NSG 5003 Patho Quiz 1 Study Guide - NSG5003 Pathology South University - $15.49   Add to cart

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NSG 5003 Patho Quiz 1 Study Guide - NSG5003 Pathology South University

Quiz 1 Study Guide ⦁ Describe the following primary modes of chemical signaling: Hormonal: endocrine cells that secrete chemicals called hormones (e.g., thyroid-stimulating hormone); hormones are released by one set of cells and travel through the tissue and through the bloodstream to produce a response in other sets of cells Neurohormonal: hormones (e.g., angiotensin II) are released into the blood by neurosecretory neurons. Like endocrine cells, neurosecretory neurons release blood-borne chemical messengers, whereas ordinary neurons secrete short-range neurotransmitters into a small, discrete space (i.e., synapse). Paracrine: cells secrete local chemical mediators that are quickly absorbed, destroyed, or immobilized Autocrine: cells also can produce signals that they, themselves, respond to. Example cancer cells Neurotransmitter: Neurons communicate directly with the cells they innervate by releasing chemicals or neurotransmitters at specialized junctions called chemical synapses; the neurotransmitter diffuses across the synaptic cleft and acts on the postsynaptic target cell ⦁ List examples of the following transport mechanisms: (passive)Diffusion: Movement of molecules from an area of greater concentration to an area of lesser concentration. Oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange in lungs. Kidneys passive-mediated transport (facilitated diffusion): uncharged molecules move through pores. Example glucose through cell membrane (active)phagocytosis: a moving cell engulfs something. solids Ex. White blood cell membrane engulfing bacteria cell. macrophages (active)pinocytosis: a stationary cell engulfs something. Liquids. Uptake of extracellular fluids hormones and enzymes active transport (potassium-sodium pump): movement of molecules from an area of lesser concentration to an area of greater concentration, requires ATP (passive) osmosis: movement of water from greater concentration to lesser concentration (diffusion of watrer) (passive) hydrostatic pressure (filtration): move water and dissolved substances from an area of higher pressure to an area of lower pressure. Example molecules living blood capillaries

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