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Test Bank for Social Psychology 5th Canadian Edition correct answered questions and answers solution latest update

Test Bank for Social Psychology 5th Canadian Edition correct answered questions and answers solution latest update Student: ___________________________________________________________________________ 1. The most researched topic in psychology today is A. the self. B. attitudes. C. cultural influence. D. problem solving. 2. Your description of what qualities encompass who you are defines your A. self-esteem. B. possible self. C. self-concept. D. social identity. 3. John works out everyday. He also tends to notice others' bodies and athletic skills. Compared to Tim, who never works out and doesn't pay any attention to others' physiques, John probably has A. "athletic" as part of his self-schema. B. a higher self-reference effect. C. less self-handicapping. D. more positive possible selves. 4. The images of what we dream of or dread becoming in the future constitute our ___________ selves. A. unlikely B. imaginary C. future D. possible 5. Psychologists would consider your dream of becoming a famous politician and your recurrent fear of being unemployed to be part of your A. self-esteem. B. possible self. C. anticipatory self. D. unlikely self. 6. Our self-concept is often shaped by A. the surrounding culture. B. our successes and failures. C. other people's judgments. D. all of these choices. 7. The aspect of our self-concept that comes from our group memberships is called A. collective efficacy. B. social identity. C. personal identity. D. social comparison. 8. We are more likely to be conscious of our social identity when our social group A. is in the majority. B. is in the minority. C. is esteemed by others. D. is threatened. 9. According to social identity theory, when is Rose most likely to be aware of being female? A. on a date with her boyfriend. B. at a night-club with her female friends. C. at home with her brothers and sisters. D. at a piano recital with her male friends. 10. Imagine that John is a white man attending a multi-racial support group for stay-at-home-parents. There are 40% Whites, 30% Blacks, and 30% Hispanics attending. Ninety percent of the group are mothers. John is most likely to be conscious of his identity as A. a parent. B. a White person. C. a man. D. an unemployed person. 11. Our perceiving ourselves as musical, intellectual, artistic, or assertive constitutes our A. egocentric beliefs. B. interdependent self. C. self-schemas. D. self-references. 12. If you wanted to improve the self-evaluations of your sales staff, when would be the best time to show them a video celebrating the achievements of a top sales representative? A. When they are being newly trained for the job. B. After their first few months on the job. C. After at least one year on the job. D. All of these choices. 13. Monica was participating in a psychology experiment and was asked to discuss her sense of who she is. She mentioned that she is a psychology major, volleyball player, Canadian, woman, daughter, sister, and a volunteer. This definition of who Monica is best encompasses her A. social comparisons. B. self-esteem. C. self-concept. D. social identity. 14. Children that have just learned how to read tend to have more positive school self-concepts in classes with fewer students that know how to read. This fact reflects A. the self-reference effect. B. self-handicapping. C. self-concept D. social comparison processes. 15. According to ____________ theory, a ballet dancer who excelled during her time with a local dance company may find her self-esteem threatened once she joins a nationally famous dance company. A. social identity B. self-monitoring C. social comparison D. self-schema 16. We come to know ourselves in part by looking at others and evaluating our abilities and opinions in light of those others. This process is known as A. social comparison. B. social identity. C. the self-reference effect. D. self-esteem. 17. Which of the following statements is true? A. Problems and failures can cause low self-esteem. B. Low self-esteem can cause problems and failures. C. Both A and B. D. None of these choices. 18. When climbing the ladder of success we tend to look A. up, not down B. down, not up C. from side to side D. straight ahead 19. Jessica attends a friend's wedding wearing last year's fashions. Jessica feels as if everyone is looking at her and noticing her dress, and as a result, feels very self-conscious and uncomfortable. Her self-evaluations are related to the concepts of A. naturalistic and self-evaluative fallacies. B. implicit and explicit processing. C. the looking-glass self and social comparisons. D. social comparison and the dual attitude system. 20. Cooley (1902) argued that we come to know ourselves by seeing our reflection in how we appear to others. Other people's judgments, then, help to shape what he called A. the social self. B. the perceived self. C. the looking-glass self. D. self-appraisal. 