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Ancient_Greek_Philosophers_Milestone_Exam 2020 - DeVry University | Ancient_Greek_Philosophers_Milestone_Exam 2020 - SOPHIA

Ancient_Greek_Philosophers_Milestone_Exam 2020 - DeVry University | Ancient_Greek_Philosophers_Milestone_Exam 2020 - SOPHIA You passed this Milestone 19 questions were answered correctly. 6 questions were answered incorrectly. 1 The value of the Socratic Method lies in showing students how to __________ on their own, rather than having it dictated to them. ● create an argument ● gain knowledge ● explain rhetoric ● evaluate an opinion RATIONALE The Socratic Method is a pedagogical method in which a teacher asks questions to which the student knows the answers, thereby leading him or her to the truth. The Method's value lies in showing students how to use what they know to gain additional knowledge. CONCEPT The Socratic Approach 2 Which of the following statements about Aristotle's metaphysics is FALSE? ● The first philosophy for Aristotle was ontology, which examines the nature of being. ● Aristotle's ultimate conclusion was that the nature of reality was change. ● Aristotle defined a particular as “a this” to distinguish it from a universal. ● For Aristotle, existence requires matter and form— not one or the other, but both.RATIONALE Aristotle would agree with all of these statements except the suggestion that the nature of reality is change. To Aristotle, reality is what we can observe. It can be described as a substance and a way of being, or matter and form. CONCEPT Aristotle on What There Is 3 Water is a __________ condition for staying alive. Apply conceptual analysis to this statement and choose the answer that correctly describes the relationship. ● neither necessary nor sufficient ● necessary, not sufficient ● both necessary and sufficient ● sufficient, not necessary RATIONALE Water is a logical requirement for staying alive, therefore it is a necessary condition. However, water is not a logical guarantee for staying alive, so it is not a sufficient condition. CONCEPT Plato: An academic approach to concepts 4 According to Aristotle’s ethics, virtues should be pursued by __________.● thinking abstractly ● finding a rational mean between two extremes ● defining what is true ● determining the purest form of action RATIONALE Aristotle's Doctrine of the Mean states that virtue must be cultivated as a rational mean between extremes. For example, the virtue of courage is found between the vices of cowardice and foolhardiness. CONCEPT Aristotle's Highest Good 5 Choose the example that best demonstrates a central tenet of Stoicism. ● Carlene is devastated when her outdoor party is interrupted by a thunderstorm. ● Mr. Donovan insists that he begin each morning with pastry and a cup of sweet tea. ● Bob is such a rabid Cubs fan that it isn’t fun to watch a baseball game with him. ● Stephanie is a good nurse because she is skillful and always remains composed. RATIONALE Stoicism is a philosophy that encourages people to focus only on what they can control (e.g., their desires, emotions, and reactions). Because Stoicism focuses on eliminating desires, and emphasizes control of emotions, it leads people to perform their assigned jobs (or roles) skillfully and dispassionately. CONCEPT Stoicism: The Ethics of Dispassion6 Kendra believes that women have a right to choose to have an abortion. Select the statement that is consistent with Kendra's belief. ● “Some women use abortion as a form of birth control, which is wrong.” ● “Every woman should be a mother; it is our function and purpose as human beings.” ● “I voted for this presidential candidate because she supports a woman's right to have an abortion.” ● "The man should have an equal say in whether or not a woman ends her pregnancy.” RATIONALE To live philosophically, a person must examine his or her beliefs to ground them in knowledge, and then act according to those beliefs. By voting for a presidential candidate who supports a woman's right to have an abortion, Kendra displays a consistent philosophical worldview. CONCEPT Philosophical Analysis as a Way of Life 7 Which of the following is the most important tenet of Stoicism? ● To resist playing a role ● To let go of what we cannot control ● To feed our desires ● To understand that reality is either good or bad RATIONALEStoicism is a philosophy that encourages us to focus only on what we can control (e.g., our desires, emotions, judgments, and reactions). We should not be upset by things that are beyond our control. Stoicism encourages us to reduce desire and to view reality as neither good nor bad. CONCEPT Stoicism: The Ethics of Dispassion 8 In Plato's view, justified true beliefs must be related to his metaphysical notion of __________, which he called the Forms. ● knowledge ● wisdom ● essence ● truth RATIONALE Plato's Forms are also referred to as "essences." An essence is that which makes an object what it truly is. Essences provide the basis for knowledge (i.e., justified true belief). For example, we can know what "goodness" truly is because a real thing that is the essence of goodness, called the Form of Goodness, exists. CONCEPT Plato's Forms: The Objects of Knowledge 9 When Crito tries to convince Socrates that he must not betray his own life, how does Socrates respond?