a good time to buy a home. (3) Also, property values have been increasing over the last five years, and (4) a number of new homes in my neighborhood are for sale. Which of the four numbered statements is the conclusion? • 4 • 3 • 2 • 1 Unit 2 Which of the following statements about divine command theory is true? Divine command theory is an objectivist moral theory. Divine command theory states that what is right is wholly determined from God's command. Divine command theory states that God freely chooses what is right and what is wrong Norman learns from his pastor that God commands people to love one another. Thus according to divine command theory, loving one another is __________. Obligatory Oliver asks his rabbi if it's acceptable for him to swim in the ocean while visiting family in South Carolina. The rabbi tells him God has not said anything about swimming in the ocean. Thus according to divine command theory, swimming in the ocean is __________. Neutral Patricia abstains from eating pork because she believes God has commanded her to. Thus according to divine command theory, eating pork is __________. Impermissible Which of the following examples contains a disagreement between popular thought and divine command theory? God forbids lying, but most people think lying is acceptable if it does good. Which of the following examples contains a disagreement between popular thought and divine command theory? God says to forgive all people, but many crimes are thought to be unforgivable. God forbids eating meat from pigs, but many people say eating pork is a good thing. Which of the following is an advantage of divine command theory? Divine command theory offers standards that originate outside of humanity Divine command theory provides a source for ethical standards. Divine command theory offers a firm basis for ethics. Which of the following represents a challenge to the intellectualist option of divine command theory? i t goes against divine command theory's principle that God's command is free. Which of the following represents a challenge to the voluntarist option of divine command theory? If God changes, what is good and what is evil could also change Which of the following represents a challenge to divine command theory? Divine command theory does not offer directives for every situation. In a well-known Biblical story, Adam and Eve lived in a beautiful garden. They were allowed to eat anything they wished, except God forbade them from eating the fruit from one particular tree. Since Eve and Adam sampled the fruit from the forbidden tree, according to divine command theory, was this a right action or a wrong action? • A wrong action because they disobeyed God’s command In a well-known Biblical story, God sent Jonah on an errand to deliver a message. Instead, Jonah went to sea on a ship. There was a terrible storm and Jonah was thrown overboard to save the others. Then God sent a great fish to swallow Jonah and save him. According to divine command theory, was Jonah’s decision to go to sea a right or a wrong action? A wrong action because God had commanded Jonah to do something else In a popular Bible story, God intends to flood the earth and commands Noah to build an ark to preserve his family and all the animals. According to divine command theory, if Noah had refused to build the ark, would that have been a right action or a wrong action? A wrong action because that would have been denying God’s command Which of the following is a tenet of conventionalism? • a.) No culture is morally better or worse than any other culture Which of the following is true of conventionalism? Conventionalism is not a single ethical theory, but a family of theories. Which of the following ideas does conventionalism profess? What is good in one culture could be evil in another Becky belongs to a culture in which arriving early is thought to be impolite. What would a conventionalist call this action in Becky's culture? Impermissible The common practice in Arnold's culture is to remove one's shoes when entering a house. What would a conventionalist call this action in Arnold's culture? Obligatory Charlie likes to put on elaborate theme parties on Friday evenings. Some people look down on him for doing so, but many people support and enjoy his parties. What would a conventionalist call this action in Charlie's culture? neutral Isabel moved with her elderly mother to a culture in which it is mandatory that adult children care for their parents. As her mother ages and requires more care, Isabel considers placing her in a facility so that she can continue thriving in her own profession. According to conventionalism, which action is most appropriate for Isabel to take? • She should continue to care for her mother in her own home. David hires a recent immigrant, Boris, from Russia as a computer tech in his company. Boris does not speak English well. David’s boss thinks this is a problem, but David does not. “He needs to learn the language if he’s going to live in America,” David's boss asserts. “But Boris doesn’t need to know the language in order to do his job,” returns David. According to conventionalism, who has the stronger ethical stance— David or his boss? • • The boss, because speaking English is a societal norm in American culture. When visiting the Czech Republic, Carolyn takes her children to a public park and notices that her children are much noisier than their peers. Carolyn wonders if perhaps Eastern Europeans view public parks differently. According to conventionalism, which action is most appropriate for Carolyn? Carolyn should tell her children to play more quietly Which of the following people would most likely be satisfied with conventionalism? Jeremiah is looking for an ethical framework that allows morality to change over time. Ingrid is looking for an ethical framework that respects local norms Henry is looking for an ethical framework that can account for disagreement on right and wrong. Which of the