21. In your first year of university, it appeared that all your professors thought you were a very competent student. As a result, you enter second year confident of your academic abilities. This is an example of A. the self-referencing effect. B. the looking-glass self. C. the self-monitoring effect. D. the self-serving bias. 22. Individualism is A. the concept of giving priority to one's own goals over group goals and dealing one's identity in terms of personal attributions rather than group identification. B. the concept of giving in to somebody else's goals over individual goals and dealing with one's identity in terms of group identification rather than personal attributions. C. identification with one's country. D. identification with two or more people. 23. Individualism is most prevalent in A. small cultural groups. B. large cultural groups. C. industrialized western cultures. D. developing countries. 24. Collectivism refers to A. one's identity as a person. B. giving priority to the goals of one's groups (often one's extended family or work group) and defining one's identity accordingly. C. giving priority to the individual in the culture and identifying with the culture. D. none of these choices. 25. Identity in individualistic cultures is A. private issues-contained. B. self-contained. C. family issues-contained. D. ideal self-contained. 26. Collectivism is to _______________ as individualism is to ________________. A. individual; self. B. self; individual. C. group; individual. D. individual; group. 27. In Western culture it is generally assumed that one's life will be enriched by defining _______ and believing in _________. A. your possible selves; the power of your unique culture. B. your collective self; the power of your unique culture. C. your unique self; your power of personal control. D. your possible selves; your power of personal control. 28. Western culture celebrates the ________ individual more than the person who __________. A. creative; follows others B. self-reliant; fulfills others expectations C. active; is passive D. cooperative; is self-reliant 29. Which statement is not reflective of Western culture? A. "I did it my way." B. "I gotta be me." C. "I should respect and follow my parents' values." D. "The greatest love of all is loving oneself." 30. Which of the following is seen less in cultures where individualism flourishes? A. traditional values B. mobility C. urbanism D. mass media 31. People who have ________________ are more self-critical. A. interdependent selves B. dependent selves C. individualistic selves D. none of the above 32. Which of the following does not apply to a person with an interdependent self? A. They are self-critical. B. They have a low need for positive self-regard. C. Their identity is defined in relation with others. D. They are self-centred. 33. Which of the following groups tend to define themselves more in terms of their group identity? A. Americans B. Japanese C. Australians D. British 34. With an interdependent self, one has a greater sense of A. self-esteem. B. belonging. C. his/her culture. D. his/her social support. 35. Jana is a first-year university student and is very critical of her own success in school. She doesn't need others to affirm her success, but she feels it is very important to please her family and succeed so that she can honour those she loves. Jana is likely from which of the following places? A. Britain B. Australia C. Malaysia D. Ireland 36. Marlon has just graduated with a business degree, and is starting his career at a large corporation. He feels confident in his abilities and defines himself as a business man who worked hard to achieve his own success. He strongly believes that the harder he works the more rewards he will earn for himself in the future. Marlon is likely from which of the following places? A. Japan B. Australia C. Malaysia D. South America 37. When discussing the relationship between individualism-collectivism, some researchers argue that A. these distinctions are rooted in evolutionary forces that shaped status hierarchies and affiliation needs. B. self-concept is shaped independent of whether one's culture is individualistic or collectivistic. C. there are few regional or political variations within a particular culture as they endorse the broader culture viewpoint. D. pigeonholing cultures as one or the other oversimplifies the variation within each culture. 38. "They have not one self but many selves." This statement defines people who have a/an A. dependent self. B. independent self. C. interdependent self. D. mature self. 39. In his study on cultural differences in thought, Nisbett compared groups of American and Japanese students' perception of an underwater scene with fish. Which statement reflects his findings? A. Japanese students recalled more peripheral features and spoke of objects in terms of relationships than American students. B. Japanese students recalled more of the central features of the scene (the fish) than American students. C. American students recalled more of the background features of the scene and spoke about how they would make the scene better if they designed it. D. American students recalled the central and background features at the same level of accuracy, whereas Japanese students recalled background features better than central. 