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ATI Notes – General Anatomy & Physiology of a Human

ATI Notes – General Anatomy & Physiology of a Human - Lowest hierarchy is at the organelles within a cell - Cells with the same functions collected into larger groups -> tissues - Tissues are collected into organs which carry out a single task - Organs work together in organ systems that perform large-scale functions Cell Parts - Organelles -> cell parts that function within a cell o Coordinate with other organelles to perform a cell’s basic functions - Ribosomes -> carry out protein synthesis - Golgi Apparatus -> modifies & packages proteins secreted from a cell - Mitochondria -> convert energy present in chemical bonds of food accessible to the cell - Nucleus -> stores & processes instructions contained in the DNA that tell the cell what its functions are Cells - Smallest living unit of life - In humans, some cells function autonomously; ex. Phagocytic white blood cells - Cells highly specialized to perform a specific function Organs - Structures composed of several types of tissues & perform one or more functions Organ Systems - Functional units composed of several organs - Functions include: digestion of food, circulation of nutrients, removal of wastes, & reproduction Vocab: - Anatomical Position: standard positioning of the body as standing; feet together; arms to the side; with head, eyes, and palms of hands forward - Cells: the basic structural unit of an organism from which living things are created - Cellular functions: Processes that include growth, metabolism, replication, protein synthesis, and movement - Directional Terminology: Words used to explain relationships of locations of anatomical elements - Organelle: a specialized part of a cell that has a specific function - Organ: a self-contained part of an organism that performs a specific function - Reference planes: Planes dividing the body to describe locations: sagittal, transverse, and coronal - Tissue: a group of cells with similar structure that function together as a unit, but at a lower level than organs - Superior: Toward the head/upper part of a structure (bird’s-eye view, looking down) - Inferior: Away from the head/lower part of a structure (bottom view, looking up) - Lateral- Farther from midline - Medial- Nearer to midline - Superficial- Close to the surface of the body. - Deep- Away from the surface of the body - Proximal- Nearer to the origination of a structure. - Distal- Farther from the origination of a structure. - Anterior- At or near the front of the body - Posterior- At or near the back of the body - Prone- Patient laying on their belly, arms that the side. - Supine- Patient laying on their back, arms that the side. Circulatory System – Khan Academy Jobs of the heart: - Systemic flow (entire body) - Pulmonary Flow (blood to & from the lungs) Coronary blood vessels - Serving the heart muscle itself - Serve the needs of cells - Fall under the category of systemic flow Vein = blood going towards the heart Artery = blood going away from the heart Valves in the heart are there to keep blood moving in the right direction Pulmonary = lungs *bicuspid valve also known as the MITRAL valve Pulmonary Circulation - Relying on the right ventricle as the pump - Deoxygenated blood Systemic Ventricle - Relying on the left ventricle as the pump - Deliver all the blood to the various organs; organs then use up oxygen Red Blood Cell - Has no mitochondria, so it is not really using oxygen - No nucleus - Made for the purpose of carrying around oxygen - Don’t really need oxygen - Each filled with about 250 million hemoglobin proteins o Each hemoglobin protein can bind to 4 O2 molecules (oxyhemoglobin) Heart -> gets its oxygen from Systemic circulation (coronary vessels) Lungs -> gets its oxygen from bronchial arteries/blood vessels stemming off in systemic circulation - Lots of blood mixing - Most of the blood goes into the pulmonary veins - Mixing of pulmonary & systemic circulation What cells need - Access to oxygen - A source of glucose - A balanced fluid environment with the right amount of water/electrolytes - Removal of waste (such as carbon dioxide) The heart is a DOUBLE pump (left & right ventricle) High pressure allows the blood to circulate around the body; low pressure allows for optimal gas exchange in the lungs without broken capillaries Heart Sounds - “lub dub” - aortic & pulmonary valves are closed while the tricuspid and mitral valve are open - valves prevent backflow of blood (they snap shut) - When the Tricuspid & mitral valve snap shut, we call that noise -> “Lub” (First heart sound/S1); at this time the pulmonic and Aortic valve open - “Dub” -> second heart sounds/S2; when the pulmonic & aortic valve shut; Tricuspid & Mitral valve just opened - Time between “lub dub” -> systole - Time after “lub” waiting for “dub” -> diastole Atrioventricular valves - Between the atrium & ventricles - Tricuspid & Mitral valves Layers of the Heart - Chordae Tendineae -> hold atrioventricular valves in place, keep the valve from flipping backwards ; connect to papillary muscles - Papillary muscles -> muscles located within the ventricles of the heart - Interventricular Septum o “a wall” o Has very thin & very thick parts o Very thin part -> membranous  A lot of babies born with holes in this -> VSD (Ventricular Septal Defect) o Thick part – (bottom) strong muscular part 3 Layers to the Heart Muscle - Endocardium o Most inner o Goes all around the valves/ventricles/atria o Thin layer o Layer that all the RBCs are bumping up against o A few cell layers thick - Myocardium o Largest chunk of the wall o “myo” = muscle o where all the contractile muscle is going to be o where a lot of the energy is being used up o When the heart needs oxygen, it’s usually the myocardium - Pericardium o Two layers to it o Gap in between the inner & outer layer o Might have a little bit of fluid in the gap -> not cells o Very thin o Folds in on itself almost like a pancake o Visceral pericardium (viscera refers to organs)  Inner layer around the heart  Another name -> epicardium o Parietal pericardium  Layer that is on the outside Thermoregulation - Arteriole will be supplying your skin with blood & oxygen via the blood o Sends off little capillary beds into the skin - The skin acts as insulation - Capillaries bypass all this insulation & go right to the surface - The heat from the blood going to these capillaries will have a much easier time of getting out - When our body is overheating, the body is going to dilate the capillaries & make them much wider -> vasodilation - More blood is then going to pass the capillaries - Therefore a lot more loss of heat to these surroundings - Why Body temperature of 98.6 degrees Fahrenheit? o All of the body systems work optimally at this temperature - When the body is cold o You’re going to make your capillaries as small as possible o Less heat at the surface area of your skin  Why your skin becomes very cold - Your body sends impulses through nerves that tells smooth muscle cells whether they should be contracting or relaxing Arteries - Carry oxygenated blood (not always) - Carry blood AWAY from the heart - HIGH pressure o Spurts blood if cut; more than a vein - LOW volume o Transports a certain amount of blood in a fixed time o Only approximately 15% of the entire blood volume in your body - Largest artery in body -> Aorta Veins - carry deoxygenated blood (not always) - Blood isn’t actually blue; Veins look blue because of the optics of light going through skin - Carry blood TOWARDS the heart - LOW pressure - HIGH volume -blood volume about 65% Elastic Arteries - Large & Medium arteries; first few arteries - Have a protein in the walls of the blood vessel called elastin protein - Have a lot of elastin protein - Pressure energy has been converted over into elastic energy - Balancing out high pressures Arterioles - Small branches coming off a small artery - Dump into a venule - “muscular arteries” o wall of the artery is actually