sophia final milestone.Questions and Answers
sophia final milestone.Questions and Answers
PHI 2000 Introduction to Ethics Final Exam Sophia 1 "Capital punishment is wrong because it turns all the state's citizens into killers." To which theory of ethics is the person who made this statement likely appealing? • Kantian deontology • Virtue-based ethics • Utilitarianism • Conventionalism CONCEPT Case Study: Capital Punishment 2 Which of the following statements is true of ethics? • Ethics is not subject to the same level of rigor as other philosophical pursuits. • Objectivity is vital to ethical thought. • Ethical principles are just personal opinions. • Ethical behavior has little to do with interpersonal interaction. CONCEPT Introduction to Philosophical Ethics 3 Which of the following statements supports egoism? • The rule of law motivates actions for individuals. • A flourishing society requires flourishing individuals. • A society is more just if it enforces laws for the benefit of everyone. • Ethical standards are easily upheld when they benefit others. CONCEPT Support for Egoism 4 Which of the following scenarios would be impermissible for an egoist? • Keith gives up the comfort of home to realize his dream of playing in the NBA. • Krysta has some time to kill, so she sits in the mall and watches people go by. • Katie picks up litter on the street because she wants to live in a clean neighborhood. • Kevin works late, even though he doesn't get paid and has nothing to gain from it. CONCEPT Commitments of Egoism 5 Which of the following statements about divine command theory is true? • Divine command theory states that what is religious is inherently good and what isn't is bad. • Divine command theory is a basic principle of all religions. • Divine command theory states that right is right only because God says so. • Divine command theory states that the ends justify the means. CONCEPT Divine Command Theory 6 Jerome conducts a survey to see how many of his neighbors believe they have a moral duty to report suspicious activity to the police. He finds that 8 in 10 believe they have such a duty. Which branch of ethics do the results of Jerome's survey represent? • Metaethics • Normative ethics • Descriptive ethics CONCEPT Branches of Ethics 7 The ethical position that evaluates the morality of an action solely on the results of that action is __________. • deontology • character ethics • consequentialism • divine command theory CONCEPT Different Considerations for Evaluating Actions 8 Which of the following is a benefit of philosophy? • Philosophy defends what is traditional in society. • Philosophy is useful as a tool to justify personal opinions. • Philosophy improves understanding of argumentation. • Philosophy maintains society's collective memory. CONCEPT Benefits of Philosophy and Ethics 9 Susan is studying the morality of taking terminally ill patients off life support. After thorough research and consideration of many different views, she argues that doctors have a moral obligation to use whatever means are available to preserve a patient's life. Which step of philosophical inquiry has Susan done? • Advance a thesis and justification • Identify positions on the question • Evaluate positions • Specify your question CONCEPT The Philosophical Approach to Inquiry 10 Which of the following represents a potential problem for Kantian deontology? • A person can justify any action based on its consequences. • A person can get away with doing harm if he or she isn't caught. • A person can't use feelings to help guide his or her reasoning. • A person can get away with doing harm if it's culturally accepted. CONCEPT Problems with Kantian Deontology 11 Which of the following critiques represents a challenge to virtue-based ethics? • An agent's ignorance makes it too easy to get away with bad results. • Two people might disagree on whether something is a virtue. • Not enough attention is given to self-improvement. • Everyone isn't governed by the same moral norms. CONCEPT Problems with Virtue-Based Ethics 12 Which of the following represents rule utilitarianism? • Odessa saves a drowning man because she knows his family needs him in order to be happy. • Opal grows lots of plants and flowers to help offset her carbon footprint. • Oswald gives 10% of his income to charity because giving to charity generally brings about greater good. • Omar breaks into a large store because he needs food and the store's loss will be insignificant. CONCEPT Act and Rule Utilitarianism 13 Which of the following represents a difficulty with egoism? • Egoism maximizes each individual's pleasure, which is something everyone wants. • Egoism is a core part of human nature, so denying it is denying someone's humanity. • Egoism does not allow the egoist to evaluate others based on his or her perspective. • Socially determined actions are usually more successful than self-determined actions. CONCEPT Problems with Egoism 14 Which of the following is an argument? • If I go to Washington D.C. next weekend, then I'll get you a souvenir. • Janet studies every day and takes notes in class. She will probably do well in the class for that reason. • Not getting enough sleep on a regular basis is a problem for many adults. • I begin my day with a one-mile run, a shower, and a healthy breakfast. CONCEPT