NURS 6521N - NURS 6521C Midterm Exam (Jan 2020 - 100 out of 100)
NURS-6521N-3/NURS-6521C-3-Advanced Pharmacology2019 Winter Qtr 11/25-02/16-PT27
Midterm Exam - Week 7
1. It is determined that a patient, who is in a hepatic coma, needs a laxative. Lactulose is prescribed. Which of the following should the nurse monitor to assess the efficacy of the lactulose therapy?
2. The Nurse Practitioner is prescribing Salmeterol (Serevent) inhaler for a patient with asthma. What instructions would be correct to provide the patient?
3. A 20-year-old woman calls the clinic at 5 PM and reports to the Nurse Practitioner that she forgot to take her morning dose of fexofenadine (Allegra). She usually takes her evening dose at 8 PM. She wants to know what she should do. The Nurse Practitioner will instruct her to
4. Which of the following affects drug distribution throughout the body?
5. A homeless man who is well known to care providers at the local hospital has been admitted to the emergency department after having a seizure outside a mall. The man is known to be a heavy alcohol user and is malnourished with a very low body mass index. How are this patient's characteristics likely to influence possible treatment with phenytoin?
6. Decongestants are recommended to use in which of the following patients?
7. A 70-year-old woman with a history of atrial fibrillation takes digoxin and verapamil to control her health problem. Verapamil achieves a therapeutic effect by
8. A patient has been prescribed a Scheduled 5 drug, an example of this drug is
9. A 79-year-old patient in a long-term care facility is to receive an intravenous fat emulsion. Which of the following lab values would be a priority for the nurse to assess before administration?
10. A 22 year old patient is transitioning from oral agents to insulin. He will be taking 20 units of lantus at bedtime and regular insulin before meals. What instructions should the NP provide about the timing and dose of regular insulin?
11. Topical inhaled alpha adrenergic blocking agents or nasal vasoconstricting decongestants should not be used chronically (>5 days) because they can cause
12. The Nurse Practitioner is treating a patient that takes frequent doses of antacids for his heartburn and is also taking an enteric coded aspirin. What instructions should be provided to the patient?
13. A Nurse Practitioner who provides care on an acute medicine unit has frequently recommended the use of nicotine replacement gum for patients who express a willingness to quit smoking during their admission or following their discharge. For which of the following patients would nicotine gum be contraindicated?
14. A 47-year-old woman has been diagnosed with open-angle glaucoma. Pilocarpine drops are prescribed. The nurse's assessment reveals that the patient has worn soft contact lenses for 15 years. The nurse will instruct the patient to
15. A 33-year-old woman has irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). The physician has prescribed simethicone (Mylicon) for her discomfort. Which of the following will the nurse monitor most closely during the patient's drug therapy?
16. A 49-year-old woman has been diagnosed with myalgia. The physician has recommended aspirin. The patient is concerned that the aspirin will upset her stomach. The nurse will encourage the patient to
17. A clinic Nurse Practitioner has been assigned a 49-year-old female patient who has a history of diabetes. A recent diagnosis of hypertension has been made, and the patient has been prescribed a thiazide diuretic and labetalol. The patient will be scheduled to return to the clinic once a month for the next 6 months. A priority action by the Nurse Practitioner will be to
18. The APRN is treating a 56 year old male with diagnosed atrial fibrillation. He is complaining of being light headed. His vital signs are BP 100/68 HR 144 RR 22. The best choice of medication to treat this patient is:
19. A patient with a recent diagnosis of acute renal failure has a long-standing seizure disorder which has been successfully controlled for several years with antiseizure medications. The nurse should recognize that the patient's compromised renal function will likely
20. Federal legislation dictates a lengthy and rigorous process of testing for new drugs. What is the primary purpose of this testing process?
21. A normal maintenance dose for digoxin is 0.125 to 0.5 mg/day. In which of the following patients would the nurse most likely administer a lower-than-normal maintenance dose of digoxin?