● He says that he is not afraid of dying and knows that his followers will restore his good name. ● He says that what is right is often misunderstood by mortals and must be left to the gods. ● He says that life would not be worth living if the principle of justice was violated. ● He says that all life has value, but society determines the fate of man. RATIONALE In the Crito, Socrates' friend (Crito) tried to convince him to escape and avoid execution. Socrates refused to do so, and explained why escape would be wrong. Socrates asserted that not all life has intrinsic value; only the good life does. Since he believed that he would violate the principle of justice (established by the Social Contract) by avoiding death, Socrates refused to avoid it. CONCEPT The Crito: The Duties of the Social Contract 10 Which of the following is NOT an example of Aristotle’s notion of hylomorphism? ● Bodily organs and a human being ● The soul and a human being ● A statue and a human being ● An unborn child and a human being RATIONALE Aristotle's notion of hylomorphism states that being is a relationship, a union of form and matter. All of the examples that signify relationships are cases of hylomorphism: bodily organs (matter) and human beings (form); an unborn child (matter) and a human being (form); human beings (matter) and the soul (form). There is noontological relationship between a statue and a human being, so this is not an example of hylomorphism. CONCEPT Aristotle on What There Is 11 “It is my belief that everything in the cosmos is made of water.” Which ancient philosopher would most likely have made this statement? ● Pythagoras ● Thales ● Empedocles ● Protagoras RATIONALE Thales was the Pre-Socratic philosopher who believed that everything in the cosmos was made of water. Thales and his pupils, Anaximander and Anaximenes, sought to discover the nature of the cosmos. CONCEPT Cosmology and the First Philosophers 12 Lisa is considering whether it is morally permissible to eat meat. Which branch of philosophy can help her answer this question? ● Metaphysics ● Epistemology ● Ethics ● CosmologyRATIONALE Ethics is the branch of philosophy in which concepts of value (e.g., right and wrong are considered). In epistemology, concepts of knowledge are analyzed and defended. Metaphysics is concerned with discovering and describing the ultimate nature of reality, and cosmology is the study of the universe in its totality. CONCEPT What is Philosophy? 13 Which of the following statements about the atomistic worldview is FALSE? ● Philosophical atoms of different shapes and consistencies are the fundamental components of reality. ● The philosophical worldview of the early Greek atomists had great influence on philosophical, scientific, and religious thinking, but only for a brief period of time. ● Everything in the universe exists as a single atom, or a collection of atoms. ● The worldview of philosophical atomists, with some revisions, has been adopted by contemporary science. RATIONALE The philosophical worldview of the early Greek atomists has continued to have an impact throughout history. Atomism has been adopted and modified by contemporary science, and has had a lasting influence on religion and theology. CONCEPT The Atomistic Worldview 14According to Socrates in the Phaedo, why might death be an advantage to the philosopher? ● Death is the ultimate distinction between knowledge and opinion. ● Only humans can seek knowledge and truth, but their ability to do so ends with death. ● In life, the Social Contract requires people to behave according to the needs and wants of others. ● Eyes, ears, and other bodily organs can distract one from the attainment of truth and knowledge. RATIONALE The Phaedo is a conversation between Socrates and his students about death. It takes place just before his execution. During this conversation, Socrates explains why philosophers should not fear death, which he defines as the end of the life of the body, but not of the soul. Socrates views the body as an impediment to the acquisition of wisdom and truth. Therefore, a philosopher may be able to find answers after death that cannot be found during life. CONCEPT The Phaedo: The Death of Socrates 15 For Plato and his Doctrine of Forms, a person can determine whether an act is courageous if he or she can __________. ● explain what courage means in the real world ● clearly understand the value of courage ● accurately describe the Form of Courage ● imagine an unambiguously courageous action RATIONALEAccording to Plato, the Forms are the basis of our knowledge of reality. All worldly objects participate in (i.e., imitate) their corresponding Form that exists in Platonic Heaven. We can determine whether an act is courageous if we know, and can describe, the Form of Courage. CONCEPT Applying Plato's Metaphysics 16 While I have lived in my home, my rent has increased every year. My salary has remained the same for three years. Next year, I will probably be in a better financial situation. Evaluate the argument and select the option that describes it. ● Deductive, valid, sound ● Deductive, invalid, unsound ● Inductive, weak, uncogent ● Inductive, strong, cogent RATIONALE Because the inferential claim is of less-than-logical certainty, and is about probability, this is an inductive argument. It is a weak argument because the conclusion isn't probable if the premises are true. It is also an uncogent argument because an argument must be strong to be cogent. CONCEPT Evaluating an Argument in Action17 Read the following statement by Socrates: “In questions of just and unjust, fair and foul, good and evil, which are the subjects of our present consultation, ought we to follow the opinion of the many and to fear them; or the opinion of the one man who has understanding?” Extract Socrates' argument from this text and choose the sentence that accurately reflects it. ● Absolute justice can only be achieved when the state agrees with the opinion of the masses. ● Non-experts have opinions, but the man who is an expert in a field has true knowledge. ● He who has experienced the administration of justice will do as the majority commands him to do. ● Any man who cares about ethics and wisdom has an obligation to listen to himself over others. RATIONALE In this selection from the Crito, Socrates argues that we should consult experts (who have "understanding," or knowledge) when we seek wisdom, and not the majority (who have only opinion). CONCEPT The Apology — Socrates' Arguments 18 Select the statement that would most likely have been made by Aristotle. ● “What is true is always true, independent of wisdom, language, or knowledge.” ● “We must begin with the world we encounter every day, rather than with the abstraction of metaphysics.”