Summary PYC2603 CHAPTER 7 MATURE THOUGHT WISDOM AND MORAL INTELLIGENCE - $2.99   Add to cart

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Summary PYC2603 CHAPTER 7 MATURE THOUGHT WISDOM AND MORAL INTELLIGENCE

CHAPTER 7 - MATURE THOUGHT, WISDOM AND MORAL INTELLIGENCE Chapter 7 Mature thought, wisdom and moral intelligence -postformal thought -wisdom -moral development Orientation: • Postformal thought, wisdom and moral development are interrelated. • Growing older does not necessarily lead to the development of wisdom. • Older people have had more experiences, this will contribute to wisdom and morality. • Psychological maturity-characteristics: o flexibility and adaptability of thought; o an openness to change; o a zest for life (notwithstanding the reality of hardship); o commitment to one’s work; o the belief that change is possible; o a sense of humour and o a sense of humility. POSTFORMAL THOUGHT Outcomes: • know the characteristics of postformal thought- a level of thought beyond that of Piaget’s formal operations. • know how to change thinking style from formal to postformal thought. • know how to compare immature thinkers with postformal thinkers by looking at how people reason about emotionally charged social situations. Beyond Piaget: new ways of thinking in adulthood Piaget:- • thinking starts early childhood with manipulation of sensory info • progresses to concrete problem solving (amount of water in one container vs. other container) • many adolescents reach ‘formal operations’ think abstractly, systematically, logically, hypothesis. • Piaget says formal operations pinnacle of cognitive achievement • some developmentalists maintain changes in cognition extend beyond that stage • one line of Neo-Piagetian theory concerns higher levels of abstract reasoning,reflective thinking • another line – postformal thought which combines logic with emotion and practical experience in the resolution of ambiguous problems - Reflective thinking • complex form of cognition, (John Dewey) – active, persistent, and careful consideration of information or beliefs in the light of the evidence that supports them and the conclusions to which they lead. • reflective thinkers continually question supposed facts, draw inferences, make connections. • Building on state of formal operations (Piaget) reflective thinkers create complex intellectual systems that reconcile apparently conflicting ideas or considerations o e.g. putting together various theories of human development (or modern physics) into single overarching theory that explains many different kinds of behaviour • capacity for reflective thinking emerge between ages 20 and 2 o cortical regions of the brain that handle higher level thinking is then myelated o also brain then forms new neurons, synapses and dendritic connections. o environmental support stimulate development of thicker, denser cortical connections • thus even though all adults develop the capacity for becoming reflective thinkers..... o few obtain optimal proficiency o fewer still can apply it consistently to various kinds of problems. o e.g. young adults may understand concept of justice – but may have difficulty weighing. it in relation to other concepts – social welfare, law, ethics, responsibility. o this may be why few reach Kohlberg’s highest level of moral reasoning. o tertiary education may stimulate progress toward reflective thinking Postformal thought : • Adults sometimes give ‘wrong’ answers to questions, because their thinking took more factors into account. These ‘preformal’ responses could represent and advance in cognitive development. (House, same shape, different size) • Since late 70’s, research shows that mature thinking richer and more complex than abstract intellectual

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