40. According to the text, several researchers investigated the effects of people's intuition about what factors affect their mood. Their results show that A. there is a high correlation between people's perceptions of how well a factor predicted their mood and how well it actually did so B. there is low correlation between people's perceptions of how well a factor predicted their mood and how well it actually did so C. there is a moderate correlation between people's perceptions of how well a factor predicted their mood and how well it actually did so D. there is no correlation what so ever between people's perceptions of how well a factor predicted their mood and how well it actually did so 41. According to the text, people A. err frequently when predicting the fate of their relationships. B. make accurate predictions when it comes to predicting the fate of their relationships. C. receive less accurate than their own from parents and roommates when it comes to predicting the fate of their relationships. D. are likely less accurate when predicting negative behaviours than positive behaviours. 42. Research on self-knowledge suggests that A. you are the best judge of how your romantic relationship will turn out. B. your mother is a better judge than you of how your romantic relationship will turn out. C. your romantic partner is the best judge of how your romantic relationship will turn out. D. None of these choices. 43. Epley and Dunning (2000) discovered that we can A. better predict people's behaviour by asking them to predict others' actions rather than their own. B. better predict people's behaviour by asking them to talk about their behaviour in the past. C. better predict people's behaviour by asking them what their behaviour is going to be. D. not predict people's behaviour irrespective of what strategy we use. 44. According to research cited in your text, people have difficulty predicting A. the intensity of their future emotions. B. the duration of their future emotions. C. the intensity and duration of their future emotions. D. any behaviour. 45. According to research in your text, people overestimate the enduring impact of emotion-causing negative events. For example, A. people tested for HIV predict that they will feel misery over bad news and elation over good news, but research shows that five weeks later it is more likely for the bad news recipients to be less distraught than the good news recipients. B. people tested for HIV predict that they will feel misery over bad news and elation over good news, but research shows that five weeks later the bad news recipients are more distraught than they anticipated and the good news recipients are not as elated as they thought they will be. C. people tested for HIV predict that they will feel misery over bad news and elation over good news, but research shows that five weeks later the bad news recipients are more distraught than they anticipated originally and the good news recipients more elated than they thought they will be. D. people tested for HIV predict that they will feel misery over bad news and elation over good news, but research shows that five weeks later it is more unlikely for the bad news recipients to be less distraught than the good news recipients. 46. Carlos often thinks about his future and looks forward to graduating, getting married, and having children. He feels strongly that these events will make him a very happy man and he will feel a deep sense of contentment and satisfaction. According to the research by Wilson and Gilbert (2003) that has found that people often mispredict how they will feel at some point in the future, Carlos' beliefs about his future happiness A. will be accurate because he knows himself and his feelings very well. B. have no relationship to how he will actually feel in the future. C. will be more accurate than his friend's predictions of how happy these events would make Carlos. D. will not be accurate because we are vulnerable to the impact bias. 47. Jan waited weeks to learn if she would land her dream job, then found out that she did get the job. When she finally starts the new job, which scenario is most likely to be true? A. She is much happier than she had expected. B. She is less happy than she had expected. C. She is more worried about her performance than she had expected. D. She is less happy than if she had not gotten the job. 48. Gilbert and his colleagues (2004) report that A. major trauma can be much more distressing than minor routine irritations (e.g., getting caught in traffic each morning on your way to work). B. major negative events can be less enduringly distressing than minor irritations. C. major negative events are just as hard to endure as minor irritations. D. we are not resilient to intense emotional experiences. 49. Wilson et al. (1989; 2002) found that A. people's expressed attitudes toward things, situations, or people usually do not predict later behaviour well, nor does the over analysis of their feelings. B. people's expressed attitudes toward things, situations, or people usually do not predict later behaviour well, and over analysis of their feelings also renders future behaviour predictions useless. C. people's expressed attitudes toward things, situations, or people usually predict later behaviour well, as does the over analysis of their feelings. D. people's expressed attitudes toward things, situations, or people usually predict later behaviour well; over analysis of their feelings, however, renders future behaviour predictions useless. 