Nursing 2058 ,Chapter 06: Vitamins Schlenker & Gilbert: Williams’ Essentials of Nutrition and Diet Therapy, 11th Edition - $18.49   Add to cart

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Nursing 2058 ,Chapter 06: Vitamins Schlenker & Gilbert: Williams’ Essentials of Nutrition and Diet Therapy, 11th Edition

Nursing 2058 ,Chapter 06: Vitamins Schlenker & Gilbert: Williams’ Essentials of Nutrition and Diet Therapy, 11th Edition Chapter 06: Vitamins Schlenker & Gilbert: Williams’ Essentials of Nutrition and Diet Therapy, 11th Edition MULTIPLE CHOICE 1. The chemical name for preformed vitamin A is: a. beta carotene. b. rhodopsin. c. retinaldehyde. d. retinol. ANS: D DIF: Easy REF: p. 102 MSC: Type of Question: Knowledge 2. The major provitamin form of vitamin A found in plant pigments is known as: a. beta carotene. b. chlorophyll. c. retinoid. d. beta xanthophyll. ANS: A DIF: Easy REF: p. 102 MSC: Type of Question: Knowledge 3. Liver stores of vitamin A are usually sufficient to last approximately: a. 1 week. b. 3 to 5 weeks. c. 6 to 12 months. d. 1 to 2 years. ANS: C DIF: Medium REF: p. 104 MSC: Type of Question: Knowledge 4. Vitamin A deficiency causes abnormal cell differentiation and results in: a. beriberi. b. pellagra. c. keratinization. d. kwashiorkor. ANS: C DIF: Medium REF: p. 105 MSC: Type of Question: Knowledge 5. A deficiency of vitamin A in the body may result in: a. night blindness. b. biliary obstruction. c. alopecia. d. color blindness. ANS: A DIF: Easy REF: p. 105 MSC: Type of Question: Knowledge 6. An example of a meal high in vitamin A is: a. cheese omelet. b. turkey sandwich. c. beans and rice. d. meatloaf and mashed potatoes. ANS: A Good sources of vitamin A include cheese and egg yolks. These would be found in a cheese omelet. Meat and poultry, grains, legumes, and potatoes are not good sources of vitamin A or precursor carotenoids. DIF: Medium REF: p. 107 MSC: Type of Question: Application 7. The condition resulting from hypovitaminosis A that can cause blindness is known as: a. cheilosis. b. xerophthalmia. c. pellagra. d. keratinization. ANS: B DIF: Medium REF: p. 105 MSC: Type of Question: Knowledge 8. The type of tissue that is most vulnerable to a vitamin A deficiency is: a. connective. b. nervous. c. epithelial. d. muscle. ANS: C DIF: Hard REF: p. 106 MSC: Type of Question: Knowledge 9. A vitamin that is essential to bone growth is vitamin: a. D. b. B12. c. E. d. C. ANS: A DIF: Easy REF: p. 109 MSC: Type of Question: Knowledge 10. The Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) for vitamin A is expressed in: a. milligrams (mg). b. micrograms (mcg). c. beta-carotene equivalents. d. vitamin equivalents. ANS: B DIF: Hard REF: p. 106 MSC: Type of Question: Knowledge 11. Spinach, carrots, and sweet potatoes are good sources of: a. beta carotene. b. retinol. c. vitamin D. d. vitamin E. ANS: A DIF: Medium REF: p. 108 MSC: Type of Question: Knowledge 12. The active hormonal form of vitamin D is synthesized by the combined action of the: a. skin, liver, and kidney. b. gallbladder, liver, and pancreas. c. thyroid gland, small intestine, and lymph system. d. colonic bacteria, kidney, and adrenal gland. ANS: A DIF: Medium REF: p. 107 MSC: Type of Question: Knowledge 13. The primary function of vitamin D is to regulate absorption and metabolism of: a. iron and zinc. b. calcium and phosphorus. c. sodium and chloride. d. potassium and magnesium. ANS: B DIF: Easy REF: p. 109 MSC: Type of Question: Knowledge 14. Vitamin D deficiency is most likely to occur in a child who is involved in: a. soccer. b. baseball. c. gymnastics. d. tennis. ANS: C Gymnastics is an indoor sport, so the child would have less sun exposure. This would result in less vitamin D production in his or her skin. DIF: Medium REF: p. 111 MSC: Type of Question: Application 15. Rickets is caused by a deficiency of: a. vitamin A. b. cobalamin. c. niacin. d. vitamin D. ANS: D DIF: Medium REF: p. 110 MSC: Type of Question: Knowledge 16. The adult form of rickets is called: a. osteoporosis. b. osteopenia. c. osteomalacia. d. osteomyelitis. ANS: C DIF: Medium REF: p. 110 MSC: Type of Question: Knowledge 17. A factor that has significantly contributed to elimination of rickets in developed countries is: a. an increase in outdoor activities. b. an increase in use of sunscreens. c. the availability of fresh produce year-round. d. the wide use of vitamin D–fortified milk. ANS: D DIF: Medium REF: p. 110 MSC: Type of Question: Knowledge 18. One reason it is difficult to establish recommended requirements for vitamin D is because: a. individual exposure to sunlight varies greatly. b. it is present in so many foods. c. individuals store it in large quantities. d. the amount in food varies with the season. ANS: A DIF: Medium REF: p. 111 MSC: Type of Question: Knowledge 19. Foods that are commonly fortified with vitamin D are: a. cereal and pasta. b. milk and margarine. c. flour and sugar. d. cheese and canned tuna. ANS: B DIF: Medium REF: p. 111 MSC: Type of Question: Knowledge 20. A toxic level of vitamin D can result in: a. keratinization of the skin. b. liver damage. c. calcification of soft tissues. d. blindness. ANS: C DIF: Medium REF: p. 111 MSC: Type of Question: Knowledge 21. A food that provides a natural food source of vitamin D is: a. mackerel. b. wheat germ. c. steak. d. margarine. ANS: A Fatty fish, including mackerel, are the best natural source of vitamin D. DIF: Hard REF: p. 111 MSC: Type of Question: Application 22. The chemical name for vitamin E is: a. calciferol. b. retinol. c. tocopherol. d. cholecalciferol. ANS: C DIF: Medium REF: p. 111 MSC: Type of Question: Knowledge 23. Vitamin E protects cellular and subcellular membranes by acting as a(n): a. antiinflammatory agent. b. antioxidant. c. hemolytic agent. d. clotting factor. ANS: B DIF: Easy REF: p. 112 MSC: Type of Question: Knowledge 24. A factor that affects a person’s requirement for vitamin E is: a. calcium intake. b. amount of aerobic exercise. c. intake of saturated fatty acids. d. intake of polyunsaturated fatty acids. ANS: D DIF: Medium REF: p. 113 MSC: Type of Question: Knowledge 25. An example of a food high in vitamin E is: a. green salad with dressing made with sunflower oil. b. guacamole made with avocado, lemon juice, and tomatoes. c. fruit salad made with berries and melons. d. oatmeal with raisins and honey. ANS: A The best sources of vitamin E are vegetable oils, such as sunflower, safflower, and canola oils. DIF: Medium REF: p. 113 MSC: Type of Question: Application 26. Hemolytic anemia is treated with increased intake of vitamin: a. A. b. D. c. E. d. C. ANS: C DIF: Medium REF: p. 113 MSC: Type of Question: Knowledge 27. The fat-soluble vitamin that is responsible for synthesis of blood-clotting factors by the liver is vitamin: a. A. b. D. c. E. d. K. ANS: D DIF: Easy REF: p. 113 MSC: Type of Question: Knowledge 28. Adequate amounts of vitamin K are usually present in the body because: a. the amount used daily varies widely. b. large quantities are stored in muscle and bone. c. it is widely available in all major food groups. d. intestinal bacteria synthesize adequate supplies. ANS: D DIF: Medium REF: p. 113 MSC: Type of Question: Knowledge 29. A health condition that may create a need for administration of vitamin K is: a. radiation therapy. b. antibiotic therapy. c. a bone fracture. d. pancreatitis. ANS: B DIF: Hard REF: p. 114 MSC: Type of Question: Knowledge 30. An example of a food high in vitamin K is: a. seared collard greens. b. oatmeal with raisins. c. carrot soup. d. bean burrito. ANS: A Dark green vegetables are one of the best sources of vitamin K. DIF: Medium REF: p. 115 MSC: Type of Question: Application 31. A deficiency of vitamin C can cause: a. scurvy. b. pernicious anemia. c. megaloblastic anemia. d. beriberi. ANS: A DIF: Easy REF: p. 115 MSC: Type of Question: Knowledge 32. Vitamin C helps maintain tissue integrity by: a. neutralizing foreign proteins. b. creating an alkaline cell environment. c. recognizing cell boundaries. d. forming collagen to bind cells together. ANS: D DIF: Medium REF: p. 115 MSC: Type of Question: Knowledge 33. A body function that may be affected by a deficiency of vitamin C is: a. bowel elimination. b. urine formation. c. wound healing. d. synthesis of intrinsic factor. ANS: C DIF: Medium REF: p. 117 MSC: Type of Question: Knowledge 34. The lunch that would provide the greatest amount of vitamin C is: a. tuna sandwich, sliced tomatoes, and strawberries. b. hamburger, French fries, and cola beverage. c. hot dog, milkshake, and cookies. d. grilled cheese sandwich, pickles, and skim milk. ANS: A The best sources of vitamin C are fresh fruits and vegetables; strawberries and tomatoes are especially good sources. DIF: Medium REF: p. 117 MSC: Type of Question: Application 35. All B-complex vitamins have the function of: a. regulating fluid balance. b. providing body structure. c. serving as coenzymes. d. converting glucose into hormones. ANS: C DIF: Easy REF: p. 102 MSC: Type of Question: Knowledge 36. An increase in dietary carbohydrate intake increases the body’s need for: a. niacin. b. thiamin. c. riboflavin. d. pantothenic acid. ANS: B DIF: Medium REF: p. 119 MSC: Type of Question: Knowledge 37. Body systems that may be affected by a thiamin deficiency are: a. respiratory and urinary. b. nervous and gastrointestinal. c. lymphatic and endocrine. d. epithelial and mucosal. ANS: B DIF: Hard REF: p. 120 MSC: Type of Question: Knowledge 38. A vitamin that is easily destroyed by light and irradiation is: a. biotin. b. niacin. c. riboflavin. d. thiamin. ANS: C DIF: Medium REF: p. 121 MSC: Type of Question: Knowledge 39. Riboflavin is important for metabolism of: a. fat. b. protein. c. alcohol. d. vitamin K. ANS: B DIF: Medium REF: p. 122 MSC: Type of Question: Knowledge 40. Newborn babies treated with phototherapy for elevated bilirubin levels may develop a deficiency of: a. riboflavin. b. niacin. c. vitamin C. d. vitamin A. ANS: A DIF: Medium REF: p. 122 MSC: Type of Question: Knowledge 41. The food group that is the most important source of riboflavin is: a. fresh fruits. b. green leafy vegetables. c. lean meats. d. milk. ANS: D DIF: Medium REF: p. 122 MSC: Type of Question: Knowledge 42. The disease associated with niacin deficiency is known as: a. scurvy. b. beriberi. c. cheilosis. d. pellagra. ANS: D DIF: Medium REF: p. 122 MSC: Type of Question: Knowledge 43. The amino acid that is a precursor to niacin is: a. leucine. b. phenylalanine. c. tryptophan. d. valine. ANS: C DIF: Easy REF: p. 123 MSC: Type of Question: Knowledge 44. An important metabolic function of niacin is to: a. convert proteins to glucose for energy. b. activate amino acids. c. neutralize toxins from the body. d. remove fat from the liver. ANS: A DIF: Hard REF: p. 124 MSC: Type of Question: Knowledge 45. Skin flushing, gastrointestinal upset, and itching may be caused by therapeutic doses of: a. pyridoxine. b. niacin. c. vitamin C. d. thiamin. ANS: B DIF: Medium REF: p. 124 MSC: Type of Question: Knowledge 46. An example of a food that is a good source of niacin is: a. oranges. b. spinach. c. pork chops. d. rice. ANS: C Meats are good sources of niacin and are also high in tryptophan. Although many whole or enriched grains are good sources, rice is a relatively poor source because it is low in tryptophan. DIF: Medium REF: p. 124 MSC: Type of Question: Application 47. A vitamin involved with hemoglobin formation is: a. pyridoxine. b. riboflavin. c. niacin. d. thiamin. ANS: A DIF: Hard REF: p. 126 MSC: Type of Question: Knowledge 48. The need for pyridoxine varies with dietary intake of: a. carbohydrates. b. fats. c. protein. d. minerals. ANS: C DIF: Medium REF: p. 126 MSC: Type of Question: Knowledge 49. A vitamin that is used to form acetyl coenzyme A is: a. pantothenic acid. b. biotin. c. niacin. d. riboflavin. ANS: A DIF: Medium REF: p. 124 MSC: Type of Question: Knowledge 50. The best source of biotin is: a. apples. b. egg yolk. c. carrots. d. egg white. ANS: B DIF: Medium REF: p. 125 MSC: Type of Question: Knowledge 51. An example of a breakfast meal high in folate is: a. eggs and toast. b. bacon and biscuits. c. waffles with blueberries. d. pancakes and orange juice. ANS: D Citrus fruits are excellent sources of folate; therefore, the orange juice would make this a high-folate breakfast. DIF: Hard REF: p. 129 MSC: Type of Question: Application 52. Deficiency in folic acid intake will result in development of: a. microcytic anemia. b. megaloblastic anemia. c. pernicious anemia. d. normochromic anemia. ANS: B DIF: Medium REF: p. 129 MSC: Type of Question: Knowledge 53. The period of life in which the need for folic acid is most critical is: a. before pregnancy. b. infancy. c. childhood. d. young adulthood. ANS: A DIF: Medium REF: p. 128 MSC: Type of Question: Knowledge 54. A characteristic that is unique to vitamin B12 is that it requires: a. lipids for absorption. b. the mineral magnesium for full activity. c. intrinsic factor for absorption. d. an acidic intestinal environment for synthesis. ANS: C DIF: Medium REF: p. 130 MSC: Type of Question: Knowledge 55. Pernicious anemia and neurologic degeneration are associated with deficiency of: a. vitamin C. b. folic acid. c. vitamin B12. d. pantothenic acid. ANS: C DIF: Easy REF: p. 130 MSC: Type of Question: Knowledge 56. High folate intakes may mask a deficiency of: a. niacin. b. thiamin. c. vitamin B12. d. vitamin K. ANS: C DIF: Medium REF: p. 130 MSC: Type of Question: Knowledge Chapter 01: Nutrition and Health Schlenker & Gilbert: Williams’ Essentials of Nutrition and Diet Therapy, 11th Edition MULTIPLE CHOICE 1. The major focus of nutritional recommendations in this century has shifted to: a. prevention and control of chronic diseases. b. improved sanitation and public health. c. prevention and control of infectious diseases. d. development of healthful foods using food technology. ANS: A DIF: Easy REF: p. 2 MSC: Type of Question: Knowledge 2. A physical science that contributes to understanding how nutrition relates to health and well-being is: a. anatomy. b. biochemistry. c. physics. d. pharmacology. ANS: B DIF: Easy REF: p. 6 MSC: Type of Question: Knowledge 3. The body of scientific knowledge related to nutritional requirements of human growth, maintenance, activity, and reproduction is known as: a. physiology. b. nutrition science. c. biochemistry. d. dietetics. ANS: B DIF: Easy REF: p. 7 MSC: Type of Question: Knowledge 4. The professional primarily responsible for application of nutrition science in clinical practice settings is the: a. nurse. b. physician. c. public health nutritionist. d. registered dietitian. ANS: D DIF: Easy REF: p. 7 MSC: Type of Question: Knowledge 5. The primary responsibility for nutrition care of people in the community belongs to the: a. community physician. b. public health nurse. c. public health nutritionist. d. registered dietitian. ANS: C DIF: Easy REF: p. 7 MSC: Type of Question: Knowledge 6. The best source of nutrients is provided by: a. specific food combinations. b. a variety of foods. c. individual foods. d. a variety of food supplements. ANS: B DIF: Easy REF: p. 7 MSC: Type of Question: Knowledge 7. Macronutrients include: a. minerals. b. proteins. c. vitamins. d. enzymes. ANS: B DIF: Easy REF: p. 7 MSC: Type of Question: Knowledge 8. Micronutrients include: a. fats. b. proteins. c. vitamins. d. carbohydrates. ANS: C DIF: Easy REF: p. 7 MSC: Type of Question: Knowledge 9. The sum of all chemical processes inside living cells of the body that sustain life and health is known as: a. physiology. b. digestion. c. metabolism. d. nutrition. ANS: C DIF: Easy REF: p. 7 MSC: Type of Question: Knowledge 10. A primary function of macronutrients in the body is to: a. supply energy. b. regulate metabolic processes. c. maintain homeostasis. d. control cellular activity. ANS: A DIF: Medium REF: p. 7 MSC: Type of Question: Knowledge 11. Nutrients interact in the body to regulate metabolic processes, to build and repair tissue, and to: a. provide energy. b. control cellular wastes. c. control hormone levels. d. regulate absorption. ANS: A DIF: Medium REF: p. 7 MSC: Type of Question: Knowledge 12. Individual nutrients are characterized by their ability to: a. work alone. b. fulfill specific metabolic roles. c. influence weight loss. d. improve mental status. ANS: B DIF: Medium REF: p. 7 MSC: Type of Question: Knowledge 13. The nutrient group that provides the primary source of energy for the body is: a. carbohydrates. b. fats. c. proteins. d. vitamins. ANS: A DIF: Medium REF: p. 7 MSC: Type of Question: Knowledge 14. The primary function of carbohydrates as a food source is to: a. regulate metabolic processes. b. build body tissue. c. supply energy. d. provide bulk. ANS: C DIF: Easy REF: p. 7 MSC: Type of Question: Knowledge 15. The main body storage form of carbohydrates is: a. glycogen. b. starch. c. fat. d. glucose. ANS: A DIF: Medium REF: p. 7 MSC: Type of Question: Knowledge 16. The number of kilocalories (kcalories or kcal) provided by a food that contains 30 g of carbohydrate is: a. 90. b. 120. c. 180. d. 270. ANS: B Carbohydrate contains 4 kcal per gram; therefore, 30 g carbohydrate contains 30  4 = 120 kcal. DIF: Medium REF: p. 7 MSC: Type of Question: Application 17. The percentage of the total daily caloric intake for healthy persons that should be supplied by carbohydrate is: a. 10% to 35%. b. 20% to 35%. c. 40% to 55%. d. 45% to 65%. ANS: D DIF: Medium REF: p. 7 MSC: Type of Question: Knowledge 18. It has been generally accepted that the percentage of total daily kcalories supplied by fats should be no more than: a. 10% to 15%. b. 10% to 35%. c. 20% to 35%. d. 40% to 55%. ANS: C DIF: Medium REF: p. 7 MSC: Type of Question: Knowledge 19. The number of kcalories provided by a food that contains 22 g of fat is: a. 88. b. 132. c. 154. d. 198. ANS: D Fat contains 9 kcal per gram; therefore, the number of kcal in 22 g of fat is 22  9 = 198 kcal. DIF: Medium REF: p. 7 MSC: Type of Question: Application 20. The primary function of protein in the body is to: a. supply energy. b. regulate metabolic processes. c. control muscle contractions. d. build tissue. ANS: D DIF: Easy REF: p. 7 MSC: Type of Question: Knowledge 21. The number of kcalories provided by 15 g of protein is: a. 15. b. 45. c. 60. d. 135. ANS: C Protein contains 4 kcal per gram; therefore, the number of kcal in 15 g protein is 15  4 = 60 kcal. DIF: Medium REF: p. 7 MSC: Type of Question: Application 22. For a healthy person, the percentage of daily kcalories supplied by protein should be: a. 5% to 10%. b. 10% to 35%. c. more than 25%. d. more than 35%. ANS: B DIF: Easy REF: p. 7 MSC: Type of Question: Knowledge 23. In addition to protein, nutrients that contribute to building and repair of tissue include: a. vitamins. b. carbohydrates. c. fats. d. enzymes. ANS: A DIF: Easy REF: p. 8 MSC: Type of Question: Knowledge 24. The types of acids that form the basic building blocks of protein are ____ acids. a. fatty b. amino c. nucleic d. omega fatty ANS: B DIF: Easy REF: p. 7 MSC: Type of Question: Knowledge 25. In addition to calcium, the major minerals needed to build and maintain bone tissue include: a. potassium. b. iron. c. phosphorus. d. fluoride. ANS: C DIF: Medium REF: p. 7 MSC: Type of Question: Knowledge 26. The mineral that helps control enzyme actions in cell mitochondria that produce and store high-energy compounds is: a. iron. b. cobalt. c. hemoglobin. d. vitamin B12. ANS: A DIF: Hard REF: p. 8 MSC: Type of Question: Knowledge 27. The nutrients involved in metabolic regulation and control include minerals, vitamins, and: a. amino acids. b. carbohydrates. c. fats. d. water. ANS: D DIF: Hard REF: p. 8 MSC: Type of Question: Knowledge 28. An observation that provides evidence that a person has good nutritional status is: a. small muscle mass. b. normal weight-to-height ratio. c. smooth tongue. d. fragile skin. ANS: B DIF: Easy REF: p. 9 MSC: Type of Question: Knowledge 29. Individuals with optimal nutritional status differ from those with marginal nutritional status in their: a. nutrient reserves. b. clinical signs. c. body weight. d. risk for mental illness. ANS: A DIF: Medium REF: p. 9 MSC: Type of Question: Knowledge 30. In addition to poor eating habits, a factor that often contributes to marginal nutritional status is: a. dependence on caffeine. b. acute illness. c. low income. d. size of family unit. ANS: C DIF: Easy REF: p. 9 MSC: Type of Question: Knowledge 31. Signs of malnutrition can appear when: a. nutrient reserves are depleted. b. nutrient intake exceeds daily needs. c. energy intake is restricted. d. caloric expenditure increases. ANS: A DIF: Medium REF: p. 10 MSC: Type of Question: Knowledge 32. An age group that is very vulnerable to malnutrition is: a. infants. b. teenagers. c. young adults. d. middle-age adults. ANS: A DIF: Medium REF: p. 10 MSC: Type of Question: Knowledge 33. The function of Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) is to designate nutrient recommendations for: a. different ethnic groups. b. all individuals. c. most people. d. most healthy people. ANS: D DIF: Medium REF: p. 12 MSC: Type of Question: Knowledge 34. The Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL) is: a. a replacement for Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs). b. a safe level of intake for people of all ages. c. a potentially toxic level of intake of a nutrient. d. the highest amount of a nutrient that can be safely consumed. ANS: D DIF: Medium REF: p. 12 MSC: Type of Question: Knowledge 35. An example of government nutrition policy is: a. MyPlate Food Guidance System. b. Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2010. c. Healthy People 2020. d. Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs). ANS: C DIF: Medium REF: p. 11 MSC: Type of Question: Knowledge 36. MyPlate food guidance is based on: a. percentage of kcalories from each macronutrient. b. Exchange Lists for Meal Planning. c. appropriate amounts of food from each food group. d. amounts of macronutrients and micronutrients. ANS: C DIF: Medium REF: pp. 16-19 MSC: Type of Question: Knowledge 37. Foodborne illness may be caused by contamination of food with: a. pesticides. b. genetically modified ingredients. c. microorganisms. d. food additives. ANS: C DIF: Medium REF: p. 20 MSC: Type of Question: Knowledge 38. It is important to understand standard serving sizes of foods because: a. it is easy to eat too much of some nutrients when choosing healthful foods. b. serving sizes have generally decreased over the past few decades. c. most people have difficulty estimating the amount of food they eat. d. food portions need to be weighed to check serving sizes accurately. ANS: C DIF: Hard REF: p. 16 MSC: Type of Question: Application 39. Major nutrients supplied by foods in the Vegetables group of MyPlate include: a. potassium and vitamin A. b. iron and vitamin C. c. calcium and vitamin B12. d. sodium and vitamin E. ANS: A DIF: Hard REF: p. 17 MSC: Type of Question: Knowledge 40. A food choice equivalent to one serving from the Grains group of MyPlate is: a. one slice of bread. b. 2 cups of rice. c. 3 cups of spaghetti. d. 4 oz of ready-to-eat cereal. ANS: A DIF: Medium REF: p. 17 MSC: Type of Question: Knowledge 41. A food choice equivalent to one serving from the Protein group of MyPlate is: a. 1 Tbsp peanut butter. b. 3 oz fish. c. 2 oz cheese. d. cup cooked dry beans or peas. ANS: A DIF: Hard REF: p. 17 MSC: Type of Question: Knowledge 42. Exchange Lists for Meal Planning was devised by the American Dietetic Association in collaboration with: a. the American Cancer Society. b. the American Diabetes Association. c. the American Heart Association. d. the Culinary Institute of America. ANS: B DIF: Easy REF: pp. 19-20 MSC: Type of Question: Knowledge 43. Exchange Lists for Meal Planning groups foods that are equivalent in their: a. weight. b. serving size. c. micronutrient content. d. macronutrient content. ANS: D DIF: Medium REF: p. 