following observations poses a challenge to the cultural differences argument? Premise 2 is false because many cultures agree on certain moral issues. Which of the following observations poses a challenge to the cultural differences argument? • Premise 1 is false because disagreement does not mean there is no objective truth. Which of the following observations poses a challenge to the cultural differences argument? Premise 1 is false because universal truths are not always easy to discover. Which statement expresses a shortcoming of conventionalism? there can be no intercultural evaluation of what is good Which of the following statements about egoism is true? Egoism is both a theory about how things are and about how things ought to be. Which type of egoism is the theory that humans should act according to their own best interests? Ethical egoism Which type of egoism is the theory that humans are only capable of acting in their own self interest? Psychological egoism Which of the following scenarios would be neutral for an egoist? Ignatius wants to see two movies, but only has time for one, so he flips a coin to decide. Which of the following scenarios would be impermissible for an egoist? • Hailey donates 10% of her paycheck to help feed the hungry out of a sense of duty, even though she would prefer to keep the money. • Which of the following scenarios would be obligatory for an egoist? Jeanney steals her neighbor's newspaper because she doesn't want to pay for one herself. According to egoism, all of the following are important ideas to consider on the issue of gun control laws in the United States, EXCEPT __________. • an individual has an obligation to consider the safety of others Cheating on one’s spouse is widely rejected in most societies. How might an egoist complete this statement? Cheating on your spouse is permissible if __________. nothing bad happens to you as a result You are a mechanic who can make more money by diagnosing and repairing nonexistent car problems. How might an egoist complete this statement? Charging people for unnecessary repairs is __________. wrong, because running an honest business will earn you more money in the long run Which of the following statements supports egoism? It is a natural reaction in all humans to avoid pain or suffering. Important innovations are often made by those seeking their own self interests. Society benefits when individuals succeed. Which of the following represents a difficulty with egoism? Respect for all people is often thought of as a good thing, but it is inconsistent with egoism. Empathy is often thought of a a good trait, but it's not consistent with egoism. Selfless heroism is often respected and admired, but it's not consistent with egoism. Choose the action that is supported by egoism, but might seem unethical. Hiring a company to clean your neighbor's lot without their permission so your property value will increase. PRACTICE MILESTONE Which of the following people would most likely be satisfied with conventionalism? • Neville is looking for an ethical framework that says there's more to being good than doing good actions. • Norm is looking for an ethical framework that respects unfamiliar systems of ethics. • Nellie is looking for an ethical framework that assigns intrinsic value to every person. • Nicole is looking for an ethical framework that provides clear motivations for being good. CONCEPT 2 Choose the statement that correctly identifies whether egoism is relativist or objectivist and why. • Egoism is objectivist because everyone inherently acts in their own self-interest. • Egoism is relativist because what is good is relative to the norms of society. • Egoism is objectivist because it uses self-interest as a criterion for what is right and wrong. • Egoism is relativist because what is good is relative to an individual's self-interest. CONCEPT 3 Which of the following examples contains a disagreement between popular thought and divine command theory? • God commands people to honor their parents, but mine are bad role models. • God forbids tattoos, but many people think they're kind of cool. • God says, "Woe to those who are rich," so some religious people take vows of poverty. • God forbids murder, which is illegal almost everywhere. CONCEPT 4 Which of the following observations poses a challenge to the cultural differences argument? • It's possible that there is no objective moral truth. • It's possible that every culture is an island unto itself. • It's possible that some cultures are just wrong about morality. • It's possible that every culture's morality is true for its own members, but false for others. CONCEPT 5 Gerard likes to lie in his garden and pretend he's a cabbage. His neighbors think it's kind of weird, but they agree that it's none of their business. What would a conventionalist call Gerard's action? • Supererogatory • Obligatory • Neutral • Impermissible CONCEPT 6 Which of the following statements about divine command theory is true? • Divine command theory is also called theological pluralism. • Divine command theory is not necessarily part of religious practice. • Divine command theory states that moral truth is communicated but not invented by God. • Divine command theory is relativist because what is good is relative to which sacred text is accepted. CONCEPT 7 Which of the following represents a challenge to divine command theory? • There is no good reason to follow God's commands. • It obscures humanity's place in the world and relationship with the whole of creation. • It doesn't offer a firm basis for knowing which sacred texts are authentic and which are not. • There is generally not a firm basis for morality, which is relative. CONCEPT 8 Which of the following scenarios would be impermissible for an egoist? • Norbert steals money from his parents' rainy day fund, knowing he'll never get caught. • Nadine begrudgingly helps a coworker she doesn't like with a project. • Nathan volunteers at a youth