50. Research suggests that drawing people's attention to ____________ diminishes the usefulness of attitude reports in predicting behaviours driven by ____________. A. values underlying their behaviour; self-esteem B. reasons for their behaviour; feelings C. feelings underlying their behaviour; physical safety D. reasons for their behaviour; cognitions 51. Why might a large-scale survey not be the best method for a social psychologist to study self-knowledge? A. It is too difficult to achieve a truly representative sample. B. One cannot reach cause-and-effect conclusions through survey research. C. It is impossible to measure a person's self-knowledge. D. Self-report data are often unreliable. 52. Which of the following is a practical implication of findings discussed in the chapter on the self? A. The sincerity with which people report their experience is one useful indicator of their testimony's accuracy. B. Self-reports are less erroneous and more trustworthy than the reports of external observers. C. The persuasiveness of personal testimonies is highly predictive of their accuracy. D. Introspective self-reports are often untrustworthy. 53. The notion that we often have implicit attitudes that differ from our explicit attitudes defines the concept of A. an independent self-construal. B. dissonance. C. the self-reference effect. D. dual attitudes. 54. According to the concept of dual attitudes, although __________ attitudes may change with education and persuasion, ___________ attitudes change slowly, with practice that forms new habits. A. implicit; explicit B. explicit; implicit C. reasons; feelings D. feelings; reasons 55. A person's overall self-evaluation or sense of self-worth constitutes his or her A. self-efficacy. B. self-awareness. C. possible self. D. self-esteem. 56. The bottom-up view of self-esteem means A. people have high self-esteem when they feel good in particular domains important to their self-esteem. B. people who value themselves in a general way-those with high self-esteem are more likely to accept their looks and abilities. C. self-esteem has multiple causes. D. self-evaluation happens before self-esteem. 57. According to the "top-down" theory of global self-esteem, if Jerzy feels _______ about himself in general, he is likely to feel _________ about his ability to pass an exam. A. positive; positive B. positive; negative C. negative; positive D. either B or C 58. The top-down view of self-esteem holds that A. people with generally high self-esteem are more likely to accept their specific attributes. B. people with positive specific attributes are more likely to have high self-esteem. C. people with low self-esteem are more likely to accept their specific attributes. D. people with positive specific attributes are more likely to struggle with low self-esteem. 59. According to research by Abraham Tesser, who among the following is likely to have the strongest motive for self-esteem maintenance? A. An adult whose spouse depends on him or her for support. B. An adult whose opposite-sex sibling has been fired from his or her job. C. A child whose parents have moderate hopes for him or her. D. An older child whose younger sibling is very talented. 60. Emily and her two sisters are all musicians. According to research on the self-esteem maintenance model, Emily will be most motivated to act in ways that maintain her own self-esteem if A. she is the best musician of the three. B. her older sister is a better musician than she is. C. her younger sister is a better musician than she is. D. of the three, she is the least interested in a music career. 61. According to Leary (1998, 1999) self-esteem feelings are like a fuel gauge in that they alert us threatened social rejection, motivating us to A. stay away from people we don't like. B. be more empathetic to others people's situations. C. act with greater sensitivity to other's expectations. D. act with less sensitivity to other people's expectations. 62. In an experiment by Bushman and Baumeister (1998), high-self-esteem individuals who had previously been criticized by their opponent were A. more likely to lose a reaction time game with that person. B. more likely to win a reaction time game with that person. C. exceptionally aggressive after beating their opponent (compared to those with low self-esteem). D. less aggressive after beating their opponent (compared to those with low self-esteem). 63. Which group of people is more likely to be obnoxious, to interrupt, and to talk at people rather than with them? A. People with low self-esteem. B. People with high self-esteem. C. Depressed people. D. Individualistic people. 64. Baumeister and colleagues (2003) have researched the "dark side of self-esteem" and found that individuals with low self-esteem, when feeling bad or threatened, are more likely to A. notice and remember others' worst behaviours and to think others don't love them. B. internalize their feelings and act aggressively towards themselves. C. portray themselves as having high self-esteem in attempts to deny or overcome their feelings. D. act aggressively against others in order to conceal their inner insecurities and feel a sense of control over their situation. 65. According to the text, which people are more likely to be shy, modest, and self-effacing? A. People with low self-esteem. B. People with high self-esteem. C. Depressed people. D. Individualistic people. 