● “New things do not come into existence; rather, things change their organization.” ● “The world is unchanging and eternal, which conflicts with the illusion that life is neither.” RATIONALE The statement that "We must begin with the world we encounter every day" reflects Aristotle's philosophical approach. To Aristotle, all knowledge is grounded in human experience, and flows from empirical evidence. The statements which involve change are reflective of Parmenides and the Atomists. The statement about truth existing independent of wisdom, language, or knowledge is reflective of Plato's philosophy. CONCEPT Aristotle: The Dissection of Reality 19 Choose the statement that both Plato and Aristotle would agree is true. ● “A human being is 'human' because he or she reflects the Form of a Human.” ● “The physical sciences are a source of eternal knowledge." ● “Ideals are similar to mathematical objects or entities.” ● “The ideals of Beauty and Truth are not of this world.” RATIONALE Plato and Aristotle disagreed on all of these points except for the position that a human being is "human" because he or she reflects the Form of a Human. Although they also disagreed on where essences were located, Plato and Aristotle were both metaphysicians who believed that essences, or Forms, were real entities that existed and provided the basis for truth and knowledge. CONCEPTPlato vs. Aristotle: The Mathematician or the Biologist 20 Choose the statement that describes a central theme of Parmenidean metaphysics. ● The universe consists of one, unchanging entity. ● Mortal and divine knowledge can be joined. ● The world is composed of linked opposites. ● The opinions of mortals are universally reliable. RATIONALE Parmenidean metaphysics includes the concept of "substance monism" — the belief that all reality is one object. This object is called the “what-is.” The "what-is" is eternal and unchanging. None of the other statements represent Parmenidean metaphysics. CONCEPT Parmenides and the Doctrine of Permanence 21 Nancy is a cashier at a grocery store. A boy from her school, who she knows is underage, attempts to buy beer. Nancy hesitates before completing the transaction. According to Aristotle’s ethics, which question should Nancy ask herself? ● How can I reach a compromise? ● What kind of person should I be? ● Why is this action right, and why is it wrong? ● Are there possible consequences of this action that could harm me? RATIONALE Aristotelian ethics are primarily concerned with character. As a result, Nancy should ask herself “What kind of person should I be?” rather than “How should I act?”According to Aristotelian ethics, actions are evaluated based on how they inform your character. Therefore, Nancy must determine what kind of person she wants to be and what virtues she wants to cultivate, and then act accordingly. CONCEPT Applying Aristotle's Ethics 22 Which of the following statements about the metaphysical tenets of Plato’s Doctrine of the Forms is FALSE? ● There is a cause and effect relationship between Forms and their earthly counterparts. ● Forms must exist in order for knowledge to be possible. ● Perfection in the Forms does not exist in Platonic Heaven. ● The Forms exist in an intellectual realm that is fixed and never-ending. RATIONALE All of the statements about aspects of Plato's metaphysics are true, except for the suggestion that perfect Forms do not exist in Platonic Heaven. This statement describes Aristotle's metaphysics, not Plato's. Platonic Heaven is where Plato believed Forms, or perfect metaphysical entities, exist. CONCEPT Plato Forms: The Foundations of Being 23 Heraclitus developed __________, which stated that all things change over time. ● Parmenidean Theory ● the Doctrine of Flux ● the Philosophical Atom● the Paradoxes of Zeno RATIONALE Heraclitus developed the Doctrine of Flux, and defined flux as "continuous change." The doctrine maintains that everything is impermanent and in a constant state of change. CONCEPT Heraclitus and the Doctrine of Impermanence 24 Perhaps the most important way in which Socrates changed the course of Western philosophy was by focusing on __________. ● moral philosophy ● natural philosophy ● cosmology ● martyrdom RATIONALE Ethics and morality were the primary focus of Socrates's philosophical inquiry. He is considered to have been the first "moral philosopher," who was deeply interested in how to determine right and wrong. CONCEPT Socrates: The Father of Western Philosophy 25 In the Apology, Socrates states that a good person does what he knows to be right despite __________.● risking fame and fortune ● negative personal consequences ● the laws of man ● the wisdom of the gods RATIONALE The Apology is Plato's transcription of the defense Socrates presented at his trial on charges of "denying the gods" and "corrupting the youth of Athens." In it, Socrates asserts that he does not fear death, because he has lived as he believed was right. To Socrates, it is more important to live rightly than to avoid death and other negative personal consequences. CONCEPT The Apology: A Defense of Philosophy

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