center because he enjoys making a difference. • Noell has chicken for dinner because she had steak last night. CONCEPT 9 Which of the following is an advantage of divine command theory? • Divine command theory allows for some flexibility in what is right or wrong. • Divine command theory gives commands for all possible actions. • Divine command theory provides objective moral truths. • Divine command theory is about bringing the best consequences. CONCEPT 10 Sarah makes her famous chicken casserole for her new neighbors who have just moved to America from Asia. When her daughter Lily comes home and sees the casserole almost ready, she remarks, “Mom, didn’t you know? Where our new neighbors come from, they don't eat meat. You shouldn’t have made this!” Sarah replies, “I disagree! They live in America now and need to understand our customs!” According to conventionalism, which of the two - Sarah or Lily - has a better ethical stance? • Sarah, because ethical values are determined by the local culture, not your old one. • Lily, because what is right is determined by what is appropriate for the individual. • Lily, because killing animals unnecessarily is wrong. • Sarah, because she’s confident everyone loves her chicken casserole. CONCEPT 11 Which of the following statements represents a conventionalist worldview? • "Be the change you'd like to see in the world." • "Do unto others as you'd have them do unto you." • "The ends justify the means." • "When in Rome, do as the Romans do." CONCEPT 12 Thomas goes to church on Sunday morning because he believes God has commanded him to do it. According to divine command theory, going to church on Sunday is thus __________. • obligatory • supererogatory • impermissible • neutral CONCEPT 13 Which of the following statements supports egoism? • "Greed is good." • "Nothing in life is free." • "Take one for the team." • "Right is right, even if everyone is wrong." CONCEPT 14 Which of the following represents a difficulty with egoism? • Egoism does not do enough to help the agent. • All people are egoists at heart; it's part of being human. • Society does well when its individuals do well for themselves. • Teamwork often produces better results for everyone involved. CONCEPT 15 It is widely accepted that people should work hard to take care of their children. How might an egoist complete this statement? Working hard to take care of one's children is right because __________. • everyone has a responsibility to raise future generations • it gives one a sense of pleasure and satisfaction • most people believe it is the right thing to do • the greater society places a high value on nurturing children • Milestone 1 Mai has moved to the United States from Myanmar. She does not know how to drive and is frightened by the freeways and traffic congestion. Her husband insists that she learn to drive because they live in a suburb with no public transportation. “No,” says Mai firmly. “I am 38 years old and I have always been able to reach my destination without driving a car.” According to conventionalism, who has the stronger ethical stance— Mai or her husband? • Her husband, because driving is a societal norm in the United States. • Mai, because she does not want to learn to drive. • Her husband, because he cannot transport Mai everywhere she needs to go. • Mai, because driving is not valued in her society like it is in the United States. 2 Which of the following represents a difficulty with egoism? • Socially determined actions are usually more successful than self-determined actions. • Cooperating with others is a social skill that egoists do not have an opportunity to learn. • Individuals pursuing personal excellence often help a society to progress. • Because good is determined by self-interest, the egoist cannot judge the actions of others. 3 According to egoism, what might an egoist consider when faced with the issue of world hunger? • We all have an obligation to ensure all people have access to food. • Individuals are obligated to feed themselves. • We are obligated to do a better job distributing food. • Governments of poor nations are obligated to feed their citizens. 4 Most people in Dave's culture volunteer an hour every other week at a local food shelf. In addition to this, Dave also helps coordinate volunteers and fills in for people who can't make their hour. What would a conventionalist call Dave's actions? • Neutral • Impermissible • Supererogatory • Obligatory 5 Which of the following scenarios would be obligatory for an egoist? • Rather than take his dream vacation, Milo serves as a foster parent so children can have a stable home. • Malachi sees an opportunity to cheat and get ahead at work, so he takes it. • Michelle lets her husband decide what to eat since she's fine either way. • Madison brings a wallet she found on the ground to the police station rather than keeping it for herself. 6 After moving to a new city, Rachel continues to support her hometown's baseball team. A friend tells her she has to support her new city's team, but Rachel points out that God hasn't said anything on the matter. In Rachel's view, her action is __________ according to divine command theory. • impermissible • obligatory • neutral • supererogatory 7 Which of the following statements would you expect to hear from a conventionalist? • "The most important culture is the world's culture." • "A culture's customs are unrelated to ethical truths." • "Morality cannot be compared across cultural borders." • "The effects of an action on the culture determine its morality." 8 Which of the following observations poses a challenge to the cultural differences argument? • Some cultures are descended from common ancestors. • Morality is objective, so there are universal ethical truths. • No two cultures have the same ethical framework. • Even if two cultures disagree, there can still be a right answer. 