very muscular (also applies to small arteries) o smooth muscle - Vasoconstriction o “vaso”” = blood vessel o tightening down of the blood vessel o increases resistance - Blood is going to go to the capillaries from the arterioles Venule - feeds into many other venules - gather together into a giant set of veins - all these veins then feed into the inferior/superior vena cava removal, communication, and protection • Closed Double loop system o Pulmonary Loop: Deoxygenated blood from Rt. Ventricle to lungs and returns Oxygenated blood to Lt. Atrium o Systemic Loop: Oxygenated blood from Lt. Ventricle to body, returning Deoxygenated blood to Rt. Atrium • Systole: Contraction of ventricles (heart expels blood) • Diastole: Relaxation of ventricles (heart refills with blood) • SA Node: "Pacemaker" controls contractions via electrical signals • Blood Pressure: Fluid pressure generated by cardiac cycle (sys/dias) Artery: Blood vessel that carries blood AWAY from heart • Aorta: large artery branching off heart to the rest of the body o Coronary Artery o Carotid Artery o Subclavian Artery o Common Iliac Artery o Renal Artery Vein: Blood vessel that carries blood TO the heart • Vena Cava- All veins empty here prior to entering the heart o Jugular Vein o Subclavian Vein o Hepatic Portal Vein o Common Iliac Vein o Renal Vein Arteriole: Small artery Venule: Small vein Capillary: Small blood vessel that connects arterioles to venules Heart: Muscle that pumps blood throughout the body Blood: The red liquid that circulates in the arteries and veins • Carries oxygen to and carbon dioxide from the tissues of the body. • 4 Main Components: o RBC: Disc shaped cells that carry Hemoglobin and O2 o WBC: Immune defense o Platelets: Clotting cells o Plasma: Liquid portion of blood (mostly water) Disease: Myocardial Infarction: Heart attack; Death of the heart muscle due to inadequate blood supply Stroke: "Brain Attack." Damage to the brain due to inadequate blood supply Aneurysm: Localized abnormal, weak spot on a blood vessel wall that causes an outward bulging, likened to a bubble or balloon. Hemorrhage occurs when it bursts. Atherosclerosis: Narrowing of arteries due to plaque buildup on artery walls Anemia: Not enough healthy RBC Arrhythmia: Abnormal heart rhythm • Tachycardia: Too fast • Bradycardia: Too slow Hypertension: High blood pressure. Systole is over 140 mmHg; Diastole is over 90 mmHg Crash Course – The Heart The Heart transports - nutrients - oxygen - waste - heat - hormones - immune cells throughout the body Main job -> generating pressure - generating high hydrostatic pressure to pump blood out of the heart, while also creating low pressure to bring it back in Blood Pressure - a measure of the amount of strain your arteries feel as your heart moves your blood around Placement of Heart - In the mediastinum cavity between your lungs Fibrous Pericardium - Fibrous pericardium - Made of dense connective tissue - Helps protect heart while anchoring it to surrounding structures o Parietal Pericardium (outer) o Serous Fluid o Visceral Pericardium (inner) aka Epicardium Myocardium - Made of muscle tissue - Does all the work of contracting Endocardium - Squamous epithelial tissue *Atria are the low pressure areas; thin walled *Ventricles are the high pressure areas; true pumps of the heart, need big strong walls Pulmonary Circulation Loop - How blood loses Carbon Dioxide into the lungs and trades it for fresh oxygen - Short Systemic Loop - Aorta sends blood to the rest of the body “Lub dub” Sound - “Lub” made by the mitral & tricuspid valve closing - high pressure caused by ventricular contraction -> Systole (first number in bloody pressure) o the peak pressure produced by the contracting ventricles - “Dub” sound made by pulmonary semilunar valve & aortic semilunar valves closing - Diastole -> pressure in your arteries when the ventricles are relaxed; bottom number in blood pressure Prolonged high blood pressure - Can damage arterial walls, mess with your circulation; endanger your heart, lungs, brain, kidneys, and nearly every part of you CPR - CPR can prolong heart function during cardiac arrest, but it usually can’t save a life without help from a defibrillator - Can’t correct Fibrillation - Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation - Can force a fibrillating heart to keep circulating oxygenated blood until help arrives Cardiac Muscle Tissue - Striated - Uses sliding filaments to contract - Involuntary - Short, branched out, and interconnected with one or two nuclei - Cells separated by loose connective tissue called endomysium (full of capillaries to supply oxygen) - Loaded with energy generating mitochondria – take up as much as 25-35% of each cell (helps resist fatigue) - Both physically & electrically connected, all of the time - NEED to be linked in order to have perfect timing - Some heart cells can generate their own electricity o Pacemaker cells -> keep your heart beating at the correct rhythm & ensure that each cardiac muscle cell contracts in coordination with the others o Pacemaker cells are similar to your heart’s very own brain o Intrinsic Cardiac Conduction System  Transmits electricity along a precisely timed pathway that ends atrial & ventricular contraction (heartbeats)  Begins with pacemaker cells beginning their own action potentials  Pacemaker cells do not need an initial stimulus  Membrane potential slowly moves toward its threshold as sodium & potassium moves in & out  The leakier the membrane gets, the faster it fires action potentials  Pacemaker cells have the leakiest membranes (fastest rhythms; control rate of entire heart; FOUND in the Sinoatrial node (SA Node) in the right Atrium)  Atrioventricular Node (AV Node) located just above the tricuspid valve o Purkinje Fibers  Signal depolarization in all surrounding cells  Cause ventricles to contract from the bottom up Fibrillation - Out of sync behavior - No coordinated contraction, no “lub dub” - Person will soon be dead - Defibrillator used o Paddles send so much electricity through the heart that they trigger action potentials in all of the cells at once o Cells then repolarize and start leaking again o SA node reaches its threshold & resets the rhythm of the heart ATI Book Cardiovascular System Describes the movement of blood & lymph around the body, which permits nutrient distribution, waste removal, communication, and protection Open lymphatic system -> comprises lymph that bathes the interstitial spaces between cells & is circulated through lymph vessels Functions - Transporting nutrients & wastes - Transporting Chemical messengers - Transporting immune molecules Closed Circulatory System - a double loop system - consisting of thick-walled arteries that transport blood away from the heart - thinner-walled veins that transport blood to the heart - capillaries made of a single layer of endothelium that form a network that connect arteries to veins in tissues Open Circulatory System - capillaries drain interstitial fluid that fills the spaces between the cells and filter it through a system of lymph nodes that are enriched in lymphocytes & provide surveillance by the immune system - Lymph drains into the large veins leading back to the heart - Lymph -> plasma with the RBCs removed - Large #’s of leukocytes and lymphocytes are enriched in lymph nodes o Monitor and respond to foreign molecules washed into the system o Typically enriched in oral, nasal, and genital regions Open Lymphatic System - Circulates & filters interest cells and eventually drains into the circulatory system Double Loop System - Pulmonary Loop o Carries deoxygenated blood from the right ventricle to the lungs & returns oxygenated blood to the left atrium - Systemic Loop Systole o Carries oxygenated blood from the left ventricle to the body, returning deoxygenated blood to the right atrium - Contraction of heart muscles Diastole - Relaxation of heart muscle Sinoatrial Node - “Pacemaker” - Controls contractions - Sends out electrical signals Arteries - Thick walls - Able to withstand pressure of blood pumped by the heart Veins - Walls with a thinner muscle layer - Larger lumen Blood Plasma - Contains nutrients, hormones, antibodies, and other immune proteins - Carbon dioxide dissolves in plasma and is removed by the lungs Red Blood Cells - Contain hemoglobin - Transport oxygen from the lungs to the rest of the body White Blood Cells - Leukocytes o Protect the body against disease - Lymphocytes o A subtype of white blood cell found in lymph Vocab: - Arteries: blood vessels that deliver blood from the heart to other parts of the body - Capillary: small blood vessels that connect arterioles to venules - Diastole: the portion of the cardiac cycle in which the heart refills with blood - Hemoglobin: the protein in RBCs that carries oxygen from the lungs to the rest of the body - Lymph: clear fluid that moves throughout the lymphatic system to fight disease - Plasma: the pale yellow component of blood that carries RBCs, WBCs, and platelets throughout the body - Systole: the portion of the cardiac cycle in which the heart expels blood - Vein: blood vessels that carry blood to the heart Khan Academy – The Respiratory System Intake of Air - Air basically goes to the same place (back of throat) regardless if taken in through the mouth or the nose Adam’s Apple - Called an Adam’s apple because Adam is generally a boy’s name; to remind us that usually men or boys have larger Adam’s apple than girls - Helps control your voice - Another name -> Voice box - Air is passing through this - Entry into trachea - Use your Adam’s apple to make your voice higher or lower The Lungs - The right lung has three lobes - The left lung has two lobes - Left lung has a cardiac notch o A little spot that gets formed because the heart is peeking out there - The bronchial tree o Air goes down the main trunk (trachea) o Splits up - Alveoli o When the air goes into the alveoli, it has a dead end, and then it comes back around, and then you breathe it out o Before it leaves the alveoli, into the blood will go oxygen o Oxygen will go into the blood o Out of the blood will be waste (carbon dioxide) o Waste gets thrown back into the alveoli Diaphragm Muscle - Makes up the “floor” - ribs make up the “wall” Photosynthesis - Light Energy Water Carbon Dioxide (Inputs) => Glucose Oxygen (Outputs) - Happens during the day - Glucose ends up in fruits & vegetables that we eat - Makes an excess of oxygen; so it’s enough for humans and the plant itself Cellular Respiration - Glucose Oxygen (input) => Water Carbon Dioxide (output) Chemical Energy (ATP) - Plants are also capable of doing this all times of the day (just like humans) Air Breakdown - Oxygen makes up about 21% of our air - Carbon Dioxide makes up about less than 1% - 78% Nitrogen (N2) Nose Hair - Filter system - Make sure the large particles of dirt & dust are picked up Mucus in the Nose (Snot) - Small particles stick to it - Filter system - Way of cleaning up the air *MOUTH air is dirtier because it doesn’t have a filter system *Air in the body warmer and more moist than outside air (colder & dryer) 2 Options the Oxygen Molecule can go - *Into the Larynx (voicebox); epiglottis closes up and protects larynx o then into the trachea o then into the right or left lung  Bronchi is > 1  Bronchus = 1 o Then into the R/L Main (Primary) Bronchus o Then to the R/L Lobar (Secondary) Bronchus o Then to the L/R Segmental (Tertiary) Bronchus - Into the esophagus (where you want food to go, leads to the stomach) Upper Respiratory Tract - Larynx and everything above Lower Respiratory Tract - Trachea and everything below Carina - The spot where it splits into the left & right main bronchus - Right side more vertical - Left side more flat - Gravity is going to push more things towards the right main bronchus Conducting Bronchioles - Branch 4 -20 - Final conducting bronchiole (Terminal Bronchiole) Respiratory Bronchioles - Branches 21- - Attached to alveolar ducts Alveolar Sac - Branch off of alveolar ducts - Made up of Alveoli (plural) - Alveolus -> singular - Molecule of oxygen ends up here - Is now ready for gas exchange Respiratory Zone - Respiratory bronchioles on down Average air pressure -> P= 760 mmHg Inhaling & exhaling Exhalation - 1.) Volume goes down - 2.) Pressure goes up (more collisions happening) (760mmHg) “Positive” - 3.) Air molecules move out - 4.) Pressure will fall back to 760 mmHg Inhalation - 1.) Volume increases - 2.) Pressure decreases (757 mmHg) “negative” - 3.) Air molecules move in - 4.) Pressure increases back to 760 mmHg How Lung Volume Changes - “costal” refers to the ribs - Intercostal muscle between ribs - Intercostal muscles start contracting when the brain decides it wants to take a breath; ribs move out - When the diaphragm muscle contracts, it goes down & flatten out o All the above organs then physically move down & out - Expansion of the lungs -> all the alveoli are expanding (we have about 500 million alveoli); being pulled out & getting larger in size - Alveoli have a lot of protein around them called Elastin - Inhaling o 1. Volume increases o 1. Muscles contracting (requires chemical energy = ATP) o 2. Alveoli are stretched open through elastin proteins - Exhaling o 1. Volume decreases o 1. Muscles relax o 2. Alveoli recoil (driving force for why the volume goes back down); elastic potential energy Thermoregulation in the lungs - The air we breathe in goes into our lungs - Alveoli allows all the cold air you breathed in to equilibrate with the temperature of the blood that’s passing by these capillaries - Going to breathe out air that’s body temperature • Inhalation: Diaphragm contracts downward, ribs push out, lungs fill with air • Exhalation: Diaphragm relaxes upward, ribs relax, air pushes out • Hyperventilation: More CO2 than the body can produce (breathing out more than in) • Hypoventilation: Breathing at an abnormally slow rate, resulting in an increased amount of carbon dioxide in the blood ATI Notes – Respiratory System Main Function - Transporting oxygen from the atmosphere into the body’s cells and moving carbon dioxide in the other direction - Uniquely constructed to maximize surface area for the exchange of gases - Works interdependently with the circulatory system Ventilation - The process of aerating the lungs - Occurs as a combination of muscle action & negative pressure Alveoli - The site of gas exchange - Bathed in a layer of aqueous surfactant -> keeps the lung from collapsing on itself due to surface tension Lungs - Right lung a little larger than the left - Each lobe is contained within a tough, protective double membrane called the pleura, with pleural fluid in between - Described as resident in the pleural cavity - *NOTE: Heart is NOT part of the respiratory system - Gas exchange in the lungs occurs by diffusion -> passive transport mechanism - Rate of diffusion o Directly proportional to the surface area involved & concentration gradient o Inversely proportional to the distance between the two solutions - Oxygen in the lungs moves into the BLOOD, carbon dioxide in the blood moves into the LUNGS - Lungs then exhale carbon dioxide back to the atmosphere Medulla Oblongata - Breathing control centers of the medulla oblongata of the brainstem control respiration through monitoring carbon dioxide levels & blood pH Vocab: - Alveoli: tiny air sacs in the lungs where exchange of oxygen & carbon dioxide take place - Asthma: A lung disease characterized by inflamed, narrowed airways and difficulty breathing - Bronchi: the main passageways directly attached to the lungs - Bronchioles: Small passages in the lungs that connect bronchi to alveoli - Cystic Fibrosis: A genetic disorder that affects the lungs and other organs, characterized by difficulty breathing, coughing up sputum, and lung infections - Perfusion: The passage of fluid to an organ or a tissue - Pleura: a membrane around the lungs & inside the chest cavity - Surfactant: a fluid secreted by alveoli & found in the lungs - Tidal volume: the amount of air breathed in