Sophia history II – Milestone 3 Exam Questions/Answers {Latest Update} - $15.48   Add to cart

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Sophia history II – Milestone 3 Exam Questions/Answers {Latest Update}

Sophia history II – Milestone 3 1 Choose the statement that best explains why Eugene McCarthy had the support of many students during the 1968 presidential election. • He decided to compete in the Democratic primary by running on an antiwar campaign. • He had the support of most party leaders and was popular with blue-collar workers who were in unions. • Most of his support was coming from African Americans and other minorities, as well as Catholics. • He represented Southern Democrats who were resistant to the party’s support of the civil rights movement. RATIONALE Eugene McCarthy was a candidate for the Democratic presidential nomination who ran on an anti–Vietnam War platform. His outspoken stance on the war was popular among college students. CONCEPT The Significance of 1968 2 One component of containment policy was the Marshall Plan, which included all of the following conditions EXCEPT __________. • "The purpose of the plan is to unite Western Europe around the principles of democracy and capitalism." • “Any money received from the plan must be spent on American goods.” • “Governments must be free of all Communist influence before receiving financial assistance.” • “Countries that receive aid must agree to defend one another in the event of Soviet aggression.” RATIONALE The Marshall Plan was an economic program that provided billions of dollars of American aid to rebuild European countries after World War II and prevent them from turning to Communism. Though it did not mandate a military alliance, it did require governments that received funds to exclude Communists from their ranks and to spend their funds on the purchase of American goods. CONCEPT The Cold War in Europe: The Iron Curtain Descends 3 Choose the statement that explains one way the federal government supported private business during World War II. • “We will assume the majority of costs associated with converting your factory to produce wartime materials.” • “We will decrease taxes on corporations and allow them to lower wages for the duration of the war.” • “We will enforce antitrust regulations while wartime mobilization and production are in effect.” • “We will award defense contracts to the smallest 100 corporations in the United States.” RATIONALE Mobilizing for the war effort required new partnerships between private businesses and the federal government. The government needed private industry to produce essential war materials, including ships, planes, guns, and tanks, for the United States and its allies. Therefore, it encouraged cooperation by issuing defense contracts to many large American corporations. To ensure defense contracts were profitable, the federal government agreed to assume the majority of costs associated with converting to wartime production. CONCEPT Arsenal of Democracy 4 Which of the following was associated with the counterculture movement in the 1960s? • registering African American voters in the South • experimenting with marijuana and psychedelic drugs • protesting free-speech policies at universities • organizing sit-ins at lunch counters RATIONALE Unlike the New Left, which consisted of political activists in the 1960s and 1970s who rejected the traditional liberalism of the Democratic Party and advocated for more radical economic and social reforms, the counterculture contained a deeper critique of American society that resulted in politically disengaging, "dropping out," and adopting alternative, ostensibly "more authentic" lifestyles. Drug use, including marijuana and psychedelic drugs, was popular within the counterculture. CONCEPT The Liberal Coalition Unravels 5 Segregation of white and colored children in public schools has a detrimental effect upon the colored children. The impact is greater when it has the sanction of the law, for the policy of separating the races is usually interpreted as denoting the inferiority of the negro group. Which of the following statements best explains chief justice Earl Warren's argument against public school segregation contained in this excerpt? • Public school segregation interferes with the ability of both white and black students to reach their full potential in life. • Southern states have failed to provide truly equal facilities for black and white students, and therefore the segregation of public schools must end. • Separating children on the basis of race has a negative effect on African American students even if the separate facilities are equal in every way. • Based on the "equal protection" clause of the 14th Amendment, it is unconstitutional to segregate public school children. RATIONALE In its decision, Chief Justice Warren was influenced by social science research that demonstrated the negative psychological effects of segregated schools on African American students. The court concluded that segregated schools, even if equal in quality, were "inherently unequal" because they made black students feel inferior to white students. CONCEPT The Consequences of Brown V Board 6 Why did the United States adopt a “Europe first” strategy upon entering World War II? • Winston Churchill and Franklin Roosevelt had convinced Joseph Stalin that Italy was vulnerable to invasion. • The United States owed large sums of money to European nations after World War I. • Soviet soldiers were preventing German troops from entering key Soviet cities. • Nazi Germany appeared to be on the brink of conquering Europe. RATIONALE Although it was the Japanese who attacked the United States at Pearl Harbor, the United States adopted a "Europe first" strategy, in which resources and energies were concentrated in achieving a victory over Germany. Roosevelt and his Allied powers partners were concerned that Nazi Germany was poised to conquer all of Europe, and they sought to roll back the gains made by Adolf Hitler's army. CONCEPT Fighting World War II 7 Which statement does NOT describe an effect of economic expansion in the 1950s? • "It seemed as if everyone I knew had moved to the city." • “We began to see more convenience stores and fast-food restaurants as car ownership increased.” • “College enrollment increased at this time.” • “Large families were encouraged, and were common.” RATIONALE Economic expansion during the 1950s resulted in a widely-shared prosperity. The effects of this expansion included the baby boom, (i.e., the large group of Americans who were born between 1946 and 1964) and increased college enrollment (as a result of the GI Bill). The 1950s were also characterized by suburbanization, a process in which many families moved to suburbs. Suburbanization created a demand for new homes and automobiles, which in turn spawned new industries, including fast-food restaurant chains. CONCEPT Family Life in the 1950s 8 All of the following statements reflect a reason identity politics grew in the United States in the 1960s EXCEPT __________. • “Based on the idea that the United States is a melting pot, we support policies that address the needs of all Americans.” • “To promote solidarity, we began to celebrate our heritage and cultural practices, which led to a sense of self-pride.” • “Because we were poor and working class, we were disproportionately drafted and sent into combat in Vietnam.” • “We formed a national organization to address our frustrations with traditional gender and societal roles.” RATIONALE Many forces contributed to the development of identity politics, or movements intended to further the interests of a particular group, in the 1960s and 1970s. Despite the victories of the civil rights movement in the 1950s and 1960s, racial conflict and economic inequality persisted in the United States, breeding frustration with the slow pace of change. This frustration was compounded by the injustices of the Vietnam draft. Meanwhile, other groups (such as the National Organization for Women, or NOW) were influenced by the civil rights movement to pursue equality for their social group. In addition to pursuing political reform, identity politics focused on group empowerment and a celebration of group culture. CONCEPT The Rise of Identity Politics in America 9 Read the excerpt from a presidential committee report published in 1947: It is impossible to decide who suffers the greatest moral damage from our civil rights transgressions, because all of us are hurt. That is certainly true of those who are victimized. Their belief in the basic truth of the American promise is undermined . . . . The damage to those who are responsible for these violations of our moral standards may well be greater . . . . All of us must endure the cynicism about democratic values which our failures breed. How does this excerpt demonstrate that the Cold War affected the civil rights movement in the United States? • Those who oppose the United States are trying to create hostilities toward it by members of other races. • The committee is aware that the United States needs to take stronger steps to address racial discrimination at home. • In response to global criticism, the committee vows to investigate and prosecute racism in the United States. • Communists are distorting America’s racial shortcomings to challenge the growth of democracies. RATIONALE America's civil rights failings were a liability in the Cold War, because its record on civil rights could be used by the Soviet Union to discredit the United States. In speaking of "moral damage," the undermining of "the American promise," and the "cynicism about democratic values which our failures breed," the committee is arguing that in order to win the Cold War, the United States must improve its civil rights record at home. CONCEPT Cold War and the Civil Rights Movement 10 Choose the statement that does NOT describe a way that conformity was encouraged among Americans during the Second Red Scare. • "Traditional family units and American values, such as personal responsibility, are depicted on my favorite television shows." • “Gays and lesbians go to great lengths to hide their sexual orientation for fear of losing their job and reputation.” • "Politicians and elected officials risk being replaced if they're suspected of having Communist leanings." • "We must establish good relations with China to prevent Communists from committing espionage within the United States." RATIONALE One of the key effects of the Second Red Scare on American society was the pressure to conform to traditional behaviors and values. The American government (through "Red-baiting" and the "Lavender Scare") and American culture (through films and television shows such as Leave It to Beaver), applied this pressure and policed dissent. However, the statement about China does not reflect a way in which conformity was encouraged among Americans. CONCEPT The Cold War in America 11 “As part of the Lyndon Johnson administration’s War on Poverty, my teenage son participated in the __________ program, which provided training and work experience so he could have the same advantages as others.” • Job Corps • Community Action Program • Head Start • Teacher Corps RATIONALE A key component of Johnson's War on Poverty was Job Corps, a program overseen by the Office of Economic Opportunity (OEO) that provided job training and work experience for disadvantaged Americans. CONCEPT Johnson's Vision: The Great Society 