NR 602 D&M 3 NDNP 864 Midterm Study Guide - $15.49   Add to cart

Study guide

NR 602 D&M 3 NDNP 864 Midterm Study Guide

Midterm Study Guide Week 1: Early child development notes (chapter 6): Toddler: 12-24 months Preschoolers: 2-5 years old WHO growth charts should be used to measure weight and length for children less than 24 months CDC weight and length charts used for children older than 24 months Average 24 month weighs 26 lbs, length 33.5 in and HC 18.5 in Most have no palpable fontanelle by 12 months Ant fontanelle closes by 18-19 months 3-6 yrs weight gain expectation is 4.5-6.5 lbs/year 3-6 yrs height gain expectation is 2.5-3.5 inches/yr 4 yrs length at birth has doubled 4-5 years old legs grow faster than rest of the body Use of dominant hand may appear as early as 8-12 months generally emerges 2-4 years old; handedness established at 5yrs May develop bowel and bladder control by age 3, but many will not. Boys usually take longer than girls to maintain bedtime bladder control. Articulation: -24 months- 25% is understood by a stranger -24m-36m- 66% is understood by a stranger -3 years old- 90% should be understood by a stranger 3 and 4-year-old have a normal hesitance or show stuttering, considered abnormal if beyond 5 years of age Speech problems often can be from lack of stimulation, hearing problems, ear infections, developmental delay. Early detection important. Lexicon: girls typically say their first word between 8-11 months; boys by 14 months 2 year olds: have more than 200 words in their vocabulary 3 years old: 900 words in vocabulary 3-4 yrs old: able to follow simple commands, talks incessantly 4-5 year olds: add at least 50 new words a month; 1500-2100 words in vocabulary (including names, coins, colors, knows days of the week) 5 year olds: should be able to define certain words with other words (cup: something you drink with) Syntax: 8 months: develop receptive language- they understand what a word means before they are able to use it themselves 12-28 months: use holophrases (single words) to express whole ideas 18 months: use telegraphic speech (get milk, go bye-bye) 2 years old: short sentences 3 years old: add plurals, 3-4 word sentences 4 years old: past tense 5 years old: syntax is close to adult style, 5-6 word sentences Peer relationships: Toddler: parallel play Preschoolers: more interactive and social, imaginary play Body image: Masturbation starts around 3-4 years old Theories: Erikson Industry team sports/cooperation Master social studies, math and reading sense of competence and accomplishment Development of a of “superego” or conscious develops during preschool age Inferiority children must learn that they will not be able to master every skill they attempt Criticism detrimental at this age Piaget Concrete operations More tolerant and perceptive of other’s viewpoint Children are able to use thought processes to experience events and actions Judgments made based on reason (conceptual) Ages 2-4-Starting to realize world outside their own, realizing they can make things happen (shift from egocentric. Belief in “magical” power of words. Ages 4-7- Preoperational intuitive thought- starting to understand time concept but limited. Example may understand “after lunch” instead of in 2 hours. Kohlberg (moral development) Judge an act based on consequences of reward and punishment They know the rules and behaviors expected of this, but do not understand the reasons behind them Can accept the concept of treating others as they would want to be treated. Judge an act based on intention not just consequences Piaget: Preoperational thinking (2-4yrs) - problem solving based on what they see directly egocentrism - only about them Centration - Focus only on 1 thing at a time Animism - things around them are alive Magical thinking - thoughts are all powerful - their thoughts can cause things to happen Developmental Assessment: BP starts at 3 years old or if at high risk Hearing and Vision at 4-5 years old Dentist: first tooth eruption or before 12 months; eruption of permanent teeth start at 5 yrs 3 years: Draw circle, cross and vertical/horizontal lines 4-5 years: Trace cross & copy a square, ties shoelaces 5-6 years: Draw a person, copies a diamond and triangle, can print name 2-4 yrs: Animism and magical thinking Magical thinking continues into 4-7 years Screening Tools: Ages and stages Questionnaire: helps with evaluating fine and gross motor development M-CHAT: evaluates for autism (used for children 16-30 months) Early language milestone (ELM): brief screening for speech intelligibility (3-4 years old) Preschool decision: parents should select a preschool with a play based learning curriculum Immediate referral is required for children who stop eating, demonstrate cruelty to animals or other people, are self- harmful, start fires, or talk of harming themselves, their peers or others Children with scores below 85 on intelligence scales predictably have more difficulty in school Language development is the best indicator of cognitive development, language delays may indicate serious issues that require developmental and educational intervention Vision screening 5y, 6y, 8y, 10y, 12y. Referral with acuity less than 20/40 (aap guidelines) Hearing screening 5y, 6y, 8y, 10y. (aap guidelines) Immunization: Hep Bx3: NB, 1-2 mths, 6mths Hib x4: 1-2 mths, 4 mths, 6 mths, 12-15 mths Rotavirus x3: 1-2 mths, 4 mths, 6 mths PCV x4: 1-2 mths, 4 mths, 6 mths, 12-15 mths DTaP x5: 1-2 mths, 4 mths, 6 mths, 15-18 mths, 4yr Polio x4: 1-2 mths, 4 mths, 6 mths, 4-6y MMR x2: 12-15mths, 4yr Varicella x2: 12-15mths, 4yr Older child Tdap x 1: 11-14yr Meningitis x2: 11yr, 17yr HPV x2 (6mths apart): 11-13yrs Hep A x2 (6 mths apart): between 12-23mths, recommended before middle school if not had earlier Safety Helmets, seat belts, still keep cleaning supplies out of reach/locked up. Gross Motor Development 3 years •Rides a tricycle •Walks on tiptoes •Stands on 1 foot for a few seconds •Broad Jump 4 years •Catches a ball •Hops & skips on one foot •Walks up and down stairs using alternate feet 5 years •Jumps rope, begins to skate and swim •Walks backwards heel to toe •Skips and hops (alternate feet) Sleep 12 hours at night, no naps but quiet time Nightmares - During REM sleep, fully awakes, able to be reassured, occurs at end of the night Night terrors - No during REM, not aware of others, partial arousal, no memory of dream, earlier in the night Child Aggression: Not necessarily the behavior itself that is the issue but the frequency, severity, timing. Frustration is the biggest reason they act out. Can also happen if parent is depressed, child is neglected, etc.

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