22. Shirley, age 58, has been diabetic for 7 years. Her blood pressure for the last three office visits have been 154/100, 144/94, and 144/90. What would you prescribe today during her routine office visit?
23. A 22-year-old male college senior has lived with a diagnosis of Crohn's disease for several years and has undergone several courses of treatment with limited benefit. Which of the following targeted therapies has the potential to alleviate the symptoms of Crohn's disease?
24. A Nurse Practitioner has been following a male patient who is taking hydralazine, clonidine, and a diuretic for hypertension. After 2 weeks of medication therapy, the patient begins to complain of numbness and tingling in his hands and feet. The Nurse Practitioner suspects that these signs or symptoms are
25. A patient with a variety of chronic health problems is being seen by her nurse practitioner, who is currently reviewing the patient's medication regimen. Which of the patient's medications should prompt the nurse to teach her to avoid drinking grapefruit juice?
26. A Nurse Practitioner is caring for a patient who has recently moved from Vermont to south Florida. The patient has been on the same antihypertensive drug for 6 years and has had stable blood pressures and no adverse effects. Since her move, however, she reports "dizzy spells and weakness" and feels that the drug is no longer effective. The Nurse Practitioner suspects that the change in the effectiveness of the drug is related to
27. A 70-year-old woman has experienced peripheral edema and decreasing stamina in recent months and has sought care from her primary care provider. The patient's subsequent diagnostic workup has resulted in a diagnosis of chronic heart failure. The woman has been prescribed digoxin and the nurse has begun patient education. What should the nurse teach the patient about her new medication?
28. A 79-year-old woman who takes several medications for a variety of chronic health problems has been prescribed an oral antiplatelet aggregator that is to be taken once daily. The nurse has encouraged the woman to take the pill at the same time of day that she takes some of her other medications. What is the most likely rationale for the nurse's advice?
29. Which of the following statements best defines how a chemical becomes termed a drug?
30. The APRN is caring for a patient taking a calcium channel blockers for hypertension. The APRN should monitor the patient for what common side effects of this medication?
31. A Nurse Practitioner is teaching a patient about his newly prescribed drug, colchicine, for gout. The Nurse Practitioner will instruct the patient to avoid which of the following foods?
32. A Nurse Practitioner has been administering a drug to a patient intramuscularly (IM). The physician discontinued the IM dose and wrote an order for the drug to be given orally. The Nurse Practitioner notices that the oral dosage is considerably higher than the parenteral dose and understands that this due to
33. A patient has been prescribed rabeprazole (Aciphex). It will be important for the nurse to assess the patient's drug history to determine if the patient is taking which of the following drugs?
34. A male patient is to begin treatment for pneumonia with an albuterol (Ventolin) inhaler. The nurse will advise the patient that he will most likely experience which of the following common adverse effects of the drug?
35. A Nurse Practitioner is caring for a 73-year-old man who is receiving drug therapy. He is beginning to exhibit signs of decline in his renal system, yet his current serum creatinine level is normal. The Nurse Practitioner will base the patient's plan of care on the understanding that there is
36. The APRN is seeing Mrs. Smith, age 77, who is here for follow up of hypertension, dyslipidemia, and depression. What should you consider during her follow-up?
37. The most effective therapy for a patient who is H. pylori positive with a gastric ulcer is:
38. A Nurse Practitioner is instructing a patient who was recently diagnosed with multiple sclerosis about dantrolene (Dantrium). The patient is a 38-year-old-male and the foreman for a construction company. In order to minimize one important adverse effect of the drug, the nurse will give the patient which of the following instructions?
39. Mr. Nguyen, age 71, will soon be discharged home from the hospital after a successful coronary artery bypass graft (CABG). During patient education about his drug regimen, Mr. Nguyen's nurse should prioritize teach about
40. A male patient is to begin glyburide (Diabeta) for type 2 diabetes. Before the drug therapy begins, a priority action by the nurse will be to assess the patient's
41. Which of the following would be an expected outcome in a patient who has been given atropine during a medical emergency?