66. Which group of people is somewhat more vulnerable to assorted clinical problems including anxiety, loneliness, and eating disorders? A. Individualistic people. B. People with low self-esteem. C. People with high self-esteem. D. Narcissistic people. 67. Which people, when feeling bad or threatened, are more likely to notice and remember others worst behaviours and to think their partners don't love them? A. people with low self-esteem. B. people with high self-esteem. C. competitive people. D. individualistic people. 68. Jenny, who has low self-esteem, has also recently experienced difficulties in her relationship with her boyfriend Travis. She A. does not appreciate the love and affection Travis feels toward her, and lacks security in their relationship. B. does not appreciate the love and affection Travis feels toward her, but feels secure in their relationship. C. appreciates the love and affection Travis feels toward her, but lacks security in their relationship. D. appreciates the love and affection Travis feels toward her, and feels secure in their relationship. 69. Low self-esteem predicts increased risk of drug abuse, some forms of delinquency, and A. schizophrenia. B. depression. C. personality disorders. D. child abuse. 70. When facing failure, high-self-esteem people sustain their self-worth by A. perceiving other people as failing, too, and by exaggerating their superiority over others. B. perceiving themselves as interdependent and thus as only part of a larger group effort. C. engaging in altruistic acts. D. refusing to think about the failure and by practising self-forgetfulness. 71. Teen males who engage in sexual activity at an "inappropriately young age" tend to A. suffer from depression. B. suffer from schizophrenia. C. have higher than average self-esteem. D. have lower than average self-esteem. 72. Teen gang leaders, bullies, and genocidal dictators tend to A. have higher than average self-esteem. B. suffer from schizophrenia. C. suffer from depression. D. have lower than average self-esteem. 73. When they find their favourable self-esteem threatened, people often react by A. putting others down, sometimes with violence B. telling a lie C. crying D. laughing 74. According to the text, when a youth with a big ego is threatened or deflated by social rejection, he or she is A. potentially dangerous. B. potentially an altruistic person. C. in danger of mental disorders. D. in danger of suicide. 75. In response to a threat to self-esteem, high-self-esteem people become considerably more A. co-operative. B. altruistic. C. antagonistic. D. individualistic. 76. James is a highly narcissistic male with a big ego. He participates in a psychology experiment where he first received negative feedback from another student about his performance on a writing task, and then played a game against this student and won. As a result of winning, James was given the task of deciding the intensity and duration of an aversive auditory stimulus that would be played to the other student. According to research, James would have administered ________ auditory torture compared to people with normal self-esteem because wounded pride motivates ___________. A. the same amount of; humility. B. more; retaliation. C. less; embarrassment. D. no; shame. 77. Research indicates that people with high self-esteem tend to A. be very modest when explaining their successes. B. note that there are as many weaknesses as there are strengths in their own group. C. see others' strengths as more important than their own. D. none of these choices. 78. Jordan and colleagues (2003, 2005) have found that individuals have two forms of self-esteem: explicit and implicit. When individuals show a high explicit self-esteem but negative implicit views of themselves, they are said to have ___________ self-esteem. On the other hand, high explicit self-esteem and positive implicit views are associated with _________ self-esteem. A. fragile; secure B. self-defeating; self-inflating C. incongruent; congruent D. unrealistic; realistic 79. Baumeister and Exline (2000) suggest that self-control A. operates like an engine: it needs fuel to keep it going. B. operates like muscular strength: it's weaker immediately after exertion but strengthened with exercise. C. operates like a finite resource: once used up, it cannot be replenished. D. none of these choices. 80. Martin Seligman notes a basic similarity between learned helplessness in dogs and _____________ in people. A. conformity B. collective efficacy C. schizophrenia D. depression 81. Which of the following situations best portrays learned helplessness? A. Feeling frightened about starting university after a successful high school career. B. Feeling depressed after failing your first exam in university. C. Not trying to make friends at university because you couldn't make friends in high school. D. Avoiding the purchase of lottery tickets because you've never won in the past. 82. Prisoners given some control over their environments (e.g., being able to move chairs, control TV sets, and switch the lights) A. become more manipulative of prison officials over time. B. commit less vandalism. C. experience greater stress and more health problems. D. experience stronger guilt feelings over past misconduct. 