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NSG 3029 Midterm Exam / NSG3029 Midterm Exam (Latest, 2020): South University |Verified and 100 % Correct Answers|

NSG3029 Midterm Exam / NSG 3029 Midterm Exam (Latest): South University: Foundations of Nursing Research South University NSG3029 Midterm Exam (Latest): Foundations of Nursing Research The organization that was established to support clinical and basic nursing research for the care of individuals across the life span is the a. NIH b. ANA c. NINR d. CORP Which of the following statements is true about evidence-based practice? a. evidence-based practice is synonymous with clinical decision making b. evidence-based practice is supported only through findings from randomized clinical trials. c. evidence-based practice is synonymous with theory d. evidence-based practice is important to streamline nursing care The ability for a nurse to generalize findings fro a study to other people, places, and situations is called a. internal validity b. replication c. external validity d. power C The peer review process is an important component of conducting nursing research. Which of the following statements most accurately describes this process? a. It assures that the research has significant statistical power b. it assures that the research is unbiased c. it assures that the research is replicable d. it assures that the research has measurable outcomes B Magnet status is being pursued by hospitals across the US. Which of the following is an important criterion in achieving and maintaining magnet status? a. Staff nurses must understand the research process and use evidence as a basis for practice b. staff nurses must be actively involved in generating new nursing knowledge c. staff nurses must be included on interdisciplinary research teams studying clinical issues d. staff nurses must pass yearly competencies showing knowledge of the research process A Which of the following is NOT an essential component of developing an evidence-based practice guideline? a. performing an exhaustive review of the literature b. using clinical expert opinions c. evaluating patient preferences d. considering hospital policies D A nurse manager is conducting a quality improvement project on her unit. How is quality improvement different from the research process? a. Risks are greater for subjects in quality improvement projects b. quality improvement projects are expected to stand up to replication c. Quality improvemtn projects are beneficial to specific organizations D. these terms can be used interchangeably C The components of evidence-based practice include all of the following EXCEPT a. Best scientific evidence b. patient preferences c. time honored accepted nursing practices d. consensus from clinical experiences adopted by speciality groups C A systematic process of inquiry that uses rigorous guidelines to produce unbiased, trustworthy answers to question about nursing practice is a. nursing research b. journal club c. research-related activity d. clinical practice guideline A The individual who is primarily responsible for a research study is called the a. Nurse researcher b. data collector c. research assistant d. Principal investigator D Nursing research is a disciplined and systematic process. Which of the following is usually the first step in the researcher process? a. Determine an appropriate theoretic framework for the study b. identify a gap in knowledge related to nursing practice c. select a design that is appropriate for the study d. complete a systematic review of the literature B The philosophical assumptions and belief system that underlie a research study is referred to as an a. paradigm b. methodology c. discovery d. argument A Which of the following statements most accurately reflects the purpose of qualitative nursing research a. inferences are used to generalize findings to a defined population b. findings are used to gain understanding of patients' experiences c. findings are used to determine cause and effect of a phenomenon d. inferences are used to establish evidence-based guidelines B How are quantitative and qualitative research approaches different a. reality is viewed objectively in qualitative research and constructed by the individual in quantitative research b. Design is highly controlled in quantitative research and adaptable in qualitative research c. sampling is population-based in qualitative research and restricted to individuals in quantitative research d. Analysis in deductive in qualitative research and inductive in quantitative research B A nurse researcher designs a study to measure pain ratings of subjects using a relaxation exercise and also interview them about their experiences. What type of research is being conducted? a. quantitative research b. qualitative research c. mixed methods d. nested methods C Which of the following is most important to the researcher in selecting a research design? a. the type of subjects being studied b. the type of data being collected c. the nature of the research problem d. the expertise of the researchers C The research design that involves identifying the variables that represent characteristics of interest and then measuring them in a reliable and valid way is. a. Quantitative research b. Qualitative research c. Mixed methods d. Nested methods A Studies that are conducted by looking at a single phenomenon across multiple populations at a single point in time are called a. cross-sectional studies b. prospective studies c. longitudinal studies d. retrospective studies A Studies that are conducted using data that have already been collected about events that have already happened are classified as a. cross-sectional studies b. prospective studies c. longitudinal studies d. retrospective studies D Studies planned by the researcher for collection of primary data for specific research are classified as a. cross-sectional studies b. prospective studies c. longitudinal studies d. retrospective studies B Which two international codes were developed to guide researcher in carrying out ethical research a. The national research act and the belmont report b. the nuremberg code and the belmont report c. the national research act and the declaration of helsinki d. The nuremberg cole and the declaration of helsinki C Vulnerable populations in research include those groups a. with limited capacity to make decisions