42. To minimize the risk of adverse effects of glucagon when given to an unconscious diabetic patient, as the patient regains consciousness, the nurse should
43. Mrs. Houston is a 78-year-old woman who resides in an assisted living facility. Her doctor prescribed digoxin at her last visit to the clinic and she has approached the nurse who makes regular visits to the assisted-living facility about this new drug. What teaching point should the nurse emphasize to Mrs. Houston?
44. Advanced practice nurse prescribing of scheduled medications is affected most by:
45. A patient has GERD and is taking ranitidine (Zantac). She continues to have gastric discomfort and asks whether she can take an antacid. Which of the following is an appropriate response by the nurse?
46. What critical piece of information is missing from the following medication order: Amoxicillin 250 mg every 8 hours?
47. Which of the following patients is most likely to benefit from the administration of an adrenergic agonist?
48. A Nurse Practitioner is instructing a patient in the administration of regular insulin by the subcutaneous route. Which of the following strategies would the Nurse Practitioner suggest if the goal is to promote absorption of the regular insulin?
49. A female patient with a diagnosis of type 1 diabetes mellitus has been experiencing increasing neuropathic pain in recent months, a symptom that has not responded appreciably to conventional analgesics. The patient's care provider has begun treatment with gabapentin (Neurontin). How is the addition of this drug likely to influence the management of the patient's existing drug regimen?
50. The parents of a 7-year-old boy who has just been diagnosed with allergic asthma are being taught about their son's medication regimen by the nurse. The nurse is currently teaching the parent's about the appropriate use of a "rescue drug" for acute exacerbations of their son's asthma. What drug should the nurse suggests the parents to use in these situations?
51. A female patient has been taking zafirlukast for a week and is experiencing diarrhea. The nurse should instruct her to do which of the following?
52. You are seeing a 55 year old patient recently diagnosed with a bleeding ulcer. What should be the initial treatment choice for this patient?
53. A 72-year-old female patient is prescribed ipratropium aerosol for pulmonary emphysema. The nurse will instruct her to "test spray" the new metered-dose inhaler (MDI) three times before using it to prevent which of the following?
54. The APRN is treating a patient with type 2 diabetes. The patient is on the maximum dose of metformin and glucotrol. Current weight 212 pounds. Labs from this morning indicate a fasting blood sugar of 312 and HbA1C of 9. The APRN wants to start the patient on Lantus 0.2 unit/kg. What dose and instructions should the APRN provide?
55. A Nurse Practitioner is instructing a patient concerning a newly prescribed drug. Which of the following should be included to help improve patient compliance and safety?
56. Following an assessment by her primary care provider, a 70-year-old resident of an assisted living facility has begun taking daily oral doses of levothyroxine. Which of the following assessment findings should prompt the nurse to withhold a scheduled dose of levothyroxine?
57. Several months of treatment with a statin accompanied by lifestyle modifications have failed to appreciably improve a patient's cholesterol levels. Consequently, the patient has been prescribed cholestyramine. The nurse should recognize that this drugs achieves its therapeutic effect by
58. A patient comes to the clinic asking for help to quit drinking alcohol. She has a 21-year history of heavy drinking and is worried about developing cirrhosis of the liver. The patient agrees to take disulfiram (Antabuse). The nurse will teach the patient that the combination of alcohol and Antabuse will cause which of the following?
59. The Nurse Practitioner is performing patient education for a woman who will soon begin treatment of hyperlipidemia with simvastatin (Zocor). The patient has asked the Nurse Practitioner if there are any "bad side effects" that she should be aware of. Which of the following statements should underlie the nurse's response?
60. A Nurse Practitioner is caring for a 70-year-old patient who is taking desmopressin (DDAVP). The patient has a history of cardiovascular disease. The nurse will prioritize the assessment of which of the following?
61. The APRN should educate a diabetic patient that beta blockers may mask the signs and symptoms of
62. A Nurse Practitioner is caring for a patient who has been diagnosed with hypothyroidism. Levothyroxine (Synthroid) has been prescribed. Before the drug therapy is started, the nurse will assess for which of the following?