a normal inhalation or exhalation - Trachea: the windpipe, which connects the larynx to the lungs - Ventilation: the movement of air in & out of the body via inhalation & exhalation ATI Book Gastrointestinal System (Digestive System)/Alimentary Canal) Location - In the abdominal cavity - Starts at the mouth & ends at the anus Function - Specialized for breaking down good for absorption & distribution to the rest of the. body. - Specialized regions & glands perform both mechanical & chemical. (enzymatic) digestion - Blood vessels absorb the digested nutrients - Smooth muscle is under parasympathetic nervous system control Mechanical digestion - Chewing & grinding in the mouth increases surface area by breaking it down to smaller pieces Mucus in saliva lubricates food Salvia also provides amylase & lipase to initiate chemical digestion of starch & lipids Food is packaged into small parcels called “bolus” and swallowed (deglutition) Peristalsis moves the bolus down to the stomach through the gastric sphincter Chemical Digestion of Proteins - Initiated in the stomach by the enzyme pepsin 3 main secretions of the stomach - Pepsinogen (chief cells) - Mucus (goblet cells) - Hydrochloric acid (parietal cells) Duodenum - Chyme is neutralized by bicarbonate in pancreatic secretions - Receives alkaline bile juices from the gall bladder - Produces a large number of “brush border” enzymes o Proteases o Lactase o Disaccharides o Bicarbonate Small Intestine - Villi & microvilli absorb polar digest nutrients - A lot of water and nutrients are absorbed - The waste is exposed to bacterial fermentation in the colon Large Intestine - Absorbs remaining water & salt from digested food - Vitamin K absorbed Waste accumulates in the rectum & is ejected through the anus Hormones - Regulate many aspects of nutrition - Ghrelin induces hunger - Leptin causes the sensation of satiety (fullness) - Induce secretions & speed up the. movement of food through the small intestine - Insulin induces cellular uptake of glucose - Glucagon stimulates breakdown of the stored glycogen Vocab: - Anus: the opening of the rectum from which solid waste is expelled - Bolus: A mass. Of food that has been chewed and swallowed - Chyme: the semifluid mass of partly digested food that moves from the stomach to the small intestine - Enzymatic Digestion: the break down of food by enzymes for absorption - Gall bladder: the organ that stores bile - Large intestine: aka the colon, where vitamins and water are absorbed before feces is stored prior to elimination - Liver: the organ that produces bile, regulates glycogen storage, and performs other bodily functions. - Mouth: the oral cavity at the entry to the alimentary canal - Pancreas: the gland of the digestive & endocrine systems that produces insulin & secretes pancreatic juices - Rectum: the last section. Of the large intestine, ending with the anus - Saliva: the clear liquid found in the mouth, also known as spit - Small intestine: the part of the GI tract between the stomach and large intestine that includes the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum, where digestion and absorption of food occurs - Stomach: the organ between the esophagus & small intestine in where the major portion of digestion occurs Neuromuscular System – ATI Book A complex system that integrates muscles & nerves Nerves - Long bundles of axons that transmit signals from the central nervous system - Sensory (afferent) nerves o Send messages to the central nervous system (CNS) - Motor (efferent) nerves o Send messages to the muscles Autonomic Nervous System - Involuntary - Cardiac & smooth muscle o Ex. Heart rhythm, digestion, and breathing Muscles - Contain long myofibrils made of sarcomere units o Each consisting of long strands of protein called actin (thin filaments) and myosin (thick filaments) - Skeletal muscles work by contracting Neuromuscular System Function: Controls voluntary and involuntary movement. Nerve: Long bundles of axons that transmit signals from the CNS • Electrical impulse from dendrite to axon terminal o Transmitted from cell to cell via neurotransmitters secreted into the synapse from the axon terminal Synapse: The structure that allows neurons to pass signals to other neurons, muscles, or glands Neurotransmitter: A chemical substance that is released from the AXON TERMINAL by the arrival of a nerve impulse • Diffuses across the SYNAPSE, • causes the transfer of the impulse to another nerve fiber, a muscle fiber, or some other structure at the DENDRITE of the other cell o Acetylcholine: NT; causes muscle to contract o Dopamine: NT; precursor to epinephrine Central NS: Brain and Spinal Cord Peripheral NS: • Sensory NS: AFFERENT; send messages TO CNS • Motor NS: EFFERENT; send messages TO MUSCLES o Somatic NS: Carries information to CNS from senses, and from CNS to skeletal muscles o Autonomic NS: Involuntary; controls actions involving cardiac and smooth muscle  Sympathetic NS: Arouses body; FIGHT or FLIGHT  Parasympathetic NS: Calms body; Rest and Digest Brain: Control center • 4 Lobes o Frontal Lobe: thinking, organizing, emotions, behavior, personality o Parietal Lobe: perception, making sense, arithmetic, spelling o Temporal: memory, understanding, language o Occipital: vision Brain Anatomy Cerebellum: Balance and coordination Cerebrum: Anterior brain Pons: Brainstem that links medulla and thalamus Medulla Oblongata: Control center for heart and lungs Brainstem: Contains the Pons, Medulla Oblongata, Midbrain Midbrain: Develops from the middle of the embryonic brain Thalamus: Relays sensory information; pain perception Hippocampus: Emotion, memory, ANS Amygdala: Emotions MUSCLES Myosin: THICK FILAMENT; fibrous protein; forms the contractile filaments of muscle cells Actin: THIN FILAMENT; protein involved in motion; works with myosin Sarcomere: Myofibril containing myosin and actin Smooth Muscle: Involuntary muscle, not striated • Stomach, lung, intestine… Striated Muscle: Voluntary muscle; striated • Biceps, triceps, gluteus maximus… Cardiac Muscle: Involuntary muscle; striated • Heart Vocab: - Autonomic nervous system: the part of the peripheral nervous system that regulates unconscious body functions such as breathing & heart rate - Axon: a nerve fiber that carries a nerve impulse AWAY from the neuron cell body - Contraction: the process leading to shortening and/or development of tension in a muscle - Muscle: fibrous tissue that produces force & motion to move the body or produce movement in parts of the body - Nerve: a bundle of nerve fibers that transmits electrical impulses toward & away from the brain & spinal cord - Reflex: an involuntary action to a stimulus - Relaxation: release of tension in a muscle - Synapse: the structure that allows neurons to pass signals to other neurons, muscles, or glands Reproductive System – ATI Book Works in tandem with the endocrine system to influence many other body parts Male Reproductive System - Scrotum houses the testes away from the body to lower their temperature during sperm production - Prostate & seminal vesicles produce the fluids necessary for lubricating & nourishing the sperm - The Vas Deferens, urethra, and penis form the channel through which sperm is ejected Female Reproductive System - Generates female gametes (eggs) - Majority of the female reproductive system is internal - Vagina leads from the external genitals to the cervix - Cervix -> opening to the uterus - Fallopian tubes -> connect the ovaries to the uterus - Graafian follicle in the ovary matures & releases an egg - Fertilization occurs in the FALLOPIAN TUBES - Fertilized egg embeds itself in the uterine wall (endometrium) & produces placenta - Placenta o Allows the fetus & parent blood supplies to network o Nourishes the fetus & removes wastes Hormones - Allow for cell-to-cell communication - Females produce estrogen from the ovaries o Causes the egg to mature in the ovary’s Graafian follicle & the uterine endometrium to thicken - Luteinizing hormone (LH) from the pituitary causes the