b. with a vested interest in the study outcomes c. with less than a high school education d. with limited knowledge of the research process A The Correct Option of Each Question is Mentioned below each Questions Researchers may not use underprivileged persons to benefit those who are privileged. This constitutes a major tenant of the principle of a. beneficence b. justice c. respect for persons d. equal opportunity B Deception or incomplete disclosure is allowed in research under all of the following conditions, except a. no other nondeceptive method exists b. the study will make a substantial contribution to the body of knowledge c. there is a plan to debrief the subjects regarding the deception d. Subjects are unable to give informed consent D A researcher fails to follow the research protocol which comprises subjects' safety. The researcher may be accused of A. Negligence b. breach of duty c. battery d. discrimination A A researcher enrolls only white males in a study because of the greater ease in recruiting this population. The researcher may be accused of a. negligence b. breach of duty c. battery d. discrimination D A full IRB review must be done on all of the following, EXCEPT a. the research findings will be published b. Federal funds are receieved to conduct the research c. human subjects are put at minimal risk or less d. protected health information is required C A research study poses a minimal risk to subjects in that the probablility and/or magnitude of discomfort anticipated in the research is not greater than what is ordinarily encountered in daily life. What type of review by the IRB will this study most probably receive? A. Exempt b. expedited c. full d. fortified B Which of the following is a type of research misconduct where data or results are made up? a. fabrication b. falsification c. plagiarism d. infringement A All of the following are considered identifiable personal health information EXCEPT a. medical record number b. lab test result c. birth date d. internet protocol address B Research that is reproduced to validate findings and increase generalizability is referred to as a a. randomized clinical trial b. replication study c. systematic review d. validations study B Research problem statements a. are declearations of disparity b. are declarations of intent c. declare what is being studied d. declare who is being studied A Research questions for qualitative studies are usually a. precise b. measurable c. vague d. indescribable B Sources for researchable nursing problems include all except a. clinical practice b. performance improvement c. methodologically complex problems d. professional literature review C The traditional method for finding and developing research questions relies on a sequential process from general interest to development of the research question. This process is. a. inductive b. deductive c. conceptual d. indescribable B Purpose statements need to have all the following characteristics except: A. Feasible B. Unbiased C. Vague D. Good fit C A type of research question that is posed to compare one or more interventions is said to be: A. Correlational B. Prospective C. Analytic D. Retrospective C The type of hypothesis that declares there is no difference between groups is called a(an): A. Null hypothesis B. Alternative hypothesis C. Directional hypothesis D. Non-directional hypothesis A Evidence-based research often states the research question in a PICO format. The C in PICO stands for: A. Concept B. Comparison C. Construct D. Content B The FINER model gives guidance in the appraisal of a research question. The E in the acronym stands for: A. Effect B. Error C. Ethical D. Evidence-based C Which of the following is an example of empirical literature? A. An article describing a grand theory in nursing B. An article describing a middle range theory in nursing C. Practice guidelines D. An article describing a concept analysis C Florence Nightingale's Notes on Nursing is an example of a(n): A. Seminal work B. Secondary source C. Empirical work D. Primary work A A summary of multiple research studies on one topic: A. Seminal work B. Secondary source C. Empirical work D. Primary source B Which of the following is a way to measure the quality of a research publication? A. Peer review B. Cohort review C. Literacy impact factor D. Citation analysis A Information literacy is important for nurses to acquire and includes all the following except: A. Critical thinking and analysis B. Computer literacy C. An advanced graduate degree D. Motivation for lifelong learning C When reading the literature review section of a research study, the reader needs to assess for all the following information except: A. A variety of sources of data B. Presence of bias in article selection C. Article dated within the past 15 years D. Inclusion of contradictory results from the literature C Evidence based information has been frequently depicted as a pyramid. The model widely cited and adapted for nursing research is the 6S Model. The layers of the pyramid include all the following except: A. Synopses of Syntheses Layer B. Systems Layer C. Practice Layer D. Studies Layer C The steps in a strong literature review include all the following except: A. Identify inclusion and exclusion criteria B. Retrieve abstracts C. Critically appraise the study quality and findings D. Identify the research problem and question B Key resource databases for nursing research include all the following except: A. Cochrane Library B. PubMed C. Search Engines D. CINAHL C Organizing citations using a bibliographic management application includes using any of the following: A. Zotero B. Refworks C. Endnote D. All of the above D Careful consideration of the ___________________________ serves as the basis for the research design. A. Type of theory used in the study B. Purpose to be achieved by the study C. Type of statistics to be used in the study D. Number of subjects needed in the study B All of the following strategies can increase internal validity of an experimental study except: A. Control variables extraneous to the study B. Randomly assign subjects to groups C. Increase the diversity of the sample D. Use consistent, accurate measures C Experimental studies measure cause and effect. The variable that is synonymous with the "cause" is referred to as the: A. Dependent variable B. Independent variable C. Extraneous variable