63. A Nurse Practitioner working for a drug company is involved in phase III drug evaluation studies. Which of the following might the Nurse Practitioner be responsible for during this stage of drug development?
64. A 29-year-old female patient has been prescribed orlistat (Xenical) for morbid obesity. The nurse is providing patient education concerning the drug. An important instruction to the patient would be to
65. A Nurse Practitioner who provides care in a busy clinic is aware of the high incidence and prevalence of hyperlipidemia and the consequent need for antihyperlipidemics in many patients. Treatment of high cholesterol using statins would be contraindicated in which of the following patients?
66. A 48-year-old woman who works as an office manager is prescribed metoclopramide (Reglan) for diabetic gastroparesis. The nurse will be sure to assess the patient for
67. A 24-year-old factory worker has been prescribed guaifenesin for the first time. Which of the following will be a priority assessment by the nurse before the patient's first dose?
68. A Nurse Practitioner is caring for a patient who is taking digoxin and a loop diuretic. Which of the following would be most important for the Nurse Practitioner to monitor?
69. A Nurse Practitioner who is responsible for administering medications should understand that the goals of the MedWatch program are to (Select all that apply.)
70. A 76-year-old woman has a complex medical history that includes emphysema, osteoporosis, malnutrition, and hypothyroidism. Recently, the woman fell outside her home as a result of weakness and suffered a fracture to her femoral head. The woman's subsequent hip-replacement surgery has been scheduled and the care team recognizes that the use of isoflurane will be most significantly influenced by
71. A Nurse Practitioner is providing discharge instructions to a patient who will be taking fludrocortisone at home. The Nurse Practitioner will encourage the patient to eat a diet that is
72. A Nurse Practitioner is overseeing the care of a young man whose ulcerative colitis is being treated with oral prednisone. Which of the following actions should the Nurse Practitioner take in order to minimize the potential for adverse drug effects and risks associated with prednisone treatment?
73. A 62-year-old man has been prescribed lovastatin. The Nurse Practitioner will instruct the patient to take the medication
74. A patient with unstable angina pectoris who is NOT controlled with a nitrate would likely benefit most from the addition of:
75. To maximize the therapeutic effect of diphenoxylate HCl with atropine sulfate, the nurse will instruct the patient to take the medication
76. A 70-year-old man who enjoys good health began taking low-dose aspirin several months ago based on recommendations that he read in a magazine article. During the man's most recent visit to his care provider, routine blood work was ordered and the results indicated an unprecedented rise in the man's serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) levels. How should a nurse best interpret these findings?
77. A woman with numerous chronic health problems has been diagnosed with a benign gastric ulcer has begun treatment with ranitidine (Zantac). Which of the following teaching points should the nurse provide to this patient?
78. A Nurse Practitioner is providing care for a patient who suffered extensive burns to his extremities during a recent industrial accident. Topical lidocaine gel has been ordered to be applied to the surfaces of all his burns in order to achieve adequate pain control. When considering this order, the Nurse Practitioner should be aware that
79. A 66-year-old woman has a complex medical history that includes poorly-controlled type 1 diabetes, renal failure as a result of diabetic nephropathy and chronic heart failure (CHF). Her care provider has recently added spironolactone (Aldactone) to the woman's medication regimen. The nurse should consequently assess for signs and symptoms of
80. A patient is taking cholestyramine. The Nurse Practitioner will assess for which of the following common adverse effects of the drug?
81. A patient with seasonal allergies is exasperated by her recent nasal congestion and has expressed her desire to treat it by using pseudoephedrine. The nurse should inform the patient that
82. A Nurse Practitioner is conducting an assessment of a patient who has recently had several changes made to her drug regimen. What assessment question most directly addresses the safety implications of the patient's drug regimen?
83. A female patient is taking 0.125 mg of digoxin daily for heart failure. At a recent clinic visit she reports that since she has been on the drug, she can breathe better and her heart rate has been around 74 beats per minute. The nurse weighs the patient and notices that she has gained 10 pounds since the digoxin therapy was started. The patient is concerned that the additional weight will necessitate an increase in the medication. Which of the following is an appropriate response by the nurse?