19 MSC: Type of Question: Knowledge 44. Exchange Lists for Meal Planning was originally intended as a meal-planning tool for people who have: a. cancer. b. diabetes. c. hypertension. d. heart disease. ANS: B DIF: Easy REF: p. 19 MSC: Type of Question: Knowledge 45. In the most recent edition of Choose Your Foods: Exchange List for Diabetes, the three groups into which foods are arranged are: a. fruits and vegetables, breads, and meats. b. fats, starches and sugars, and meat and milk. c. fruits and vegetables, meat and milk, and starches. d. carbohydrates, meat and meat substitutes, and fats. ANS: D DIF: Medium REF: p. 20 MSC: Type of Question: Knowledge 46. The Dietary Guidelines are published and revised by the U.S. Department of Agriculture in association with the: a. Department of Health and Human Services. b. National Institutes of Health. c. National Academy of Sciences. d. Food and Nutrition Board. ANS: A DIF: Medium REF: p. 13 MSC: Type of Question: Knowledge 47. A major focus of the 2010 Dietary Guidelines is: a. generally healthy segments of the population. b. the unhealthy American public. c. vulnerable population segments. d. ethnically diverse eating styles. ANS: B DIF: Medium REF: pp. 13-14 MSC: Type of Question: Knowledge 48. Dietary guidelines are most useful for: a. limiting portion sizes. b. designing a personal food plan. c. making smart food choices. d. avoiding excessive nutrient intakes. ANS: C Dietary guidelines include recommendations to limit portion sizes and provide general advice that can help with designing a personal food plan, and can help consumers avoid excessive nutrient intakes. However, their main use is to help consumers make wise food choices. DIF: Medium REF: p. 13 MSC: Type of Question: Application 49. One useful outcome of keeping a record of everything you eat and drink for a day is: a. precise estimates of portion sizes. b. determination of appropriate energy intake. c. estimation of supplement needs. d. increased awareness of personal food patterns. ANS: D DIF: Medium REF: p. 20 MSC: Type of Question: Knowledge Chapter 07: Minerals and Water Test Bank MULTIPLE CHOICE 1. The mineral that is present in the body in the greatest amount is: a. sodium. b. potassium. c. calcium. d. iron. ANS: C DIF: Medium REF: p. 138 MSC: Type of Question: Knowledge 2. Binding agents such as oxalic acid and phytic acid inhibit absorption of: a. potassium. b. sodium. c. fluoride. d. calcium. ANS: D DIF: Medium REF: p. 139 MSC: Type of Question: Knowledge 3. Hormones that are involved in maintaining calcium balance in the body include calcitonin, calcitriol, and: a. thyroxine. b. parathyroid hormone. c. insulin. d. epinephrine. ANS: B DIF: Medium REF: p. 140 MSC: Type of Question: Knowledge 4. The greatest amount of calcium is used in: a. bone formation. b. blood clotting. c. neuromuscular activity. d. enzyme activation. ANS: A DIF: Medium REF: p. 141 MSC: Type of Question: Knowledge 5. A mineral that participates in transmission of nerve impulses and muscle contraction is: a. calcium. b. selenium. c. chlorine. d. phosphorus. ANS: A DIF: Hard REF: p. 147 MSC: Type of Question: Knowledge 6. Of the following foods, the type that provides the most calcium per serving is: a. eggs. b. whole grains. c. dairy products. d. leafy vegetables. ANS: C DIF: Easy REF: p. 143 MSC: Type of Question: Knowledge 7. Two important physiologic functions of phosphorus are: a. general metabolism and bone formation. b. heme formation and hormone synthesis. c. acid-base balance and detoxification. d. synthesis and absorption of fatty acids. ANS: A DIF: Medium REF: p. 146 MSC: Type of Question: Knowledge 8. Low serum phosphorus levels may occur in individuals recovering from diabetic acidosis because: a. phosphorus absorption is disrupted. b. phosphorus is used in active carbohydrate absorption and metabolism. c. excess phosphorus is produced by the metabolic imbalance. d. phosphorus buffer systems are depleted during acidosis. ANS: B DIF: Hard REF: p. 146 MSC: Type of Question: Knowledge 9. The greatest concentration of sodium is found in: a. intestinal fluid. b. extracellular fluid. c. intracellular fluid. d. metabolic fluid. ANS: B DIF: Easy REF: p. 146 MSC: Type of Question: Knowledge 10. A factor that serves as the mechanism for regulating excretion of sodium from the body is: a. the amount of water consumed. b. body pH. c. the hormone aldosterone. d. vitamin D activity. ANS: C DIF: Medium REF: p. 146 MSC: Type of Question: Knowledge 11. Important metabolic functions of sodium include fluid balance, acid-base balance, and: a. muscular action. b. release of glycogen. c. regulation of enzyme production. d. control of body temperature. ANS: A DIF: Hard REF: p. 147 MSC: Type of Question: Knowledge 12. The mineral that is found primarily in the