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Psych 201 midterm exam 2020 with complete solution(Graded A)- University of Mississippi

Psych 201 midterm exam 2020 with complete solution(Graded A)- University of Mississippi 1. Which memory system is most closely related to intelligence test scores? 2. Your best strategy would be to use a heuristic if ______ is most important; your best strategy would be to use an algorithm if _______ is most important. 3. An important difference between Gardner’s multiple intelligences and the use of g in multiple areas is that Gardner’s intelligences are defined ________ and the skills associated with general intelligence are defined ________. 4. Sharda and Onyedikachi are participating in a psychology study. Sharda’s task is to press a button as rapidly as possible whenever she sees a circle on the computer screen. Onyedikachi’s task is to press a red button if he sees a circle and a green button if he sees a square, also as rapidly as possible. Sharda’s study is measuring ________ reaction time, and Onyedikachi’s study is measuring ________ reaction time. 5. Jameisia has always loved numbers. When she starts first grade, she grasps basic math immediately. Her teacher is so impressed that she gives Jameisia increasingly complicated work in math. Jameisia goes on to become a superb math student all the way through school. What is the most reasonable conclusion about the source of Jameisia’s success in math? 6. Hyun is working on a chemistry project with Raul. Raul insists on doing things his way and argues with all of Hyun’s suggestions. Hyun finds himself getting angry. Before he says something nasty, Hyun reminds himself that the goal is to complete a good project and fighting with Raul will not accomplish that. Hyun is clearly high on which of the four attributes of emotional intelligence? 7. Dr. LeCap is taking brain scans of people while they do simple cognitive tasks. He notices that the event-related potential (ERP) waves of 20 participants occurred significantly faster than the waves of the other 50 participants. Dr. LeCap could conclude from this finding that the 20 people with faster ERP waves are likely to be, on average, ________ than the 50 people with the slower waves. 8. You are following the plot of a complicated Shakespeare play quite clearly while you are watching it. However, the next week you find that you cannot remember where the story was set, or the names of the main characters. Your loss of memory is most likely due to: 9. Roel watches a spoof of the news on The Daily Show. The next week, Roel is likely to __________ due to _________. 10. Which of the following psychologists is most closely associated with the school of functionalism? 11. Your friend gets in a traumatic car accident and the doctors are worried that she may develop posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, your friend seems to be coping well and is not showing any PTSD symptoms. How would a strict nature-only theorist explain this situation? 12. The idea that the mind and body are separate but intertwined describes the viewpoint of: 13. According to your text, amiable skepticism is an important element in a type of reasoning called: 14. Topics such as perception, thinking, and learning are studied by ________ psychologists. 15. Lassandra takes a sip of cola. “Sweet . . . cold, wet, tingly . . . slightly bitter,” she reports. Lassandra is engaging in 16. Using a key to open the front door of your house is analogous to the: 17. Heritability can best be understood 18. What is one way the hypothalamus influences physical growth? 19. If your house was “selectively permeable” like a neuron, which of the following situations would be most likely? 20. Pavlovian conditioning is also referred to as: 21. What is a conditioned stimulus? 22. A cognitive map is a 23. Stimulant drugs have all of the following effects EXCEPT: 24. After a period of sleep deprivation, you would expect a person to exhibit: 25. Preeti tried a new drug. She noticed that her mood was improved, but she was also restless, had an elevated heart rate, and had trouble sleeping several hours later. The drug was most likely a: 26. Which of the following is usually NOT an example of consciousness? 27. According to modern research, which of the following influence(s) the content of dreams? 28. While a man is asking you for directions, a large framed picture is moved between the two of you. You are LEAST likely to notice that he has now been swapped with a different man if he is: 29. Which of the following is NOT a consequence of prolonged methamphetamine use? 30. Ecstasy differs from amphetamines in that it ________ and ________. 31. Why would researchers choose to use animal models for research? 32. Miranda is statistically combining the results of all the published studies on the effects of the presence of a weapon on eyewitness accuracy. Miranda is performing a(n): 33. If you list a set of scores from the lowest value to the highest, then take the middle value to indicate what a typical score is, you are using the: 34. In which of the following types of descriptive studies does a researcher remain separated from the situation and make no attempt to change it? 35. Researchers investigated whether mood affects participants’ ratings of jokes. Participants in the first mood group read sad statements. In the second group, participants read neutral statements. In this study, the participants who read the sad statements constituted the: 36. If a researcher does not have a clear operational definition of the behavior he or she is studying, he or she might experience: 37. Which of the following statements is true of theories in science? 