83. Given that every time he falls in love with a woman he gets dumped no matter how hard he tries to please her, John has decided not to get involved in any love relationships with women. John's behaviour most clearly demonstrates A. self-serving bias. B. unrealistic optimism. C. learned helplessness. D. a self-monitoring tendency. 84. Langer and Rodin found that nursing home residents improved in alertness, activity, and happiness if they were A. cared for by professionals who met all their needs. B. cared for by affectionate, sympathetic volunteers. C. periodically transported to visit close friends and relatives. D. asked to make personal choices and given responsibilities to fulfill. 85. The experience of repeated uncontrollable bad events contributes to A. an internal locus of control. B. an interdependent self. C. learned helplessness. D. self-efficacy. 86. After moving into a nursing home and experiencing little control over his daily schedule, Mr. Roark became apathetic, stopped eating, and even seemed to lose the will to live. Mr. Roark's reaction most clearly illustrates A. learned helplessness. B. the interdependent self. C. self-handicapping. D. internal locus of control. 87. Hospital patients trained to believe in their ability to control stress tend to A. require more pain relievers and sedatives. B. require fewer pain relievers and sedatives. C. seem more anxious to nurses attending them. D. seem more depressed to nurses attending them. 88. Sometimes people exhibit a tendency to perceive themselves more favourably than the situation really dictates. This is known as: A. the self-reference effect. B. self-serving bias. C. self-efficacy. D. internal locus of control. 89. Which of the following is least representative of a self-serving bias? A. "I won the election because my opponent didn't try very hard." B. "I won the election because of my hard work on the campaign trail." C. "I lost the election because of the political climate, which I couldn't do anything about." D. "I won the election because of my knowledge and expertise." 90. Which of the following statements is incorrect? A. Research on attribution theory challenges the notion that we tend to blame others for their own misfortune. B. Research on attribution theory supports the notion that most people suffer from unrealistically low self-esteem. C. Research on attribution theory challenges the notion that we strive to protect and enhance our self-esteem. D. True humility consists of self-forgetfulness. 91. In their study of young married Canadians, Ross and Sicoly reported a tendency for them to A. believe that their spouse contributed the most household work. B. believe that they themselves contributed the most household work. C. feel guilty about not carrying their fair share of work. D. feel confident that their household was run fairly and efficiently. 92. After receiving an examination grade, students who do well A. tend to accept personal credit. B. judge the exam to be a valid measure of their competence. C. tend to criticize the exam less than those who do poorly. D. All of these choices. 93. Jenny failed her last chemistry test. Which of the following conclusions would be most representative of a self-serving bias on Jenny's part? A. "I really didn't have the motivation to study for the test." B. "I lack competence in chemistry." C. "I think the test questions were ambiguous and confusing." D. "I didn't concentrate very hard during the test." 94. Research on the self-serving bias suggests that individual group members expect ______ rewards when their organization does well and ______ blame when it does not. A. greater-than-average; greater-than-average B. less-than-average; less-than-average C. greater-than-average; less-than-average D. less-than-average; greater-than-average 95. According to research, students are more likely to rate themselves superior in _______ than in ______. A. moral goodness; altruistic behaviour B. intelligence; altruistic behaviour C. discipline; judgment D. moral goodness; intelligence 96. Which of the following are not among the many facets of self-serving bias? A. Insight B. Freedom from bias C. Parental support D. Intelligence 97. Which of the following is particularly likely to increase our vulnerability to misfortune? A. A self-monitoring tendency B. Self-analysis C. An interdependent self D. Unrealistic optimism 98. Which of the following statements is true? A. Students who are overconfident tend to overprepare for exams. B. Students who are anxious about exams tend to blow off studying for them. C. Some pessimism about an exam can motivate students to study harder and do better. D. None of these choices. 99. In Scotland most late adolescents think they are much less likely than their peers to become infected by the AIDS virus. This best illustrates A. the false consensus bias. B. unrealistic optimism. C. the self-reference effect. D. external locus of control. 100. Lynne is an optimistic individual, and decides to go out one night to the casino to play some blackjack. Given her optimism, Lynne is most likely to A. win a bit of money, and then realistically quit while she is ahead. B. gamble away the money she had allotted herself, and then stop playing. C. persist in gambling her money, even when her losses are piling up. D. blame the dealer for her misfortunes and reward herself for her successes. 