12 One consequence of containment policy on American politics in the 1940s and 1950s was __________. • highly contested legislative elections • Red-baiting, or falsely accusing political opponents as Communist sympathizers • the discovery of more than 200 Communist sympathizers in the State Department • an increase in Communist sympathies among the public RATIONALE A foreign policy based on containing Communism abroad created pressure to root out Communist sympathizers at home. Politicians could use this to their advantage by "Red-baiting," or accusing an opponent of suspected or known Communist sympathies for political gain. CONCEPT The Cold War in America 13 Federal housing policies prior to World War II and government agencies, such as the Home Owners’ Loan Corporation, helped create ________. • low-income housing • residential segregation • de jure segregation • equal access to home ownership RATIONALE Federal housing policies prior to World War II and government agencies, such as the Home Owners’ Loan Corporation, helped create de facto residential segregation, or segregation by fact or custom, especially in Northern cities. Redlining was one way in which the Home Owners’ Loan Corporation contributed to de facto residential segregation. CONCEPT The Origins of Brown V Board 14 Select the false statement about Dwight Eisenhower’s New Look strategy during the Cold War. • It encouraged the formation of the Green Berets, a special forces unit trained in counterinsurgency. • It cut the size of the armed forces nearly in half while building up the nuclear arsenal. • It emphasized nuclear weaponry and covert operations over conventional warfare. • It embraced the idea of “massive retaliation” against any Soviet attack. RATIONALE Dwight Eisenhower's New Look strategy pursued containment policy through an emphasis on nuclear weaponry and the threat of massive retaliation. It was president John Kennedy who formed the Green Berets. CONCEPT The Cold War Continues 15 Choose the statement that reflects U.S. involvement in Vietnam during the Eisenhower administration. • The United States escalated the bombing campaign against North Vietnam and almost doubled military spending — to over $80 million — in one year. • The U.S. provided support — money and advisors — to Ngo Dinh Diem in South Vietnam because the administration believed that the Soviet Union and China controlled North Vietnam. • Congress passed a resolution that increased the executive branch’s war power, and the U.S. became an official combatant in the war. • Despite U.S. support, the government of South Vietnam grew weaker. As a result, the United States approved a military coup against the faltering government. RATIONALE After peace accords temporarily divided Vietnam into North and South in 1954, President Eisenhower provided money and military advisors to anti-Communist leader Ngo Dinh Diem's regime. The purpose of this assistance was to help the Diem government in the south to gain control the region, and to prevent the northern Communist leader Ho Chi Minh, and the Viet Minh, from doing so. CONCEPT The Early 1960s The Liberal Coalition Unravels 16 Prior to Brown v. Board of Education, in 1946, president Harry Truman created a Presidential Committee on Civil Rights. What was another civil rights achievement undertaken by the Truman administration? • The Supreme Court ruled in favor of Herman Sweatt, who had been denied admission to a Texas law school. • The armed forces were desegregated through an executive order. • The Double V Campaign successfully desegregated lunch counters in Washington, DC. • Thurgood Marshall helped found the NAACP’s Legal Defense and Education Fund. RATIONALE In addition to creating the Presidential Committee on Civil Rights in 1946, Truman desegregated the American military in 1948 via Executive Order 9981. CONCEPT The Origins of Brown V Board 17 Choose the false statement about women in the workforce during World War II. • The aircraft industry employed large numbers of women. • Employers did not want to hire married women with children. • The government actively recruited women for wartime jobs. • Women made up more than a third of the domestic workforce. RATIONALE At home, mobilization for World War II affected different groups of Americans in different ways. Women, who filled vacant jobs in the defense industry, made up a third of the domestic workforce during the war. One significant aspect of women's wartime employment was that for the first time, married women began to outnumber single women in the workplace. The federal government also supported working mothers by establishing federal childcare facilities and urging employers to build their own childcare facilities. CONCEPT The American Homefront 18 Choose the statement that was NOT a reaction against Brown v. Board of Education by Southerners during the 1950s. • “We will protest the desegregation of buses by refusing to use them.” • “This ruling will destroy the friendly relationship between the white and black races.” • “The Supreme Court has misused its power by ordering desegregation in schools.” • "We will continue to intimidate and kill those who challenge the status quo." RATIONALE All of the following statements reflect responses to the Brown v. Board of Education decision in the South in the years after 1954 except for the statement, “We will protest the desegregation of buses by refusing to use them.” The Montgomery bus boycott (1955–1956) was an important response to the Brown decision that displayed growing civil rights activism. However, the boycott protested the continued segregation of city buses, not their desegregation. CONCEPT The Consequences of Brown V Board 19 Choose the statement that describes the civil rights