38. Of the types of haptic receptors described in your text, those that respond to ________ are found throughout the body, not just in the skin. 39. Subjects participating in an MRI study are shown pictures of several kinds of faces. To which of these types of faces will the fusiform gyrus show the greatest activation? 40. Haptic experiences are the result of: 41. The taste sensation of umami is a result of the detection of ________, which is a naturally occurring substance found in foods such as meat, some cheeses, and mushrooms. 42. According to trichromatic theory, damage to your S cones would most likely result in which of the following types of color blindness? 43. Jon is trying to remember his class schedule from last semester, but he keeps thinking of his current classes instead. This phenomenon is an example of which type of interference? 44. Cognitive structures that help us perceive, organize, process, and use information are referred to as: 45. After a plane crash, Sherrod wakes up in the hospital and can remember everything about his life. The doctor comes in, introduces himself, and explains the course of treatment. The next day, Sherrod believes he has never met the doctor and asks him to explain the proposed treatment. The doctor is likely to diagnose Sherrod with: 46. Your father has not ridden a bicycle since he was in college, about 20 years ago. Your father’s remembering how to ride the bike without falling will call upon _____ memory. 47. Understanding how to serve a ball in tennis involves _____ memory; the act of serving the ball involves _____ memory; and your first memory of serving a tennis ball involves ________ memory 48. If a retrieval cue is present in the environment, then a(n) _____ process is used to recall a prospective memory. If a retrieval cue is not present, then a(n) _____ process is used to recall the prospective memory. 49. A children’s flipbook consists of a series of pictures of Mickey Mouse with his feet in slightly different positions. If you look at the pages one at a time, slowly, all you see are the individual pictures of Mickey. However, if you flip the pages quickly, you see Mickey running. This illusion is due to storage of the successive pictures in: 50. In memory information processing, an individual MUST ________ a memory before ___________ it. 51. As a research participant, you read a list of names of unknown individuals. On another day, you read a list that includes some of those names, and you are asked if anyone on the list is famous. According to the _____, you will remember the individuals from the first list as famous. 52. Professor Smith is doing research on fish. He refuses to learn his students’ names because he believes that the names take up space in his long-term memory, which could be better used for fish information. He is incorrect because: 53. People are especially bad eyewitnesses when: 54. Sleep disturbances disrupt memory because they disrupt: 55. The difference between absentmindedness and blocking is that in absentmindedness the information is _______; but in blocking the information is ________. 56. As a friend gives you her new address over the phone, you realize that you do not have a pen to write it down. Approximately how long do you have to find a pen before her address will vanish from your short-term memory? 57. The phase of information processing that is most similar to a Google search is: 58. When you hear a story about a person you know, you will _____, which may lead to _____. 59. Memory for items presented at the beginning of a list and at the end of the list is referred to as: 60. Eyewitness testimony is very convincing because people incorrectly assume that memory is like: 61. Chiamaka has curly black hair and dark skin and is an excellent musician. Kara has straight red hair and white skin and is great at basketball. Approximately what percentage of their genetic code is the same? 62. A critical property of insight is that the solution to the problem 63. The fact that children can take a form of communication that lacks a consistent grammar and turn it into one that has consistent rules illustrates that: 64. Across individuals, language development is characterized by: 65. ________ can lead to reinforcing racism or sexism. 66. Mikhail is a high achiever in the fields of math and science. According to Spearman’s theory of general intelligence (g), Mikhail’s performance in literature and history: 67. The ________ approach has been shown to be the most effective way to teach reading; the ________ approach is most widely used. 68. One week before my rent is due, I am short $100. Rather than ask my parents for the money, I decide that I will work one weekend for my friend’s landscaping company. By doing this, I will then have enough money for rent. This strategy is an example of: 69. Research on the brain development of mice that are raised in environments offering different degrees of stimulation suggests that the increased intelligence seen in children raised in more stimulating environments is due to: 70. You get home only to find you have lost your keys. Instead of trying to think of every place that you have been that day, you try to remember the last time you saw your keys. This strategy is a good analogy for: 71. Which one of the following findings is the best evidence that genetics plays an important role in determining intelligence? 