9 Which of the following represents a challenge to the intellectualist option of divine command theory? • “God makes commands because they are good” implies that something beyond God’s free command makes things good. • The intellectualist option states that ethics are not outside or above God, but ethics must be interpreted by God. • The intellectualist option places a false dichotomy between ethics and religion, thereby saying God has no ethical authority. • The intellectualist option is subjective, whereas divine command theory is supposed to be objective. 10 Which of the following statements supports egoism? • Working to meet the demands of the larger society can lead to prosperity. • Self-determined ethics are more successful than ethics dictated by others. • All actions should be aimed at the greater good of society. • A society is more just if it distributes rewards to everyone equally. 11 Which of the following people would most likely be satisfied with conventionalism? • Keith is looking for an ethical framework that focuses on his own character. • Karin is looking for an ethical framework that has a basis outside of humanity. • Kelly is looking for an ethical framework that respects diverse traditions. • Kayden is looking for an ethical framework that says, "Right is right, even if nobody is right." 12 Which of the following examples contains a disagreement between popular thought and divine command theory? • God commands that certain crimes be punished by death, but many people oppose capital punishment. • God forbids lying, but I lie in pretty much every other sentence I say. • God commands that we forgive everyone, so I told my brother that I still love him after he broke my car window. • God forbade eating pork in the Torah, but in the book of Acts, he got rid of that prohibition. 13 The idea that people ought to act only in their own self interest is part of what kind of egoism? • Psychological egoism • Ethical egoism • Philosophical egoism • Logical egoism 14 Which of the following is an advantage of divine command theory? • Divine command theory prioritizes intent over outcome. • Divine command theory is about personal development. • Divine command theory is often associated with motivations for being moral. • Divine command theory aims to satisfy personal needs. 15 Which of the following statements about divine command theory is true? • Divine command theory is central to all religious practice. • Divine command theory is inherently relativist. • Divine command theory states that good and evil are determined by the conventions of each particular religion. • Divine command theory states that God's command is the only way to know right from wrong. UNIT 3 Why is utilitarianism an objectivist or relativist theoryUtilitarianism is objectivist because it asserts that everyone should act to increase utility. For a utilitarian, which consideration is most important? • The consequences of an action • Which of the following considerations is important for a utilitarian when evaluating the morality of an action? • How many people the action affects • Gerrie steals from her neighbor's family to feed hers. Her neighbor's two kids go hungry, but her two kids get fed. How would a utilitarian classify this action? Neutral Frank is considering donating the excess from a recent bonus to a local shelter instead of spending it on himself. How would a utilitarian classify this action? Obligatory Elizabeth likes drinking coffee from a certain company which treats its farmers poorly and pollutes the environment. How would a utilitarian classify Elizabeth's action? Impermissible Tabitha’s neighbors are annoyed by the types of plants she grows in her yard. After several attempts at talking to her, digging up her plants in the night, and even running her out of the neighborhood, Tabitha’s annoying behavior has not changed. One neighbor suggests they just kill her. Most people would agree that such an action is clearly immoral. How might it be evaluated by a utilitarian? Killing Tabitha is morally right because the happiness it brings all her neighbors will outweigh the harm to her. Which of the following represents act utilitarianism? Neil sends his children to bed without supper because they need to learn to behave properly Which of the following represents rule utilitarianism? Marie takes her son to the hospital after he gets injured playing with fire because she would do so for any injury. Which of the following pairs of goods are directly comparable according to hedonic utilitarianism? All of the answer choices are correct On which of the following statements would a hedonic utilitarian and an idealist utilitarian disagree? • a.) Some goods are different in kind. Which of the following people would likely be satisfied with utilitarianism? • a.) Vincent is looking for an ethical framework that benefits the most people possible. Richard is trying to decide whether or not to donate to a fund to save children in Africa from a recent famine. His friend suggests taking a utilitarian approach to the issue, so Richard makes a list of possible actions he could take. Choose the statement from Richard’s list that reveals a possible problem with utilitarianism If I don’t donate, I’m responsible for the death of a child. Which statement describes a disadvantage of utilitarianism? People have a natural tendency to show favoritism toward loved ones. The categorical imperative is a concept in Kantian deontology that fulfills the role of a(n) __________ that is binding for all people in all circumstances. Moral law According to Kantian deontology, which of the following would make an act permissible? My intention is good What is meant by the formulation of universal law? Acting according to a maxim everyone can use Which of the following violates a person's humanity, according to Kant? • a.) Lying to someone How might a Kantian deontologist evaluate stealing? • a.) It is morally wrong because if everyone stole, nobody could be trusted not to steal. Which of the following people would likely be satisfied with Kantian