March on Washington in 1963. • It led to the conviction of Ku Klux Klan members. • It successfully integrated racially-segregated interstate buses and terminals. • It built national support for the Civil Rights Act. • It introduced the Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party. RATIONALE The 1963 March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom, during which Martin Luther King Jr. delivered his “I Have a Dream” speech, helped to build congressional support for what would become the Civil Rights Act. CONCEPT Cold War and the Civil Rights Movement The Early 1960s Johnson's Vision: The Great Society 20 All of the following were factors in president Harry Truman’s decision to drop atomic bombs on Japan EXCEPT __________. • Germany’s conditional surrender • willingness to kill civilians while destroying military targets • a desire to save American lives • racism toward the Japanese RATIONALE When deciding whether to use the atomic bomb on Japan, Truman was influenced by number of factors. Germany was not one of these factors. By the time Truman learned that the United States had successfully tested an atomic bomb, Germany had surrendered, Adolf Hitler had committed suicide, and the war in Europe was over. CONCEPT Truman and the Atomic Bomb 21 In the summer of 1963, president John Kennedy stated his support for a civil rights bill. The bill he envisioned would give the federal government greater power to do all of the following EXCEPT __________. • prohibit segregation in public accommodations • oversee elections in Southern states • outlaw discrimination in employment • enforce school desegregation RATIONALE The civil rights bill (later the Civil Rights Act of 1964) that Kennedy proposed did not deal with issue of voting rights (such as federal oversight of Southern elections). Congress would pass a Voting Rights Act in 1965 to rectify this omission. CONCEPT The Early 1960s 22 President Franklin Roosevelt became convinced that the United States should support the Allies in the war in Europe for all of the following reasons EXCEPT __________. • He was concerned about Great Britain's ability to stand against German aggression. • He feared Germany would attempt to take over and control all of Europe. • He was convinced by the America First Committee to intervene. • He believed the rise of fascism was a threat to all nations. RATIONALE As Europe descended into war again in the 1930s, many Americans were committed to nonintervention. One example was the America First Committee, which viewed European conflicts as separate from the interests of the United States. The America First Committee did not pressure Roosevelt to intervene in Europe; rather, it opposed American involvement in World War II. CONCEPT Neutrality to Involvement 23 Choose the statement that best analyzes events in the year 1968 through the lens of race. • White society and institutions were complicit in the impoverished conditions experienced by urban blacks. • The violent protests outside of the Democratic National Convention revealed a need for law-and-order in the United States. • Chicago police took action against crowds of protesters at the Democratic National Convention. • Richard Nixon promised to bring home the troops and end the Vietnam War honorably. RATIONALE Remember that when historians interpret or narrate the past, they may use a variety of lenses, such as race, class, gender, or others, which shape their perspective. The statement about the Kerner Commission, which argued that white Americans were complicit in the creation of the racial ghetto, analyzes events of 1968 through the lens of race. The Kerner Commission sought to understand episodes of racial unrest in American cities the 1960s by relating economic inequality to racial injustice and discrimination. CONCEPT The Significance of 1968 24 All of the following traditions reflected the relationship between conformity and the American family in the 1950s EXCEPT __________. • Women were not encouraged to work outside of the home. • Whether working-class or middle-class, men were expected to support their families. • Those who chose to live outside of societal norms were largely ignored by mainstream culture. • Advertisers offered “labor-saving” devices aimed directly at a female audience. RATIONALE Just as containment policy led to conformity in American politics, suspicion of those who challenged tradition also led to conformity in other areas of American life, including family and gender roles. Most men and women in the 1950s adhered to tradition by marrying young, dedicating themselves to creating prosperous, stable, nuclear families, and dividing household responsibilities in traditional ways. Magazines and advertisements for consumer goods reinforced these expectations. Those who did not adhere to tradition were stigmatized. CONCEPT Family Life in the 1950s 25 What was one motivation behind the development of the United States's containment policy following World War II? • to limit the expansion and influence of Communism in places currently undergoing decolonization • to establish a "second front" between the Soviet Union and Communist China • to restrict the movement of European refugees after the war • to defend against the military alliance formed between the Soviet Union and the postwar German government RATIONALE The United States adopted a foreign policy of containment after World War II in an effort to prevent the spread of Soviet Communist influence into areas of the world that had been destabilized by the war or that were undergoing the process of decolonization. Containment was directed toward Communist governments (e.g., the Soviet Union and later, China).

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