Introduction to Arguments 15 "In some places, certain animals are considered divine and have more rights than humans." To which theory of ethics is the person who made this statement likely appealing? • Virtue-based ethics • Conventionalism • Kantian deontology • Utilitarianism CONCEPT Case Study: Animal Rights 16 I come home and my apartment building is on fire. There is a family of five living in the apartment next to mine and only my mother in my apartment. I can only evacuate one apartment. What is a problem with applying utilitarianism to this scenario? • Utilitarianism says I should evacuate my apartment because that will make me the happiest. • Utilitarianism says I have to choose what to do based on who is responsible for starting the fire. • Utilitarianism says I cannot determine which apartment to evacuate because my mother's happiness is equal to the happiness of the five strangers. • Utilitarianism says I should evacuate the apartment that has five occupants, even though my mother is more important to me. CONCEPT Problems with Utilitarianism 17 Many people confuse topics of religion, social etiquette, and law with ethical topics. Select the example related to social etiquette. • Anthony follows the flow of traffic, even if he is exceeding the speed limit. • Tara installs a wheelchair ramp at her business to meet government regulations. • Marcy disapproves of working on Sundays because she was taught it was a day of rest. • Nathan talks loudly on his cell phone while standing in line at the store. CONCEPT Ethical and Non-Ethical Topics 18 Michelle is visiting a Muslim country. She doesn't know what to expect because she knows that some Muslim societies expect women to wear a head-scarf when they are outdoors. When she gets off of the airplane, Michelle immediately notices that all the women in the airport are wearing head-scarves. According to conventionalism, which action would be most appropriate for Michelle to take? • Tie her hair back and put on a baseball cap. • Buy a head-scarf and put it on. • Buy a head scarf and keep it in her purse in case someone tells her to put it on. • Let her hair show because she isn’t Muslim. CONCEPT Applying Conventionalism 19 When a utilitarian evaluates an action, which of the following is most important? • The action's inherent sinfulness • The action's total effects on everyone • The action's effects on the agent • The action's rejection by society CONCEPT Utilitarianism 20 Which of the following statements about philosophy is true? • Philosophy is concerned with seeking and recognizing knowledge. • Philosophy is a way to answer questions about the physical universe without observation. • Philosophy is obsolete due to advances in scientific inquiry. • Philosophy is quite interesting, despite having little or no application in other fields. CONCEPT Introduction to Philosophy 21 Which of the following statements displays the speaker's unfair bias? • "We're accepting Kim to our college because her parents are big donors." • "We're accepting Kim to our college because her goals align with our school's values." • "We're accepting Kim to our college because she has a 4.0 GPA." • "We're accepting Kim to our college because her extracurricular involvements are impressive." CONCEPT The Effect of Bias in Moral Decision Making 22 Renae has three brothers. Over the course of a weekend, she observed them in different situations with the new neighbors. Her oldest brother, Nick, stepped in front of her when the neighbors’ large dog got loose and started running toward her. Her middle brother, Joe, loudly threatened the neighbors as to what would happen if they did not keep their dog chained up. Her younger brother, Scott, retreated into the house when all the shouting occurred. How might a virtue-based ethicist evaluate Nick’s action? • The action revealed that Nick has the virtue of courage. • The action did not reveal a positive or negative trait. • The action revealed that Nick has the vice of aggressiveness. • The action revealed that Nick acted without thinking. CONCEPT Advantages and Shortcomings of Virtue-Based Ethics 23 Most people in Dave's culture volunteer an hour every other week at a local food shelf. In addition to this, Dave also helps coordinate volunteers and fills in for people who can't make their hour. What would a conventionalist call Dave's actions? • Obligatory • Supererogatory • Neutral • Impermissible CONCEPT Commitments of Conventionalism 24 Which of the following people would likely be satisfied with Kantian deontology? • Hank is looking for an ethical system that will put him most ahead. • Henrietta is looking for an ethical system that weighs the odds of certain consequences. • Houghton is looking for an ethical system that is relative. • Helen is looking for an ethical framework that respects the freedom of others. CONCEPT Support for Kantian Deontology 25 Which of the following people would likely be satisfied with utilitarianism? • Walt is looking for an ethical framework that places a high value on his culture's traditions. • Warren is looking for an ethical framework that never allows any kind of theft. • Walburga is looking for an ethical framework that is based in observable facts. • Wendy is looking for an ethical framework that relies on the Torah for moral guidance.