72. When David first moved to Austin, he had to rely on the GPS in his car. Over time, David found that he could navigate the city without using his GPS because he knew information about sections of the city and had a rough idea of its shape. David must have developed a ________ of the city. 73. Their 5-year-old nephew asks Hallel and Hamdi what an aardvark looks like. Hallel finds a picture in a children’s book about animals and shows it to him. Hamdi finds a description in the encyclopedia and uses it to describe an aardvark. Hallel’s approach is similar to using a(n) ________; Hamdi’s approach is similar to using a(n) ________. 74. Your neighbor is upset because you borrowed his car without asking him. He is distressed because borrowing a car without asking is NOT part of our social: 75. In attempting to teach sign language to nonhuman primates, researchers have confirmed: 76. Breast-feeding a child for more than 6 months has been documented to lead to ________ intelligence. 77. Lakshmi has been trying to work out her class schedules for the fall and spring semesters. No matter what she tries, she cannot seem to work in all the classes she needs to take. She suddenly realizes that she could also take some classes during the summer session, and she is able to quickly work out her schedules. Lakshmi solved the problem by using: 78. If we assess the available evidence to try to determine when dinosaurs roamed the earth, we are engaging in: 79. The system of rules that determines how words are combined into phrases and how phrases are used to make sentences is called: 80. A study used brain imaging on women solving math problems. Group A was reminded that women usually perform poorly in math. Group B was not. The scans of the two groups showed that Group A showed: 81. Pablo is conducting research and trying to determine whether he should monitor the presence versus the absence of a behavior or how long a behavior occurs. What approach to research is he most likely using? 82. When you pair two variables, and as one increases so does the other, your data will show: 83. When data collected in research are not useful in addressing the issue that the investigator is studying, we say that the data are NOT: 84. lacking? 85. The psychologist Robert Rosenthal told student researchers that some rats in a study would learn a task quickly and others would learn the task slowly. In reality, there was no difference in the rats’ abilities to learn the task. When the students tested the rats, the animals’ learning matched what the students were told. These results reflect the: 86. A group of policymakers are working to address issues of public safety in a residential neighborhood by increasing police presence. Which of the four primary goals of science are they addressing? 87. Another word for a hypothesis is a/an: 88. Data collection is particularly problematic when a researcher uses participant observation because: 89. Which of the following sampling techniques gives each member of the population an equal and independent chance of being selected to participate? 90. Using correlational studies, psychologists have studied whether exposure to violence in the media leads to violent behavior. They have found that participants who have been exposed to more violence in the media are, in general, more violent. It is not clear from such research which one causes the other. The problem in interpreting these results involves: 91. A(n) ________ is a specific, testable prediction about the result that, if the theory is correct, will support the theory. 92. When a researcher’s bias affects the coding of data, there is a problem with: 93. Which of the following types of studies allows the researcher to establish causality between an independent variable and a dependent variable? 94. Gwen is studying the effects of comedic film on depressed participants. She is concerned that the data collectors will produce biased observations if they know the purpose of the study. She addresses this problem by using a(n) ________ study. 95. Which of the following statements is a myth about brain plasticity across the life span? 96. Drugs that block the effects of neurotransmitters by occupying their receptor sites are called: 97. Which of the following is a source of evidence that human skin color is genetically more complex than flower color in Mendel’s experiments? 98. The action of neural firing as it proceeds down the axon is similar to which of the following types of movement? 99. Genes are components of: 100. In considering the relative contributions of genes and environment, most scientists would agree that: 101. Joaquim has experienced a relatively severe left hemisphere stroke. As a result, he has been diagnosed with an inability to identify faces and understand what is spoken to him. The location of his stroke is most likely within the: 102. Nasim is driving on a snow-covered road, and her car begins to slide. The quick behavioral response and the increased heart rate and respiration she experiences are most likely due to the ________ nervous system; the feeling of relief and decrease in heart rate and respiration once she has the car under control again are most likely due to the ________ nervous system. 