D. Descriptive variable B The variable that is synonymous with the outcome of interest is called the: A. Dependent variable B. Independent variable C. Extraneous variable D. Descriptive variable A The variables that portrays the sample or some characteristic of the phenomenon under study is referred to as the: A. Dependent variable B. Independent variable C. Extraneous variable D. Descriptive variable D Factors that exert an effect on the outcome but that are not part of the planned experiment and may confuse the interpretation of the results are referred to as: A. Extraneous variables B. Situational factors C. Dependent variables D. Confounding factors A Which of the following research designs is used to answer questions that seek to investigate causality? A. Survey design B. Correlational design C. Experimental design D. Cross-sectional design C All of the following research designs describe relationships between variables except: A. Correlational B. Grounded theory C. Phenomenology D. Tests of model fit C A common descriptive research design where data is collected from a sample over time to describe changes in characteristics or events is referred to as a: A. Case study B. Cross-sectional study C. Single subject design D. Longitudinal study D A research study design that examines causality where the treatment is introduced to a group but random assignment and/or a control group is missing is called a: A. Causal-comparative design B. Correlational design C. Quasi-experimental design D. Case control design C When subjects elect not to participate in a study and/or drop out of a study, this can lead to: A. Sampling error B. Sampling bias C. Selection bias D. Selection error C The potential participants who meet the definition of the population and are accessible to the researcher is referred to as the: A. Population B. Sample C. Subjects D. Sampling frame D The only way to be sure that a sample represents a population is if it incorporates the following two essential criteria: A. Random selection and independence B. Random selection and dependence C. Purposive selection and independence D. Purposive selection and dependence A Selection bias may occur under all the following conditions except: A. Sample is not representative of the population B. Numbers in the sample are adequate C. Researcher is able to influence selection or assignment of subjects D. Ease of recruitment skews subject characteristics B The measurement of the magnitude of the impact of an intervention is referred to as the: A. Power analysis B. Test of fit C. Effect size D. Factor analysis C What is the primary difference between ecological validity and population validity? A. In ecological validity research findings can be generalized to other settings, while in population validity findings can be generalized to other subjects B. In ecological validity research findings can be generalized to other subjects, while in population validity findings can be generalized to other settings C. In ecological validity research findings can be generalized to other disciplines, while in population validity findings can be generalized to other sciences D. In ecological validity research findings can be generalized to other sciences, while in population validity findings can be generalized to other disciplines A Sampling techniques used in quaNTITATIVE research include all except: A. Calculation of power B. Determination of effect size C. Achieving saturation D. Selection of a predetermined percentage of the population C The selection of a sample based on subjects who are accessible to the researcher is called: A. Simple random sampling B. Convenience sampling C. Cluster random sampling D. Snowball sampling B Methods to reduce subject attrition in research studies include all of the following except: A. Keeping data collection procedures simple B. Minimizing hassle and inconvenience C. Designing complex collection methods D. Using multiple reminder methods C The major entity or subject (do we want to clarify this is not a person?)that will be analyzed in the study is called the: A. Population B. Subject C. Sample D. Unit of analysis D A nurse researcher is conducting a retrospective study and using a chart review to collect data. What type of data will be collected? A. Primary data B. Secondary data C. Internal data D. External data B A nurse researcher is conducting a survey determining students' level of comfort with clinical skills. What type of data will be collected? A. Primary data C. Secondary data D. Internal data E. External data A A nurse researcher is measuring blood pressures of women who are diagnosed with pre-eclampsia. The sphygmomanometer has not been calibrated correctly, which results in inaccurate readings. What type of error is this? A. Sampling error B. Random error C. Systematic error D. Non-systematic error C A researcher is interested in determining whether an instrument has stability over time. What test should be conducted? A. Test of internal consistency B. Test-retest reliability C. Test of concurrent validity D. Test of content validity B A researcher is interested in determining whether the measurement of an instrument to be used in a research study makes sense. What assessment should be made? A. Test of internal consistency B. Test-retest reliability C. Test of concurrent validity D. Test of content validity D A non-reproducible error that arises from a variety of factors in measurement and does not affect the average scores but do affect the variation that exists around the average is called the: A. Measurement error B. Systematic error C. Random error D. Instrument error C The capability of an instrument to detect a disease if it is present is called: A. Specificity B. Sensitivity C. Discriminate validity D. Predictive validity B Examples of primary data collection methods include all of the following except: A. Questionnaires B. Observation C. Chart review D. Focus groups C Examples of secondary data collection methods include all of the following except: A. Patient satisfaction surveys B. Electronic medical record C. Government databases D. Patient physiologic measures D An advantage of using an existing instrument in research studies includes: A. Development of a test blueprint B. Ability to replicate a study C. Comparison of results to previous study D. Both B and C D ……………………..

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