101. University students perceive themselves as far more likely than their classmates to _______________ and as far less likely to ________________. A. draw a good salary; develop a drinking problem B. obtain a divorce; own a home C. travel to Europe; be happy in their work D. become a mental patient; have close friendships 102. Nearly half of all marriages end in divorce. Yet in a study of 137 applying for a marriage license, most rated their own chance of divorce as zero. This finding illustrates A. false consensus. B. self-efficacy. C. unrealistic optimism. D. self-verification. 103. Jack cheats on his income taxes and consoles himself with the thought that everyone else probably cheats a little, too. This rationalization represents A. the fundamental attribution error. B. the false uniqueness effect. C. unrealistic optimism. D. the false consensus effect. 104. We tend to _________________ the commonality of our unsuccessful behaviours and ________________ the commonality of our successful behaviours. A. overestimate; underestimate B. underestimate; overestimate C. underestimate; underestimate D. overestimate; overestimate 105. Marla objects when Tim asks her to help write his social psychology paper. "Come on", Tim whines, "we wouldn't be the only ones. Everyone's working together on it! The teacher doesn't really expect us to work alone." Tim's argument most clearly illustrates the A. self-reference effect. B. fundamental attribution error. C. false uniqueness effect. D. false consensus effect. 106. Those who evade paying income tax but who give generously to charity will probably _______________ the number of others who evade taxes and ________________ the number of others who give generously to charity. A. overestimate; overestimate B. underestimate; overestimate C. overestimate; underestimate D. underestimate; underestimate 107. The tendency to overestimate the commonality of one's opinions and undesirable behaviours is known as the A. self-reference effect. B. self-handicapping syndrome. C. false uniqueness effect. D. false consensus effect. 108. The tendency to underestimate the commonality of one's abilities and desirable behaviours is known as A. the self-reference effect. B. self-handicapping. C. the false uniqueness effect. D. the false consensus effect. 109. Although Jeff frequently exceeds the speed limit by at least 10 kilometres per hour, he justifies his behaviour by erroneously thinking that most other drivers do the same. His mistaken belief best illustrates A. learned helplessness. B. false consensus. C. self-monitoring. D. an interdependent self. 110. Brian watches smugly as the car ahead of his is pulled over for speeding. Although he has just slowed his vehicle to the speed limit, he considers himself the "only one on the road" who is obeying the speed limit. Brian's thinking most clearly reflects A. the false uniqueness effect. B. the false consensus effect. C. the self-serving bias. D. the self-handicapping effect. 111. Those who drink heavily but use seat belts will _________ the number of other heavy drinkers and __________ the number of seat belt users. A. overestimate; overestimate B. underestimate; overestimate C. overestimate; underestimate D. underestimate; underestimate 112. Which of the following is most likely to trigger a false uniqueness effect in your thinking? A. Lying to a friend to avoid embarrassment B. Turning down the opportunity to help out at the local homeless shelter C. Volunteering to give blood D. Failing your first social psychology exam 113. A comparison between how the self is viewed now and how the self was viewed in the past or how the self is expected to be viewed in the future is referred to as A. time-self comparison. B. longitudinal comparison. C. past-present-future comparison. D. temporal comparison. 114. Research suggests that people maintain a positive view of themselves by downplaying (disparaging) their A. distant past selves and complimenting their recent past selves. B. recent past selves and complimenting their distant past selves. C. distant past selves and disparaging their future selves. D. present selves and complimenting their past selves. 115. Temporal comparison occurs when we compare who we are with A. who we should be. B. who we used to be or who we want to be. C. who we should not be. D. who others think we are. 116. Wilson and Ross's studies of social comparison show that university students maintain a positive view of themselves by A. disparaging (downplaying) their current selves and complimenting their past selves. B. disparaging their recent past selves and complimenting their distant past selves. C. disparaging their distant past selves and complimenting their recent past selves. D. complimenting both their past and current selves. 117. Ross and Wilson's (2002) study of temporal comparison shows that people perceive positive past selves as A. closer in time than negative past selves. B. further in time than negative past selves. C. as close as negative past selves. D. as distant as negative past selves. 118. Research on the self has made it clear that people are motivated A. to assess their competence. B. to verify their self-conceptions. C. to enhance their self-image. D. all of these choices. 