developing egg to be released - Empty Graafian follicle now called the corpus luteum & produces large amounts of progesterone o Prepares the endometrium for implantation of the fertilized egg - Testosterone production not cyclical o Sperm constantly produced & matured - Both male & female hormones help control secondary sexual characteristics such as production of mammary glands, axial & facial hair, fat deposition patters, and muscle growth Reproductive System MALES • Produce, maintain, and transfer sperm and semen into the female reproductive tract. • Produce and secrete male hormones. External Organs: Penis, Scrotum, Testes • Scrotum: Protects testes; keeps optimal temperature for spermatogenesis. • Testes: Male gonads; produce sperm and testosterone. Internal Organs: Epididymis, Vas Deferens, Ejaculatory Ducts, Urethra, Seminal Vesicles, and Bulbourethral glands • Epididymis: Stores sperm as it matures • Vas Deferens: Mature sperm move from epididymis to Vas Deferens to the ejaculatory duct • Seminal Vesicles: Secrete alkaline fluids with protein and mucus into ejaculatory duct • Prostate Gland: Secretes a milky white fluid with proteins and enzymes as part of semen • Bulbourethral (Cowper's) Gland: Secrete a fluid to neutralize the acidity in the urethra Hormones • FSH: Stimulates spermatogenesis • LH: Stimulates testosterone production • Testosterone: Male sex characteristics FEMALES • Produce ova (oocytes/egg cells) • Transfer ova to fallopian tubes for fertilization • Receive sperm from male • Provide a protective, nourishing environment for developing embryo External Organs: Labia Majora, Labia Minora, Bartholin's Glands, Clitoris • Labia (both): Close and protect vagina • Bartholin's Gland: Secrete lubricating fluid • Clitoris: Contains erectile tissue and nerve endings for sensual pleasure Internal Organs: Ovaries, Fallopian Tubes, Uterus, Vagina • Ovaries: Female gonads; produce ova, and secrete estrogen and progesterone • Fallopian Tubes: Carry mature egg toward uterus; site of fertilization • Uterus: Fertilized egg implants on uterine wall; protects and nourishes developing embryo until birth • Vagina: Muscular tube from cervix to outside of body; receives semen, is site of intercourse, and birth canal Hormones • Estrogen: Stimulates egg maturation; female sex characteristics • Progesterone: Prepares uterus to receive fertilized egg • FSH: Stimulates oogenesis • LH: Stimulates estrogen production • Oxytocin: Stimulates contraction of uterus and mammary gland cells • Prolactin: Stimulates milk production Vocab: - Cervix: the passage that forms the lower part of the uterus - Estrogen: female sex hormones - Fallopian tubes: tubes that carry eggs from the ovaries to the uterus - Ovary: organ in which eggs are produced for reproduction - Penis: Organ for elimination of urine and sperm for the male body - Prostate: the gland in males that controls the release of urine & secretes a part of semen that enhances motility and fertility of sperm - Scrotum: the pouch of skin that contains the testicles - Testes (testicles): the organs that produce sperm - Testosterone: the hormone that stimulates male secondary sexual characteristics - Urethra: the tube that connects the bladder to the exterior of the body - Uterus: the womb - Vagina: the tube that connects the external genitals to the cervix - Vas Deferens: the duct in which sperm moves from a testicle to the urethra Integumentary System – ATI Book Contains organs & glands that are vital to protecting the body & regulating temperature Refers to the largest organ -> the skin Integumentary System consists of - Skin - Hair - Nails - Sebaceous, sudoriferous & ceruminous glands The skin - Epidermis (outer layer) - Dermis (middle layer) - Subcutaneous/Hypodermis (inner layer) Within the skin: - Hair follicles - Sweat glands - Blood vessels *Skin important for maintaining homeostasis & providing a waterproof barrier between the inside of the body & the external environment Skin - Contains sensory nerve endings that allow the body to detect touch, change in temperature, and pain - Produces vitamin D when ultraviolet light hits the skin Integumentary System Role - Plays a vital role in thermoregulation o When the body becomes too warm, sweat is produced by sebaceous glands o Evaporation of the water on the skin creates a cooling effect on the skin o Blood vessels in the skin can dilate when the body is warm  Dilated blood vessels carry more blood closer to the skin surface  Blood is cooled & returns to deeper tissue at a cooler temperature o If the body is too cold, blood vessels constrict so that less blood is carried to the skin surface Epidermis: Most superficial layer of skin; entirely epithelial cells • Does NOT contain blood vessels • 5 layers o Stratum Corneum: "Top Layer"- Dead keratinocytes o Stratum Lucidum: "Clear Layer"- Colorless protein eleidin o Stratum Granulosum: "Thin Layer"- granular layer o Stratum Spinosum: "Spiny Layer"- Thickest layer, keratinocytes, immune dendritic cells, sensory cells o Stratum Basale: "Basal Layer"- Bottom layer; contains melanocytes. Dermis: Directly below epidermis; mostly connective tissue • Contains blood vessels • Sensory receptors • Hair follicles • Sebaceous glands • Sweat glands • Elastin and Collagen fibers Hypodermis/SubQ: Connective tissue • Binds the skin to underlying muscle • Fat deposits cushion and insulate the body Glands Exocrine: Secrete substances into ducts • Holocrine: secretory products; whole cells; connected to hair follicle o Sebaceous Glands: secrete sebum: an oily mixture of lipids and proteins; waterproofs skin, protects from pathogens • Eccrine: Not connected to hair follicle, activated by high body temperature, located throughout the body. A type of sweat gland (sudoriferous gland) in thermoregulation. o Secrete a salty solution of electrolytes and water  NaCl  KHCO3  Glucose  Antimicrobial Peptides • Apocrine: Secrete an oily solution (fatty acids, triglycerides, and proteins) o Located in:  Armpits  Groin  Palms  Soles of feet o Secrete (sweat) during anxiety or stress o Body Odor forms from bacteria feeding on apocrine sweat Vocab: - Excretion: elimination of metabolic waste from the body - Gland: an organ that secretes a substance - Sweat: perspiration excreted by sweat glands through the skin Endocrine System – ATI Book Endocrine system -> set of organs that secrete hormones directly into the circulatory system Major Glands - Pineal - Hypothalamus - Pituitary - Thyroid - Parathyroid - Thymus - Adrenal - Pancreas -> releases insulin; signals cells to uptake sugar - Ovaries - Testes Endocrine System regulates: - Blood production - Appetite - Reproduction - Brain function - Sleep cycle - Salt-and-water homeostasis - Growth - Sexual development - Response to stress & injury Hormone Imbalances - Can cause metabolic diseases - Diabetes, hyperthyroidism, gigantism, etc. - Hormone levels often measured to determine if a disease is present Nervous System Integrates with Endocrine System at the Hypothalamus - Nervous system receives signals from the sensory system & uses electrical impulses to send signals to the hypothalamus to activate the pituitary - Pituitary gland then sends releasing hormones to other glands in the body that controls their hormone production - Hormones are made at the gland and released directly into the circulatory system & are received by the target cell - *Endocrine system acts more slowly than the nervous system & the effects last longer than nervous system impulses Vocab: - Adrenal: gland above the kidney that produces hormones to regulate heart rate, blood pressure, and other functions - Hormone: a chemical messenger produced by a gland and transported by the bloodstream that regulates specific processes in the body - Parathyroid: an endocrine gland in the neck that produces parathyroid hormone - Pineal gland: a small gland near the center of the brain the secretes melatonin - Pituitary: the endocrine gland at the base of the brain that controls growth & development - Thymus: the lymphoid organ that produces T-cells - Thyroid gland: the gland in the neck that secretes hormones that regulate growth, development, and metabolic rate Gland/Organ Hormone Secreted Function Hypothalamus Releasing/Inhibiting hormones Stimulate Pituitary Anterior Pituitary (base of brain; controls growth and development Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH) Stimulate adrenal cortex to secrete glucocorticoids Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH) Stimulate the Thyroid gland Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH) Stimulates production of ova (females) and sperm (males) Luteinizing Hormone (LH) Stimulates Ovaries (females) and Testes (males) Prolactin Stimulates milk production Growth Hormone (GH) Stimulates growth (bones) and metabolic functions Posterior Pituitary (back of anterior pituitary) Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH) Promotes retention of water by the kidneys Oxytocin Stimulates contraction of uterus and mammary gland cells Pineal Gland (center of brain) Melatonin Sleep cycles; biorhythms Thyroid (neck; hormones regulate growth, development, and metabolism) Triiodothyronine (T3) Metabolism Thyroxine (T4) Metabolism and temperature Calcitonin Inhibits release of Calcium from bones Parathyroid (4 glands on Thyroid) Parathyroid Hormone (PTH) Stimulates release of calcium from bones, back into blood. Thymus (lymphoid organ that produces T-Cells) Thymosin Stimulates T-Cell Development Adrenal Glands (Above Kidneys; regulate HR, BP, and other functions) See below See below Adrenal Cortex (stimulates fight or flight response) Cortisol/Glucocorticoids Stress response; Increase blood glucose, Decrease immune response; metabolism Aldosterone Regulates Na content in blood Adrenal Medulla (stimulates fight or flight response) Epinephrine Fight Norepinephrine Flight Ovaries (female gonads) Estrogen Stimulates egg maturation, controls 2ndary sex characteristics Progesterone Prepares uterus to receive fertilized egg Testes (male gonads) Testosterone Regulates sperm production and 2ndary sex characteristics Kidneys Erythropoietin Response to cellular hypoxia Renin Promotes production of Angiotensin Liver Angiotensin II Vasoconstriction, Increase BP Pancreas Glucagon (Alpha Cells) Increase blood glucose Insulin (Beta Cells) Decrease blood glucose Stomach Gastrin Response to food; stimulates production of gastric juices Intestine Secretin Response to acidity in small intestine; stimulates secretion by liver and pancreas Cholecystokinin Production of Bile Salts Heart Atrial Natriuretic Peptide (ANP) Increase renal Na excretion, decrease ECF Urinary System – Khan Academy Meet the Kidneys - Kidneys receive blood from the heart - Kidneys filter the blood & release urine - Urine -> collection of waste products your body wants to get rid of - Urine stays in bladder until you go to the bathroom - Each gets an artery that goes to them - Need oxygen to do well What the Kidneys Do - Help us maintain our blood pressure - If you have too much of your nutrients, they become waste products - Kidneys make sure you don’t build too much of your nutrients - Make it so that the nutrients you had in your arterial blood are collected & maintained once it reaches the vein (vein will have less oxygen) - Hold on to all the waste products your arterial blood brought so it does not end up in the venous outflow - Produce urine Unique to Kidney - Has TWO capillary beds (connects the artery and the vein) o Work together to deliver oxygen to the kidney’s tissue o Recollects the nutrients so the vein can take the nutrients elsewhere in the body for use o Names  Glomerulus Capillaries • Gives oxygen to the kidneys  Peritubular Capillaries • Collecting nutrients that our kidneys will filter Kidney Responsibility - Filtering blood - Carrying urine - Stabilizing water balance - Producing active form of vitamin D Blood Pressure - Pressure of the blood helps the glomerulus filter out wastes & return vital nutrients to the blood through the renal vein Kidney Function & Anatomy - Blood comes in through the renal artery, and comes out of the ureter to produce urine - Blood then filtrates, processes, and reabsorbs some ions & water - Renal veins going to take the reabsorbed nutrients back into the blood Renin - A hormone the kidney produces - Regulates blood pressure by retaining or removing water & salt 2 Main Functions = unit = nephron - Filtration o Filter blood - Collection The Nephron - Smallest functional unit of the kidney - Responsible for filtration & collection - Situated between the cortex and the medulla “cortex” = the shell “medulla” = the middle Renal Calyx - Where urine is present first Renal Pelvis - Where all the calyces collect together - Urine will exit the pelvis through the ureter where it will exit the kidneys The Hilum - Area where the renal artery, renal vein, and the ureter are located Homeostasis - Kidneys help maintain it - Maintain the pH in your blood by regulating the amount of hydrogen ions - Maintain blood pressure; make sure you excrete the right amount of sodium & chloride ions - Maintain osmolality - Excretion of waste products (main one -> urea) Glomerular Filtration in the nephron - Glomerulus o Located in the renal cortex o Receives branches that come off the renal artery o Main site for filtration o Where we take blood and turn it into filtrate, and let the rest of the blood flow on o Branches off into arterioles  Afferent arteriole -> going TOWARDS the glomerulus  Efferent arteriole -> going AWAY from the glomerulus - Bowman’s Capsule o Where we’re going to collect the filtrate/fluid that comes out of the glomerulus o Inside of it is just open space Changing Glomerular Filtration Rate - Changing diameter in the efferent & afferent arteriole Countercurrent Multiplication in the Kidney - Proximal convoluted tubule o Important for reabsorbing ions like sodium & chloride; builders of macromolecules like amino acids & glucose o Water reabsorbed - Loop of Henle o Descending Limb  Diving deep into the kidney  Reabsorbs water, NO ions  Impermeable to ions o Ascending Limb  Rises up  Reabsorbs things like sodium, chloride, potassium  Impermeable to water o This is countercurrent multiplication  Countercurrent because the ascending & descending limb go in opposite directions  Multiplication means that when we reabsorb ions in the ascending limb and make the medulla salty by not reabsorbing water, that drives water to be reabsorbed passively in the descending limb Distal Convoluted Tubule - Responsible for the reabsorption of other ions like sodium & chloride - Helps to pick up more important nutrients we’d like to have in our bloodstream that we don’t want to pee away Juxtaglomerular Apparatus - Responsible for the control of blood pressure Collecting Tubule/Collecting Duct - Collects things that we have left over in the lumen/inside of the nephron - Many of these that feed into the single collecting duct - The main thing we reabsorb into our interstitium is water - Urea reabsorbed to maintain osmolarity in our medulla that will help drive water reabsorption in the loop of Henle • Renal Cortex: Outer Layer o Contains ~1 million Nephrons (filters) o Glomerulus: Capillary in nephron o Bowman's Capsule: encapsulates the glomerulus • Renal Medulla: Middle Layer o Proximal Convoluted Tubule: Water, glucose, ions, and other organic molecules are reabsorbed back into the blood stream. o Distal Convoluted Tubule: Urea and drugs are removed from blood. pH in blood is adjusted with H ions. • Renal Pelvis: Inner Layer Materials arrive as urine from distal convoluted tubule Urination Micturition -> to pee/urinate Dispel bacteria that may have made it up the urethra from contact with the external environment Ureters - Have valves that prevent backflow of urine upwards - Ureters attached to the posterior side of the bladder - Bring urine to the bladder Bladder - Lined with transitional epithelium o Allows the bladder to expand - Holds about 300-500 mL of urine - Has