intracellular fluid compartment is: a. sodium. b. chloride. c. potassium. d. magnesium. ANS: C DIF: Medium REF: p. 148 MSC: Type of Question: Knowledge 13. Hypokalemia may occur as the result of: a. excessive sodium intake. b. prolonged diarrhea. c. the use of multivitamins. d. prolonged immobilization. ANS: B DIF: Medium REF: p. 150 MSC: Type of Question: Knowledge 14. A condition that is a serious complication of an elevated serum potassium level is: a. sodium imbalance. b. hypertension. c. muscle irritability. d. vomiting. ANS: C DIF: Hard REF: p. 150 MSC: Type of Question: Knowledge 15. A health problem that can lead to hypokalemia is: a. dependence on vitamin supplements. b. dependence on caffeinated beverages. c. myocardial infarction. d. diabetic acidosis. ANS: D DIF: Hard REF: p. 150 MSC: Type of Question: Knowledge 16. Physiologic functions of potassium include: a. acid-base balance. b. regulation of insulin production. c. monitoring sodium excretion. d. formation of hemoglobin. ANS: A DIF: Hard REF: p. 150 MSC: Type of Question: Knowledge 17. Studies suggest that an increase in potassium intake can: a. lower blood triglycerides. b. lower blood pressure. c. raise high-density lipoprotein (HDL) levels. d. raise blood sugar levels. ANS: B DIF: Hard REF: p. 150 MSC: Type of Question: Knowledge 18. Variations in the body fluid concentration of sodium largely determine distribution of water by: a. diffusion. b. osmosis. c. absorption. d. excretion. ANS: B DIF: Medium REF: p. 147 MSC: Type of Question: Knowledge 19. Minerals in extracellular fluid that regulate water balance are: a. calcium and potassium. b. sodium and chloride. c. phosphorus and magnesium. d. iron and zinc. ANS: B DIF: Medium REF: p. 154 MSC: Type of Question: Knowledge 20. Chlorine can be found in the body as chloride ions in: a. hemoglobin. b. bile. c. gastric secretions. d. skeletal tissue. ANS: C DIF: Hard REF: p. 151 MSC: Type of Question: Knowledge 21. Sulfur is found in the body in: a. proteins. b. stored fat. c. DNA. d. glycogen. ANS: A Sulfur is found in amino acids, and protein is made of amino acids. DIF: Medium REF: p. 151 MSC: Type of Question: Application 22. The amino acids that contain sulfur are: a. phenylalanine and lysine. b. threonine and tyrosine. c. methionine and cysteine. d. leucine and tryptophan. ANS: C DIF: Medium REF: p. 152 MSC: Type of Question: Knowledge 23. Trace minerals are called “trace” because they are: a. less important than other minerals. b. found in a limited number of food sources. c. found in small quantities in the body. d. difficult to analyze in the laboratory. ANS: C DIF: Medium REF: p. 152 MSC: Type of Question: Knowledge 24. Iron has an important metabolic function in: a. oxygen transport. b. thyroxine synthesis. c. calcium and phosphorus balance. d. neutralizing gastric secretions. ANS: A DIF: Easy REF: p. 152 MSC: Type of Question: Knowledge 25. Factors that favor absorption of iron include: a. vitamin A. b. vitamin C. c. zinc. d. intestinal flora. ANS: B DIF: Hard REF: p. 152 MSC: Type of Question: Knowledge 26. The group of people most likely to exhibit signs of iron deficiency is: a. breast-fed infants. b. school-age children. c. underweight men. d. women of childbearing age. ANS: D Women of childbearing age are susceptible to iron deficiency anemia because of monthly losses of blood in menses. Breast-fed infants have sufficient stores of iron to last 4 to 6 months, until they start to eat supplemental foods. Iron deficiency is not common in children. Iron deficiency is not related to being underweight, although it may be associated with obesity. DIF: Hard REF: p. 157 MSC: Type of Question: Application 27. The second most common type of malnutrition worldwide is: a. iron deficiency anemia. b. protein-energy malnutrition. c. osteoporosis. d. vitamin A deficiency. ANS: A DIF: Medium REF: p. 157 MSC: Type of Question: Knowledge 28. The metabolic function of iodine is to: a. produce energy. b. maintain the nervous system. c. maintain dental health. d. help synthesize thyroxine. ANS: D DIF: Easy REF: p. 158 MSC: Type of Question: Knowledge 29. The most reliable dietary source of iodine is: a. seafood. b. legumes. c. iodized table salt. d. enriched cereals. ANS: C Seafood is a good source of iodine, but most people do not eat seafood on a daily basis. Iodized table salt contributes a commonly used source of iodine. DIF: Easy REF: p. 161 MSC: Type of Question: Application 30. The clinical problem associated with defective iodine uptake and use is: a. hypertension. b. excessive weight loss. c. abnormal cardiac function. d. abnormal thyroid function. ANS: D DIF: Medium REF: p. 161 MSC: Type of Question: Knowledge 31. Symptoms of impaired sense of taste and smell are sometimes caused by a deficiency of: a. zinc. b. chromium. c. chlorine. d. magnesium. ANS: A DIF: Medium REF: p. 161 MSC: Type of Question: Knowledge 32. The minerals involved in hemoglobin synthesis are: a. molybdenum and cadmium. b. magnesium and manganese. c. iron and zinc. d. iron and copper. ANS: D DIF: Hard REF: p. 162 MSC: Type of Question: Knowledge 33. When a person experiences impairment of taste, the condition is known as: a. hypogeusia. b. hyposomia. c. hypostasis. d. hypothermia. ANS: A DIF: Medium REF: p. 161 MSC: Type of Question: Knowledge 34. Zinc is important throughout the life cycle, but especially during: a. pregnancy. b. young adulthood. c. middle adulthood. d. older adulthood. ANS: A DIF: Medium REF: p. 161 MSC: Type of Question: Knowledge 35. Chromium facilitates the action of: a. thyroxine. b. lipase. c. testosterone. d. insulin. ANS: D DIF: Medium REF: p. 162 MSC: Type of Question: Knowledge 36. A genetic disease that causes iron overload is: a. goiter. b. hypochromic anemia. c. hyperchromic anemia. d. hemochromatosis. ANS: D DIF: Medium REF: p. 163 MSC: Type of Question: Knowledge 37. A major function of selenium is: a. as an antioxidant. b. thyroxine production. c. red blood cell formation. d. glycogen production. ANS: A DIF: Medium REF: p. 163 MSC: Type of Question: Knowledge 38. A major benefit of fluoride is: a. providing structural support to cells. b. preventing anemia. c. preventing dental caries. d. slowing the aging process. ANS: C DIF: Medium REF: p. 165 MSC: Type of Question: Knowledge 39. For public health purposes, the level of fluoridation in public water supplies should be: a. 0.5 ppm. b. 1.0 ppm. c. 2.0 ppm. d. 3.5 ppm. ANS: B DIF: Medium REF: p. 163 MSC: Type of Question: Knowledge 40. The mineral that enhances the ability of the tooth structure to withstand the erosive effect of bacterial acid is: a. zinc. b. calcium. c. chromium. d. fluoride. ANS: D DIF: Easy REF: p. 163 MSC: Type of Question: Knowledge 41. The percentage of body water in the average person is: a. 40% to 50%. b. 50% to 60%. c. 60% to 70%. d. 70% to 80%. ANS: B DIF: Medium REF: p. 166 MSC: Type of Question: Knowledge 42. Distribution of water content in a person’s body is related to the amount of: a. body fat. b. bone density. c. muscle mass. d. circulating blood. ANS: C DIF: Easy REF: p. 166 MSC: Type of Question: Knowledge 43. The extracellular fluid compartment contains blood plasma, dense tissue fluid, interstitial fluid, and: a. metabolic water. b. fluid within cells. c. secretory fluid. d. sweat. ANS: C DIF: Medium REF: p. 167 MSC: Type of Question: Knowledge 44. Older adults may be at risk for dehydration because: a. fluid needs increase with age. b. they absorb less fluid from their intestines. c. they lose more water through their lungs and skin. d. their thirst mechanism is diminished. ANS: D DIF: Medium REF: p. 167 MSC: Type of Question: Knowledge 45. The term metabolic water refers to water that is: a. contained in foods. b. consumed orally. c. moving from compartment to compartment. d. formed from oxidation of nutrients. ANS: D DIF: Medium REF: p. 167 MSC: Type of Question: Knowledge 46. Solutes found in body fluids that influence movement of water include plasma proteins, glucose, and: a. electrolytes. b. minerals. c. vitamins. d. calcium. ANS: A DIF: Medium REF: pp. 167-168 MSC: Type of Question: Knowledge 47. The name of an ion that possesses a positive charge is a(n): a. anion. b. cation. c. acid. d. base. ANS: B DIF: Medium REF: p. 168 MSC: Type of Question: Knowledge 48. The organic molecules responsible for creating colloidal osmotic pressure are: a. glucose molecules. b. sodium ions. c. plasma proteins. d. amino acids. ANS: C DIF: Medium REF: p. 168 MSC: Type of Question: Knowledge 49. The hormone that causes the kidneys to retain sodium is called: a. vitamin D. b. thyroxine. c. adrenaline. d. aldosterone. ANS: D DIF: Medium REF: p. 169 MSC: Type of Question: Knowledge 50. The term used to denote concentration of electrolytes in a given volume of fluid is: a. valence. b. milliequivalent. c. gram molecular weight. d. pH. ANS: B DIF: Medium REF: p. 169 MSC: Type of Question: Knowledge 51. If a cell is surrounded by a hypertonic solution, it will: a. lose water and shrink. b. gain water and swell. c. be broken down. d. eventually burst. ANS: A DIF: Medium REF: p. 169 MSC: Type of Question: Knowledge 52. The plasma protein that exerts the greatest colloidal osmotic pressure is: a. fibrinogen. b. prothrombin. c. albumin. d. hemoglobin. ANS: C DIF: Medium REF: p. 168 MSC: Type of Question: Knowledge 53. The action of antidiuretic hormone (ADH) on the kidney will result in: a. sodium retention. b. water excretion. c. sodium excretion. d. water retention. ANS: D DIF: Medium REF: p. 169 MSC: Type of Question: Knowledge

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