119. Which of the following is not one of the major sources of the self-serving bias? A. false consensus B. unrealistic fallacy C. favourable social comparisons D. none of these choices 120. Depressed people tend to A. be more prone to self-serving bias than are non-depressed people. B. see themselves more accurately. C. see themselves more negatively than others see them. D. see themselves as better than average and yet are unrealistically pessimistic. 121. Which of the following is true of the self-serving bias? A. It can protect people from depression. B. It can make people more vulnerable to depression. C. It can lead to more accurate self-appraisals. D. None of these choices. 122. According to the text, self-serving bias A. can protect us from depression. B. contributes to group conflict. C. can motivate us to greater achievement. D. All of these choices. 123. Participants who worked in groups were given false feedback that they had done either well or poorly. Results indicated that, in comparison to the members of unsuccessful groups, A. members of successful groups claimed more responsibility for their group's performance. B. members of successful groups claimed less responsibility for their group's performance. C. males but not females of successful groups claimed more responsibility for their group's performance. D. females but not males of successful groups claimed more responsibility for their group's performance. 124. People are most likely to resort to self-handicapping when A. the quality of their performance on a task is not particularly important. B. their success or failure at a task will not become public. C. they fear failure. D. they are certain of success. 125. Which of the following represents a way in which people self-handicap? A. They report feeling depressed. B. They procrastinate on an important project. C. They reduce their preparation for an important individual athletic event. D. All of these choices. 126. David has an important tennis match in one week against the highest-rated player in the state. Instead of practising daily, David has actually reduced his playing time since knowing he would play such a formidable opponent. Which of the following may best describe David's behaviour? A. David has fallen victim to collective efficacy. B. David is making the fundamental attribution error. C. David is engaging in self-handicapping. D. David is demonstrating learned helplessness. 127. Experimental participants guessed answers to very difficult aptitude questions and were told they had done well. While they still felt lucky, they were given a choice of drugs to take before answering the remaining questions. Most chose to take the drug they believed would A. improve their intellectual functioning. B. disrupt their thinking. C. reduce anxiety. D. keep them awake and alert. 128. Creating a handy excuse for later failure in order to protect one's self-image is known as A. self-handicapping. B. self-serving bias. C. internal locus of control. D. self-monitoring. 129. Tomorrow morning Harry Smith has an interview that will determine whether he will be accepted into medical school. Rather than getting a good night's sleep, he is going to an all-night party with his friends. From the material presented in the text, which of the following may best describe Harry's behaviour? A. Harry unconsciously hopes he is not accepted into medical school. B. Harry is making the fundamental attribution error. C. Harry is engaging in self-handicapping. D. Harry shares with his friends a sense of collective efficacy. 130. The act of expressing oneself and behaving in ways designed to create a favourable impression or an impression that corresponds to one's ideals is referred to as A. self-justification. B. self-presentation. C. self-perception. D. self-management. 131. Self-presentation and self-monitoring reflect human efforts at A. self-efficacy. B. self-understanding. C. collective efficacy. D. impression management. 132. People who score high on a scale of _____________ tend to act like social chameleons: they adjust their behaviour in response to external situations. A. social absorption B. self-monitoring C. affective sensitivity D. self-perception 133. The tendency to self-present modesty and restrained optimism is probably highest in A. the United States. B. Canada. C. Europe. D. China. 134. Discuss the influences that help us construct our own self-concept. 135. Discuss how culture can influence cognition. 136. What is the dual attitude system? Describe this, and provide an example identifying how these attitudes differ and what the implications are for psychological research. 137. Discuss the evidence for the top-down view of self-esteem. From this perspective, how can we help people with low self-esteem? 138. What kinds of events or behaviours can threaten people with high self-esteem? How do people with high self-esteem react when their self-esteem is threatened? 139. What kinds of problems may be consequences of having a low self-esteem? 140. What is learned helplessness? Apply this to an example that a student could face in a university or classroom setting. 141. Give an example of false consensus and an example of false uniqueness. Clearly label which is which. 142. Is the self-serving bias adaptive or maladaptive? Defend your view.

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