103. People, even from the same family, vary in intelligence. This variation suggests that intelligence is: 104. Another way to think of agonists and antagonists, with respect to their involvement in the actions of neurotransmitters, is that agonists ________, whereas antagonists ________ the action of neurotransmitters. 105. Adoption studies are an important tool of behavioral genetics because they: 106. DNA consists of: 107. Beau’s mother and father each carry a dominant gene for brown eyes and a recessive gene for blue eyes. The probability that Beau’s eyes are blue is: 108. In the nervous system, each neuron communicates: 109. As Beatriz works outside in her yard, she works up a pretty good sweat. This is due in part to the functioning of her: 110. Heritability can best be understood: 111. Which of the following would be the best example of phantom limb syndrome? 112. The idea that the brain is extremely malleable and is continuously changing as a result of injury, experiences, or substances is known as: 113. The thalamus receives nearly all sensory information before relaying it to the cortex. What is the one sensation that is the EXCEPTION to this rule? 114. Which of the following is NOT a basic type of neuron? 115. Since curare interferes with acetylcholine functioning, we would assume it is a(n): 116. The effect of the botulism toxin (also known as Botox) on acetylcholine is to: 117. A genotype is ________, whereas a phenotype is ________. 118. When the moon is high in the sky it will appear ________ when it is close to the horizon. 119. People see the figure ( ) as an oval rather than two separate curving lines. Which Gestalt principle accounts for this outcome? 120. An Ames room is constructed so that the two back corners seem to be equidistant from the front of the room, when the right corner is actually much farther away. Someone first sits in the left corner and then sits in the right corner. To an observer in the front of the room, that person will seem ________ when he is sitting in the right 121. Juan and Joseph are opera singers. Juan is a baritone. Joseph is a tenor; his voice is higher-pitched. With respect to their physical properties, the sound waves corresponding to Juan’s voice are lower in ________ than those corresponding to Joseph’s voice; that is, they are lower in ________. 122. The primary auditory cortex is located in which brain lobe? 123. The law that states that the just noticeable difference between two stimuli is based on a proportion of the original stimulus is: 124. Prosopagnosia refers to a deficit in: 125. In smell, ________ are chemicals released by animals that cause physiological and behavioral effects on other members of the same species. 126. Based on your knowledge of opponent-process theory, if you stared for a while at a grid of blue and yellow stripes drawn on a page of paper, what would you see when you looked next at a plain white page? 127. Which part of the auditory system is most commonly damaged in people who receive cochlear implants? 128. Haptic experiences are the result of: 129. Amadi is listening to John play the guitar. When John plays a note, the vibrations of the air are picked up by auditory receptors in his ear and sent to his brain. In Amadi’s brain, the information from the receptors is analyzed to produce the experience of a musical note. The pickup of information by receptors in the ear is ________; the processing to produce the experience of a musical note is ________. 130. When Angelica plunges her hand into a bucket of ice water, ________ axons immediately carry pain information to her brain. When Erica sprains her ankle playing soccer, ________ axons carry pain information to her brain for weeks. 131. Consider the pattern: XXY XXY XXY. People perceive this pattern as consisting of three groups of three letters each. Which Gestalt principle accounts for this outcome? 132. The area where the optic nerve leaves the retina is referred to as the: 133. As Devin runs to catch the quarterback’s throw, he automatically checks the position of his arms and hands and adjusts them to the path of the ball. Which sense allows him to position his hands and arms so well? 134. If you look at a square made up of alternating red and blue stripes for several minutes, then look immediately at a blank white sheet of paper, you will see a square with alternating green and yellow stripes. This effect results from pairs of ________ that work ________. 135. Days after breaking his nose in a football game, Ben still perceives a dull pain in his nose. The dull ache travels along ________ pain fibers, which are ________. 136. Sameer is mixing paint. He starts with a very deep green paint and then gradually adds white paint. Sameer is ________ of the green paint. 137. Each eye sees more of the world on its own side of the visual field. A combination of the views from the two eyes provides humans with an adaptive advantage by creating a broader panorama of the scene. It also creates the depth cue of: 138. Ultimately, changes in air pressure underlie the sense of: 139. A ganglion cell receives excitatory input from cones that transduce blue light. According to opponent-process theory, what will happen to this same ganglion cell when L cones are activated? 140. Which of the following statements best summarizes the role of culture in shaping behaviors? 141. “I think therefore I behave”—a version of Descartes’s statement “I think therefore I am”—indicates the importance of ________ on behavior and would not be agreed with by a behaviorist. 