sensors that communicate with the central nervous system - In order for excretion to occur, both the internal & external sphincters of the bladder must relax Urethra - Final part of the urinary tract - Will conduct urine to the outside world - Internal Urethral Sphincter o Circle of muscle NOT under our control o Makes sure the bladder keeps urine within it o Smooth muscle (involuntarily controlled) - Female Urethra o Has a membranous urethra -> External Urethral Sphincter  Circles the urethra  Made up of skeletal muscle  VOLUNTARY  What is learned to control during potty-training o Smaller than male urethra -> greater risk for infection - Male Urethra o Doesn’t go directly into the membranous urethra Stasis o Prostatic urethra  Because we pass through an area called the prostate o Membranous urethra comes AFTER the prostatic urethra o Spongy urethra  In the penis - If urine backflow isn’t prevented - Greater risk for infection Vocab: - Kidneys: pair of organs that regulate fluid balance and filter waste from the blood - Nephron: the part of the kidney responsible for filtering & excretion - Renal arteries: the two branches of the abdominal aorta that supply the kidneys - Renal cortex: the outer layer of the kidney - Renal medulla: the innermost part of the kidney - Renal Pelvis: the center of the kidney where urine collects before moving to the ureter - Renal vein: a vein carrying blood from a kidney to the inferior vena cava - Renin: an enzyme released by the kidney when reduced blood pressure is detected by baroreceptors in aorta & carotid arteries - Urea: the main nitrogenous part of urine - Ureter: the duct that conducts urine from the kidney to the bladder - Urinary bladder: the structure that stores urine in the body until elimination - Urine: liquid waste matter excreted by the kidneys Hematologic System – Khan Academy What’s inside of blood - Plasma -> makes up 55% of our blood’s volume o 90% of plasma is water o 8% of plasma is protein (ex. Albumin, Antibody, Fibrinogen ( clotting factors) o 2% is hormones, electrolytes, & nutrients - White Blood Cells/platelets -> less than 1% of our blood - Red Blood Cells -> About 45% of our blood o Most dense o Contain hemoglobin  Four heme groups  Most important -> iron  Each heme group can bond to oxygen molecules  With oxygen, hemoglobin looks red  Without oxygen, hemoglobin looks bluish/purple/darkish o Carry oxygen around o Take up about 98.5% of the oxygen o Contain lots of protein within them (hemoglobin) o Hematocrit = Volume of RBCs / Total Volume  Percent taken up by RBCs  Going to change depending on age, gender, where you live (altitude) o Look like a flattened sphere with a divot o Biconcave in shape o Has NO NUCLEUS & NO DNA  Push their nucleus out of the cell for more space for more hemoglobin o Short lives Serum - Similar to plasma - Does not include the fibrinogen or clotting factors Polycythemia -> volume of RBCs over the total volume is very high Anemia -> low volume of RBCs Anatomy of an RBC - Cell membrane made up of lipids - In the lipids there are proteins& molecules with different functions o A Molecule o B Molecule o These are glycolipids, but not everyone has both Blood Types - Type O -> Universal Donor - Type AB -> Universal Recipient All blood cells in the body come from bone marrow - The head of the femur, humerus (long bones) - Come from the sternum (flat bones) Pluripotent Hematopoietic Stem Cell - Able to give rise to any of the ten blood cells - Gives rise to two lineages o Myeloid lineage  Gives rise to red blood cells  Most common of all blood cells  Also gives rise to Megakaryocytes (produce platelets) • Platelets bud off of it  Give rise to Macrophage cells • First is a monocyte, then becomes a macrophage once in the tissues • Monocytes give rise to the o Neutrophil (most common immune cell in blood) o Eosinophil (more rare than neutrophils) o Basophils (more rare than Eosinophils)  Mast Cells • Release histamine • Allergic reactions o Lymphoid Lineage  B Cells • Going to make antibodies  T Cells  Natural Killer Cell (NK) - Dendritic Cells o Cane come from either the myeloid or lymphoid lineage The Immune System – ATI Book Immune system functions like fortifications of a castle to protect the body Prevents entry of pathogens through the presence of barriers composed of the skin & secretions such as acid, enzymes, & salt - If the external barriers are ruptured, that are cells and chemicals that act as soldiers to attack the pathogens - If the barrier fails, the adaptive immune system identifies, targets, and remembers the pathogen *Ultimate function -> to protect the body from pathogen attack while allowing harmless molecules to enter the body. 2 Major components of the Immune System in vertebrates: - Innate o Nonspecific response o Series of nonspecific barriers that impede pathogens from entering the body or multiplying o External barriers  Physical barrier of the skin & mucus secretions o Chemical barriers  Low pH  Salt  Enzymes o Cellular barriers  Commensal micro-organisms o If the pathogen breaks the barriers & enters, internal barriers include:  Antimicrobial peptides  Interferons that prevent viral replication  Complement (binding of antibodies to the pathogen)  Inflammation reactions (fever)  Natural killer (NK) lymphocyte cells -> attack the host cells that harbor intracellular pathogens  Phagocytic cells -> engulf & digest extracellular pathogens o Macrophages & dendritic cells respond to conserved pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) through toll-like receptors and trigger an inflammation or antigen presentation - Adaptive (acquired) o Respond to specific antigens o Remembers signature molecules (antigens) which have been previously exposed to the body o Functional cells -> lymphocytes called T-cells & B-cells o Helper T-cell produces cytokines that activate the cytotoxic T-cell o Cytotoxic T-cell searches out & destroys any cell that contains the pathogen’s signature antigen o Helper T-cell also activates B-cells that recognize the pathogen’s signature antigen o B-cell multiplies rapidly into plasma cells which produce large amounts of antibody o Antibodies bind to the antigen o If antigen levels subside, plasma cells stop making antibodies and produce memory cells that remember the antigen o Re-encounter with an antigen can trigger rapid activation of plasma cells & cytotoxic T-cells Immune System functions through interactions with several other systems - Pathogens can enter the body via lymph nodes - These lymph nodes contain large number of antigen-presenting cells that can trigger the adaptive immune system Many diseases caused by immune system are malfunction - AIDS caused by a virus, HIV, which infects helper T-cells o prevents Helper T-cell from activating cytotoxic T-cells & B-cells o preventing the adaptive immune system from operating - The immune system can mistakenly target a host molecule as a foreign antigen, leading to autoimmune disease Function: Protects the body against invading pathogens including bacteria, viruses, fungi, and protists. Lymphatic System: Lymph, lymph capillaries, lymph vessels, lymph nodes. • Skeletal muscle contractions move the lymph one way through the lymphatic system to lymphatic ducts o Dump back into venous supply via lymph nodes • Red marrow- produces blood cells • Leukocytes- WBC Lymph Nodes: located in neck, armpit, and groin • Small swellings in the lymphatic system where lymph is filtered and lymphocytes are formed Lymph Tissue: Tonsils, adenoids, thymus, spleen, peyer's patches • Tonsils: Located in pharynx o Protect against pathogens entering via mouth or throat • Thymus: Maturation chamber for immune T Cells formed in bone marrow • Spleen: Cleans blood of dead cells and pathogens • Peyer's Patches: Located in ileum of Sm. Intestine. o Protects GI tract from pathogens General Immune Defenses • Skin: Primary barrier (intact) • Ciliated Mucous Membranes: Cilia protect respiratory system • Glandular Secretions: Exocrine- destroy bacteria • Gastric