deontology? • a.) Elijah is looking for an ethical framework that gives a basis for objective rules. Which of the following represents a potential problem for Kantian deontology? Ignorance makes it easier to get away with bad actions Milestone 3 1 I come home and my apartment building is on fire. There is a family of five living in the apartment next to mine and only my mother in my apartment. I can only evacuate one apartment. What is a problem with applying utilitarianism to this scenario? • Utilitarianism says I should evacuate the apartment that has five occupants, even though my mother is more important to me. • Utilitarianism says I cannot determine which apartment to evacuate because my mother's happiness is equal to the happiness of the five strangers. • Utilitarianism says I should evacuate my apartment because that will make me the happiest. • Utilitarianism says I have to choose what to do based on who is responsible for starting the fire. 2 Karl receives a call from the local police, who are concerned that his son may be growing and distributing an illegal (but not dangerous) drug. Karl knows this suspicion to be true. If he admits it to the police, his son will be arrested, and their family’s name will be tarnished. If he lies, the police will assume the tip they got was false and go away. Most people are split on this issue. How might it be evaluated by a utilitarian? • Karl’s lying is morally wrong because his obligation to the state is more important than his son staying out of trouble, even though it would bring about no benefit for the state. • Karl’s lying is morally wrong because it is sinful to lie, even when the consequences are less than desirable. • Karl’s lying is morally right because he has an obligation to protect his son, even if his son’s actions cause harm to others. • Karl’s lying is morally right because keeping his son out of trouble and his family’s reputation clear will bring about more happiness than if his son is arrested. 3 How might a Kantian deontologist evaluate a jury voting to convict someone they know is innocent because they disagree with his political beliefs? • It is morally right because juries decide legal truth and can't be punished for any decisions they make. • It is morally wrong because if their motives are obvious, it could hurt their own party's reputation just to prevent just one person from voting against them. • It is morally wrong because if all juries acted that way, the judicial system would cease to be about justice and become a vehicle for political oppression. • It is morally right because the jurors' obligation to their party and their country are more important than one innocent man's freedom. 4 Which of the following people would likely be satisfied with Kantian deontology? • Houghton is looking for an ethical system that is relative. • Helen is looking for an ethical framework that respects the freedom of others. • Henrietta is looking for an ethical system that weighs the odds of certain consequences. • Hank is looking for an ethical system that will put him most ahead. 5 Which of the following people would likely be satisfied with utilitarianism? • Walt is looking for an ethical framework that places a high value on his culture's traditions. • Wendy is looking for an ethical framework that relies on the Torah for moral guidance. • Warren is looking for an ethical framework that never allows any kind of theft. • Walburga is looking for an ethical framework that is based in observable facts. 6 For Kant, what makes someone human? • A person's genetic code • The government's recognition of personhood • Freedom and the ability to reason • The ability to have emotions and feel pain 7 Which of the following represents rule utilitarianism? • Oswald gives 10% of his income to charity because giving to charity generally brings about greater good. • Opal grows lots of plants and flowers to help offset her carbon footprint. • Odessa saves a drowning man because she knows his family needs him in order to be happy. • Omar breaks into a large store because he needs food and the store's loss will be insignificant. 8 How would a Kantian deontologist evaluate an action? • By evaluating the categorical imperative • By evaluating the act's morality • By evaluating the total good and total bad it brings about • By evaluating the relevant maxim 9 Claire is helping her elderly neighbor, Ms. Flannigan, with some yard work. Ms. Flannigan has no close family and tells Claire that she is beginning to wonder who will get the small bundles of cash she has hidden throughout her large house. Ms. Flannigan even remarks that she cannot remember where she has hidden them all. After helping Ms. Flannigan, Claire goes inside to freshen up. In the bathroom she notices a large wad of cash tucked inside the medicine cabinet. Which action is supported by utilitarianism but intuitively seems unethical? • Claire takes the money and donates it to the food kitchen that feeds the community’s homeless population. • Claire leaves the money, but tells her friends about Mrs. Flannigan’s forgetfulness and where she had found the money. • Claire leaves the money, and tells Ms. Flannigan that she will take her to the bank the following week to deposit it. • Claire takes the money and puts it in a savings account that she will not touch for 10 years. 10 Which of the following considerations is important for a utilitarian when evaluating the morality of an action? • How likely it is to advance one's own needs • How likely it is to make one a good person • How likely it is to bring about happiness • How likely it is to be a violation of God's law 11 According to Kantian deontology, which of the following would make an act impermissible? • It violates applicable regulations. • It is done with bad intent. • It doesn't meet my own needs. • Most people find it morally bad. 12 Which of the following represents a potential problem for Kantian deontology? • A person can get away with doing harm if it's culturally accepted. • A person can't use feelings to help guide his or her reasoning. • A person can justify any action based on its consequences. • A person can get away with doing harm if he or she isn't caught. 