142. Mary and Brian see a machine on the television program American Inventor. Mary wants to know what parts make up the machine, but Brian wants to know its purpose. Mary’s approach is most similar to the ________ school of psychology, while Brian’s approach is most similar to the ________ school of psychology. 143. Which level of analysis in psychology is correctly matched with an example? 144. Yuko remarks that she is interested in child development and educational psychology. Based on your text’s discussion, Yuko’s interests echo the: 145. Which of the following is an example of a psychologist who is studying the mind? 146. Workplace training and job placement would be of interest to which type of psychologist? 147. Which of the following is an example of the “taking mental shortcuts” bias in thinking described in your text? 148. Which type of psychologists study, assess, and treat individuals with psychological disorders? 149. Which of the following is NOT one of the major biases in thinking described in your text? 150. A procedure in which an observer describes the simple elements of a mental experience in as much detail as possible is called: 151. Which of the following psychologists are most closely associated with social psychology? 152. Charles Darwin’s On the Origin of Species had its strongest influence on the ________ school of thought in psychology. 153. In which city did Wilhelm Wundt open the first psychological laboratory? 154. Dr. Leleux asserts that psychologists should attempt to isolate the fundamental attributes of mental experience. Dr. Leleux appears most sympathetic to the ________ school of thought in psychology. 155. For most of human history, Western scholars believed that the mind and body were separate and that humans were unique among the animals because humans: 156. What psychological principle did Pavlov’s experiments teach us? 157. In the Rescorla-Wagner model, the more surprising the unconditional stimulus is, the greater the need for an organism to ________ it using a conditional stimulus. 158. You are driving to school when suddenly an ambulance rushes past you with its sirens blaring, shocking you so much that you fear that you might lose control of your car. A minute later, you hear sirens in the distance and increase your vigilance to be prepared for another emergency vehicle on the road. What change has come over your normal reaction to sirens? 159. Taking away a child’s video games for bad behavior is a form of: 160. According to your textbook, which of the following is a good metaphor for learning in young children? 161. The process by which an environmental stimulus and a behavior are connected is known as: 162. What is a conditioned response? 163. You want your dog to stop barking unnecessarily so you take him to a dog trainer. The trainer tells you that the key to good training is figuring out how to increase the desired behavior. According to the trainer, which of the following is the best approach? 164. What is believed to have happened to Little Albert? 165. A mother is tying her own shoes in front of her toddler. She is using exaggerated, slow movements to tie her shoes. She is: 166. What does the occurrence of spontaneous recovery tell you about the functional properties of extinction? 167. You are conducting an informal study in which, for a month, you play a particular song for your best friend right before you serve dinner to her. Eventually, you play the song, and then wait to see how your friend responds. She begins to salivate and says she has hunger pains. In this scenario, what is the unconditioned stimulus? 168. Dante was sitting on a rock to rest during a hike. Suddenly he felt immense pain and looked down to see a snake had bitten him in the leg. He is now terrified of anything that even resembles a snake. Dante has developed a(n): 169. Which statement best describes the role of dopamine in learning? 170. Token economies are an example of the ways mental health hospitals and other training centers use: 171. When one learns the consequences of an action by watching another person perform the action, this type of learning is called ________ learning. 172. Being fined for overdue books is a form of: 173. If getting $1 for every correct answer on this test makes you study harder, being given $1 would be a form of: 174. What part of the brain is known as the interpreter? 175. Linnea said that she had dreams about what she was going to wear and what pencil to bring to class. What type of sleep was she probably in? 176. In concentrative meditation a person: 177. Why are humans typically able to remain in the bed during sleep? 178. Which of the following disorders may be helped by sleep deprivation? 179. Which of the following is NOT considered a form of meditation? 180. The neodissociation theory of hypnosis differs from the sociocognitive theory of hypnosis in that it asserts 181. Your friend has been complaining about her inability to concentrate and her irritability. She mentions that she has not been able to fall asleep. What condition might your friend have? 182. What brain region(s) have been linked to narcolepsy? 183. Which of the following statements is most accurate regarding consciousness? 184. “Brain death” is said to occur when activity stops: 185. You want to test if some of your dreams are mundane. To check this, you should ask a friend to wake you during:

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