Secretions: Gastric Acid destroys pathogens • Normal Bacterial Populations: Compete with pathogens in gut and vagina 3 Types of WBC • Macrophage: Phagocytes that alert T-Cells to the presence of foreign substances o Largest, longest living phagocyte o Engulf and destroy pathogens o Found in lymph • T Lymphocytes: Directly attack cells infected by viruses and bacteria o Helper T, Killer T, Memory T, Suppressor T • B Lymphocytes: Target specific bacteria for destruction o Plasma Cells: Antibody production. Other Immune Cells • Helper T-Cells: Activate B-Cells to make Antibodies and other chemicals • Suppressor T-Cells: Stop other T-Cells when the battle is over • Memory T-Cells: Remain in blood on alert incase invader attacks again • Killer/Cytotoxic T-Cells: Destroy Cells infected with a pathogen, virus, or tumor Leukocytes: WBC- Produced in Red Marrow • Monocyte o Macrophage o Dendritic Cell: Present antigens to T Cell • Granulocyte o Neutrophil: Short living phagocyte; responds quick to invaders o Basophil: Alerts body of invasion o Eosinophil: Large, long living phagocyte; Defend against multicellular invaders • T Lymphocyte • B Lymphocyte • Natural Killer Cell Antibody Mediated Response: Response is to an antigen Cellular Mediated Response: Response is to an already infected cell Antigen: Foreign particle that stimulates the immune system • Typically a protein on the surface of bacteria, virus, or fungi Antibody: A blood protein that counteracts a specific antigen Steps of Immune System 1. Macrophage engulfs antigen and presents fragments of antigen on its surface 2. A Helper T Cell joins the Macrophage 3. Killer/Cytotoxic T Cells and B Cells are activated 4. Killer/Cytotoxic T Cells search and destroy cells presenting the same antigen 5. B Cells differentiate into Plasma Cells and Memory Cells Innate Immune System • Born with it • Non Specific response • EX) Skin, hair, mucus, earwax, secretions, normal flora, antimicrobials, inflammation, interferons, complement, NK Lymphocytes, phagocytes Adaptive Immune System • Responds to specific antigens • Vaccinations or previous encounters o Reaction: Cytotoxic T Cells kill pathogen o Prevention: B Cells produce Antibodies • Activated by Antigen and Helper T Cells • Helper T Cells activated by Antigen Presenting Cells (APC) Naturally Acquired Active Immunity: Exposure to pathogen without immunization Naturally Acquired Passive Immunity: Occurs during pregnancy and during breast feeding • Antibodies are passed from mother to child • Provides protection from infancy to childhood Artificially Acquired Active Immunity: Build immunity via Vaccination Artificially Acquired Passive Immunity: Immunization given during an outbreak or emergency • Quick, short lived protection • Antibodies come from another person or animal Vocab: - Adaptive Immune System: a kind of passive or active immunity in which antibodies to a particular antigen are present in the body - Antibody: a blood protein that counteracts a specific antigen - Antigens: substances on the surfaces of agents that act to identify them, to the body, as being native or foreign - Antigen presenting cell (APC): a cell that displays foreign antigens with major histocompatibility complexes on their surfaces - Antimicrobial: a substance that kills or inhibits growth of micro-organisms with minimal damage to the host - B-cell: lymphocytes that mature in bone marrow and make antibodies in response to antigens - Complement: the group of proteins in blood serum & plasma that works with antibodies to destroy particulate antigens - Dendritic cell: antigen-presenting cells that process antigen material and present it to T- cells - Immunoglobulin: an antibody - Innate immune system: a collection of nonspecific barriers & cellular responses that serve as an inborn first & second line of defense against pathogens - Macrophage: a large white blood cell that ingests foreign material - Memory cell: a lymphocyte that responds to an antigen upon reintroduction - Phagocytosis: ingestion of particles by a cell or phagocyte - Plasma cell: a white blood cell that produces a single type of antibody - T-cell: white blood cells that mature in the thymus & participate in immune response Skeletal System – ATI Book 3 main functions - Movement - Protection - Metabolism Bones - Synthesize blood and immune cells - Store calcium, phosphate, & lipids - A dynamic tissue that is made & broken own according to need - Come in four major types o Long  Have long compact hollow shafts containing marrow  Ends are usually made of spongy bone with air pockets  Examples: humerus, ulna, radius, femur, tibia, fibular o Short  Wider than they are long  Examples: toe bones (metatarsals) o Flat  Not hollow but contain marrow  Examples: scapula, ribs, & sternum o Irregular  Nonsymmetrical shapes  Include the bones of the skull, knee, and elbow Ligaments -> bone to bone Tendon -> muscle to bone Hyoid Bone - Supports the tongue - only bone in the body not connected to other bones - held in place only by muscle Hyaline Cartilage - cover the articulating surfaces of bones - prevents them from grinding against each other Synovial Joints - contain lubricating synovial fluid - hinge, ball & socket, pivot - capable of movement 2 Main types of bone cells - multinucleate osteoclasts o cells that remove bone - mononucleate osteoblasts o cells that make bone Periosteum - fibrous sheath that covers bone - contains nerves & blood vessels Osteon - Bone is synthesized in tubular structures called osteon - Composed of calcium & phosphate rich hydroxyapatite embedded in a collagen matrix Brittle Bone Disease - Due to a genetic defect in the collagen matrix - Causes bones to break easily Vocab: - Bone: hard, calcified material that makes up the skeleton - Brittle bone disease: a group of diseases that affect collagen & result in ossified bone - Cartilage: tough, elastic connective tissue found in parts of the body such as the ear - Collagen: the primary structural protein of connective tissue - Haversian canal: channels in bone that contain blood vessels & nerves - Lamellae: layers of bone, tissue, or cell walls - Lining cells: flattened bone cells that come from osteoblasts - Osteoarthritis: degenerative joint disease - Osteoblasts: cells that MAKE bone - Osteoclasts: cells that REMOVE bone - Osteocytes: bone cells - Osteons: cylindrical structures that compromise compact bone - Osteoporosis: a disease that causes brittle, fragile bones - Rheumatoid arthritis: a progressive disease that causes join inflammation & pain - Volkmann canal: channels in bone that transmit blood vessels & communicate with Haversian canals BIOLOGY Macromolecules: Carbohydrate, Lipid, Nucleic Acid, Protein, Enzyme Carbohydrate: Sugars and starches which body breaks down to glucose • Structural function: cellulose and chitin • Energy storage: amylose, amylopectin, glycogen • Recognition molecules: glycoproteins and glycolipids Lipids: Fatty acids and their derivatives that are soluble in water • H and C and main components • Fats • Hydrophobic- thus help separate aqueous compartments • Store energy (fats, oils, adipose) Protein: Molecules composed of amino acids joined by peptide bonds • Monomer: amino acids (amino group carboxylic acid)(20 types) • Keratin and Collagen (hydrophobic)- not soluble in water, found in structural protein • Globular proteins are hydrophilic (hemoglobin, antibodies, enzymes) • Function as transport carries or signal transfer Nucleic Acids: Long molecules made of nucleotides; DNA and RNA • DNA stores genetic material • Chromosomes • RNA is a messenger (mRNA) also rRNA and tRNA Enzymes: Class of protein that catalyze biochemical reactions • Not consumed in reaction • Speed up reaction by lowering activation energy • Exergonic: release energy • Endergonic: require energy • Energy is supplied and released as ATP • Lock and Key (substrate must fit into enzymes active site) DNA and RNA DNA: macromolecule that contains coded instructions

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