13 On which of the following statements would a hedonic utilitarian and an idealist utilitarian disagree? • Some goods are preferable to others. • Consequences are the only important consideration. • Some goods can't be directly compared. • Some goods can be compared. 14 Ingrid steals from a wealthy neighbor's excess so she can afford shoes for her children. How would a utilitarian classify this action? • Supererogatory • Obligatory • Neutral • Impermissible 15 In Kantian deontology, the categorical imperative must be derived from __________. • possible consequences • moral law • reason • duty Which of the following best defines virtue-based ethics? • a.) A theory of ethics that asserts that actions reveal and reinforce personal characteristics Jean lies to her boss about not feeling well so she can stay home and watch her favorite shows. How might a virtue-based ethicist classify this action? Lucy overheard her parents talking about her beloved Uncle Paul and was shocked to learn that he had been arrested that day. “What?” she shouted, betraying her secret listening spot beneath the dining room table. “What?” Lucy’s mother frowned, but quickly reassured her daughter. “He was protesting the new oil pipeline outside of town, dear. Typical Paul. He’ll be fine.” According to virtue-based ethics, Paul’s act of protest is evaluated based on how his action reveals __________ and is considered permissible because it demonstrates his commitment to protecting the Earth. • a.) character Which of the following people would be most satisfied with virtue-based ethics? Trent is looking for an ethical system that is about cultivating the best version of himself Which of the following critiques represents a challenge to virtue-based ethics? • a.) There isn't a clear list of virtues. Which action, while seemingly good, may reveal a vice rather than a virtue? Maggie wears the same clothes and drives the same car as her sister because she envies her sister’s lifestyle. Consequentialism, deontology, and character ethics evaluate actions differently. Select the basis for moral value used by character ethics. A quality or trait Three people of differing ethical positions witness a child stealing candy from a store. One observer remarks, “What a greedy little kid!” The speaker is most likely a __________. character ethicist "I work security at a grocery store to prevent people from stealing food. Every now and then when the checkout lines are too long, I take a snack without paying for it." Which of the following sources of bias is apparent in this quotation? Self interest Which of the following statements displays the speaker's unfair bias? "I hired Walt to be the new VP of Learning because he and I belong to the same political party." Which of the following actions is inconsistent with her belief? Ainsley leaves her children a large inheritance that they can live off of for the rest of their lives. "Capital punishment is morally acceptable, because the Torah says certain crimes are to be punished with execution." To which theory of ethics is the person who made this statement likely appealing? • a.) Divine command theory Abortion is morally wrong, since it is a violation of the fetus' humanity." To which theory of ethics is the person who made this statement likely appealing? Kantian deondology "I earned my money; the beggars on the street did not." To which theory of ethics is the person who made this statement likely appealing? Egoism "Farming and killing animals is morally acceptable since meat, milk, and other animal products help human society flourish." To which theory of ethics is the person who made this statement likely appealing? • a.) Utilitarianism MILESTONE 1 Which of the following statements displays the speaker's unfair bias? • "I gave Timmy extra credit because he's my favorite student." • "I gave Timmy extra credit because he went above and beyond on the assignment." • "I gave Timmy extra credit because he works harder than his classmates." • "I gave Timmy extra credit because he did an additional project." CONCEPT The Effect of Bias in Moral Decision Making 2 "Abortion is morally wrong because it is murder, and murder is forbidden in the Bible." To which theory of ethics is the person who made this statement likely appealing? • Kantian deontology • Virtue-based ethics • Conventionalism • Divine command theory CONCEPT Case Study: Abortion 3 Tom passed the same homeless person each day as he walked to work. The homeless person never asked for money, but one day Tom stops and hands the man a $10 bill. According to virtue-based ethics, Tom’s action is unethical if he __________. • values the man’s life more than he values his own • gives the man money out of a sense of superiority • tells the man how to spend the money • feels satisfied that he has done a good deed CONCEPT Apply Virtue-Based Ethics 4 Which of the following best defines virtue-based ethics? • An ethical theory that asserts that self-oriented interests motivate human actions • An ethical theory that deems that an action is morally right if the action results in happiness • An ethical theory that determines moral value by weighing the consequences of actions • An ethical theory that emphasizes the role of character rather than actions CONCEPT Virtue-Based Ethics 5 Which action, while seemingly good, may reveal a vice rather than a virtue? • Glenn shows up for work every day, even when he's had trouble sleeping the night before. • Abraham does not like classical music, but he still takes his mother to the symphony. • Sasha cooperates with a colleague she does not like to complete an important project. • Carol gives a homeless man $10 to move away from her office building. CONCEPT Advantages and Shortcomings of Virtue-Based