84. A patient has a history of tonic-clonic seizures that have been successfully treated with phenytoin (Dilantin) for several years. Phenytoin achieves a therapeutic effect by
85. A patient with type 1 diabetes has been admitted to the hospital for orthopedic surgery and the care team anticipates some disruptions to the patient's blood glucose levels in the days following surgery. Which of the following insulin regimens is most likely to achieve adequate glycemic control?
86. A Nurse Practitioner is providing care for a 71-year-old woman who was sponsored to emigrate from Mexico to the United States 6 months ago. Earlier this week, the woman slipped while getting off a bus and fractured her hip. How should the woman's nurse best exemplify cultural competence in the care of this patient?
87. A diabetic patient being treated for obesity tells the Nurse Practitioner that he is having adverse effects from his drug therapy. The patient has been taking dextroamphetamine for 2 weeks as adjunct therapy. Which of the following adverse effects would need the Nurse Practitioner's immediate attention?
88. An older adult who lives in a long-term care facility has recently begun taking losartan (Cozaar) for the treatment of hypertension. The nurse who provides care for this resident should recognize that this change in the resident's medication regimen make create a risk for
89. A patient is being treated for respiratory infection. He is a recovering alcoholic and has impaired liver function. The nurse will instruct the patient to be especially cautious when taking
90. A 75-year-old woman is prescribed magnesium hydroxide for constipation. The nurse's assessment reveals that the patient is being treated for rheumatoid arthritis and hypertension. The patient lives in assisted living and is on a low-sodium diet. Before the magnesium hydroxide therapy begins, it will be most important for the nurse to assess the patient's
91. A patient who takes aluminum hydroxide with magnesium hydroxide (Mylanta) frequently for upset stomach, heartburn, and sour stomach is seen regularly in the clinic. The nurse should assess which of the following?
92. A 62 year old male who had a myocardial infarction one year ago is being seen for hypertension. Which medication has the best evidence in mortality reduction?
93. A 77-year-old patient has a long-standing history of hypertension, a health problem that is being treated with metoprolol and a thiazide diuretic. Before administering the 8 AM dose of these medications, what assessments should the nurse perform and document? (Select all that apply.)
94. A 60-year-old African-American man lives with a number of chronic health problems. Genetic factors are likely to influence his etiology and/or treatment of
95. A 67-year-old man is admitted to the hospital with pneumonia. He reports to the nurse that he has chronic arthritis and circulation problems. Further assessment by the nurse reveals that the patient has a history of mild hypertension. He explains that he owns a business and lives alone. The nurse determines that he is within the normal weight range for his height and age but has a fondness for spicy foods and sweets. Which of the mentioned patient variables will have the greatest impact on the effectiveness of the patient's drug therapy?
96. A patient with class-IV CHF has a medication regimen consisting of metoprolol (Lopressor), enalapril (Vasotec), and furosemide (Lasix). In addition to regularly assessing the patient s heart rate, the nurse should prioritize assessment of the patient's
97. The Nurse Practitioner is conducting a medication reconciliation of a new resident of a long-term care facility. The Nurse Practitioner notes that the resident takes allopurinol on a daily basis for the treatment of gout. What is the primary purpose of this drug?
98. A Nurse Practitioner is providing patient education to a 35-year-old man who has been prescribed clonidine (Catapres) as part of step 2 antihypertensive therapy. The Nurse Practitioner should anticipate that the drug will be administered
99. A 79-year-old woman with a medical history that includes osteoporosis has recently moved to a long-term care facility. Medication reconciliation indicates that the woman has been taking calcitonin, salmon for several years. The nurse should recognize that the most likely route for the administration of this drug is
100. A 58-year-old man is prescribed dicyclomine (Bentyl) for irritable bowel syndrome. In which of the following conditions is dicyclomine therapy contraindicated?