Ethics 6 Francis believes that every person should have ambition. Which of the following actions is inconsistent with his belief? • Francis dresses for the job he wants rather than the one he has. • Francis is content to keep his dead-end job. • Francis commits to learning a new skill every year. • Francis starts a new company with two friends. CONCEPT Establishing a Consistent Value System 7 In a famous story, Robin Hood robbed rich travelers and gave the money he acquired to the poor. Robin Hood is usually seen as a good, if not noble, person. How would a deontologist evaluate Robin Hood’s action? • It is not ethical because Robin Hood was an arrogant coward who stole from innocent people. • It is ethical because Robin Hood made more people happy than he made unhappy. • It is not ethical because stealing is always wrong, no matter the circumstances. • It is ethical because the rich had more than enough money, and the poor did not have enough. CONCEPT Sources of Value in Ethical Decisions 8 Natalie helps her brother move into his new home. How might a virtue-based ethicist classify this action? • Neutral • Supererogatory • Impermissible • Obligatory CONCEPT Commitments of Virtue-Based Ethics 9 Select the statement that reveals personal interest as a source of bias in ethical evaluation. • The clothing that Middle Eastern women wear is oppressive because it is different from Western clothing. • I think anyone should get a tattoo if they want to because many of my family members have tattoos. • I call myself a liberal, but I vote for a conservative candidate when his or her policies will benefit me financially. • Same-sex marriage makes me uncomfortable because I do not know any same-sex couples. CONCEPT Sources of Bias in Ethical Decisions 10 Which of the following people would be most satisfied with virtue-based ethics? • Wycliffe is looking for an ethical framework that evaluates actions based solely on intent. • Wendy is looking for an ethical framework that allows her to focus on what kind of person she is. • Walt is looking for an ethical system that respects cultural differences. • Winifred is looking for an ethical system that is based in the Ten Commandments. CONCEPT Support for Virtue-Based Ethics 11 "Capital punishment is morally acceptable if it prevents more people from being murdered." To which theory of ethics is the person who made this statement likely appealing? • Kantian deontology • Egoism • Utilitarianism • Virtue-based ethics CONCEPT Case Study: Capital Punishment 12 "Giving away excess wealth is obligatory because it brings about a greater good for all of society." To which theory of ethics is the person who made this statement likely appealing? • Virtue-based ethics • Utilitarianism • Divine command theory • Conventionalism CONCEPT Case Study: Wealth Distribution 13 Select the basis for moral value used by character ethics. • The adherence of an action to divine authority • The ultimate effects of an action • The inherent value of an action based upon intent • The individual trait being demonstrated by an action CONCEPT Different Considerations for Evaluating Actions 14 Which of the following critiques represents a challenge to virtue-based ethics? • The agent's moral character isn't properly emphasized. • Mass chaos would ensue since everyone only cares about him or herself. • Some virtues that are lacking can be hard to develop. • Effects the agent couldn't have anticipated impact his or her guilt. CONCEPT Problems with Virtue-Based Ethics 15 "Treating animals inhumanely is morally wrong because it shows insensitivity on the part of the farmer." To which theory of ethics is the person who made this statement likely appealing? • Egoism • Virtue-based ethics • Kantian deontology • Utilitarianism CONCEPT Case Study: Animal Rights © 2020 SOPHIA Learning, LLC. SOPHIA is a regist FINAL Which of the following considerations is ethically relevant to a person who's been asked for money on the street? • Have I given money to beggars before? • Do I have cash on me right now? • Is giving money the best way to help? • What is the beggar's race? CONCEPT Actions and Events 2 Renae has three brothers. Over the course of a weekend, she observed them in different situations with the new neighbors. Her oldest brother, Nick, stepped in front of her when the neighbors’ large dog got loose and started running toward her. Her middle brother, Joe, loudly threatened the neighbors as to what would happen if they did not keep their dog chained up. Her younger brother, Scott, retreated into the house when all the shouting occurred. How might a virtue-based ethicist evaluate Nick’s action? • The action revealed that Nick has the virtue of courage. • The action revealed that Nick acted without thinking. • The action did not reveal a positive or negative trait. • The action revealed that Nick has the vice of aggressiveness. CONCEPT Advantages and Shortcomings of Virtue-Based Ethics 3 Many people confuse topics of religion, social etiquette, and law with ethical topics. Select the example related to social etiquette. • Marcy disapproves of working on Sundays because she was taught it was a day of rest. • Nathan talks loudly on his cell phone while standing in line at the store. • Tara installs a wheelchair ramp at her business to meet government regulations. • Anthony follows the flow of traffic, even if he is exceeding the speed limit. CONCEPT Ethical and Non-Ethical Topics 4 According to an egoist, working hard to succeed in order to take care of oneself and one’s needs is good because __________. • individual flourishing is the sole basis for ethics • it sets a positive example for others • societal standards demand it • hard work is valued by all CONCEPT Applying Egoism 5 Which of the following pairs of goods are directly comparable according to hedonic utilitarianism? • All of the answer choices are correct. • My life and my wife's life • $20 and a sandwich platter • A car and a motorcycle CONCEPT Hedonic and Idealist Utilitarianism 6 What is the goal of philosophy? • To justify beliefs • To gain self-knowledge • To pursue truth • To persuade others CONCEPT Introduction to Philosophy 7 Which of the following statements displays the speaker's unfair bias? • "I'm voting for Measure 5642 because it will balance the city's budget." • "I'm voting for Measure 5642 because it will improve our schools." • "I'm voting for Measure 5642 because it will give my family a tax break." • "I'm voting for Measure 5642 because it will create new jobs." CONCEPT The Effect of Bias in Moral Decision Making 8 Which of the following observations poses a challenge to the cultural differences argument? • If there were no universal ethical truths, it wouldn't be possible for cultures to have moral values at all. • Some cultures subscribe to ethical frameworks like divine command theory rather than conventionalism. • Just because there is an objective truth doesn't mean everyone automatically knows it. • No culture has ever willingly assimilated to another culture's beliefs and norms. CONCEPT Problems with Conventionalism 9 "I always say everyone shouldn't be afraid to try new things. On a recent trip to Spain, I ate all my meals at my favorite place— McDonald's." Which of the following sources of bias is apparent in this quotation? • Self-interest • Religion • Familiarity • Upbringing CONCEPT Sources of Bias in Ethical Decisions 10 According to Kantian deontology, which of the following would make an act impermissible? • There is a negative outcome. • My intention is bad. • My own needs are not met. • The act is illegal. CONCEPT Commitments of Kantian Deontology 11 Which of the following is a philosophical question? • What time does the movie start on Friday? • Will you continue with your college education? • How many people are religious? • What is the best system of morality? CONCEPT Philosophical and Non-Philosophical Inquiry 12 When a utilitarian evaluates an action, which of the following is most important? • The action's inherent sinfulness • The action's total effects on everyone • The action's rejection by society • The action's effects on the agent CONCEPT Utilitarianism 13 "Abortion is morally acceptable if it is legal here." To which theory of ethics is the person who made this statement likely appealing? • Conventionalism • Kantian deontology • Utilitarianism • Virtue-based ethics CONCEPT Case Study: Abortion 14 Which of the following people would most likely be satisfied with conventionalism? • Martin is looking for an ethical framework that says, "You do you." • Meriwether is looking for an ethical framework that values the world culture over local groups. • Mara is looking for an ethical framework that can account for changing cultural attitudes. • Malie is looking for an ethical framework that says, "Greed is good." CONCEPT Support for Conventionalism 15 Theo is running for political office. It is a well-known fact that Theo is corrupt— he intends to use his office for his own personal and financial gain, to the detriment of the communities he serves. Yet polls show that he has a considerable lead over his opponents because he can afford aggressive advertising. A group of citizens decides to take matters into its own hands by blackmailing Theo so he will drop out of the election. Most people would agree that this action is immoral. How might it be evaluated by a utilitarian? • Blackmailing Theo is morally right because the communities he serves will ultimately be happier with a leader who is not corrupt. • Blackmailing Theo is morally right because most citizens do not want him as their leader, even if they have fallen for his advertising. • Blackmailing Theo is morally wrong because it’s still possible that he won’t win the election, or that checks and balances will keep him from having too negative an impact. • Blackmailing Theo is morally wrong because blackmail is always wrong, even if you don’t agree with someone’s values. CONCEPT Applying Utilitarianism 16 Which of the following scenarios would be neutral for an egoist? • Larry refuses to participate in his neighborhood watch because it takes too much of his time and energy. • Lamar lies about having done his homework so that he won't get in trouble with his parents. • Leah has a hard time deciding between the University of Minnesota and Notre Dame, but she picks Notre Dame in the end. • Luna joins the armed forces so she can give something back to her nation and guarantee a future for her society. CONCEPT Commitments of Egoism 17 Jerome gets injured helping a distressed swimmer. Jerome dies, but the swimmer lives. How would a utilitarian classify Jerome's action? • Impermissible • Obligatory • Supererogatory • Neutral CONCEPT Commitments of Utilitarianism 18 How might a Kantian deontologist evaluate cheating on an assignment? • It is morally right because it doesn't violate your freedom or ability to reason. • It is morally right because it can prevent you from failing a class, losing the tuition, and getting in trouble with your parents. • It is morally wrong because lying to the teacher deprives her of information she needs. • It is morally wrong because it violates the humanity of the person you cheated off of. CONCEPT Applying Kantian Deontology 19 Whi

Preview 4 out of 34  pages

avatar-seller
rubricguru

The benefits of buying summaries with Stuvia:

Guaranteed quality through customer reviews

Guaranteed quality through customer reviews

Stuvia customers have reviewed more than 450,000 summaries. This how you know that you are buying the best documents.

Quick and easy check-out

Quick and easy check-out

You can quickly pay through credit card or Stuvia-credit for the summaries. There is no membership needed.

Focus on what matters

Focus on what matters

Your fellow students write the study notes themselves, which is why the documents are always reliable and up-to-date. This ensures you quickly get to the core!

$ 27.89
  • (0)
  Add to cart