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HESI A2 Entrance Exam 2020

HESI A2 Entrance Exam Preface: I gathered this information from within an online study group in which many people share questions and advice for test takers. To my knowledge nothing in this document is taken illegally from bought resources and used without permission of the manufactures. PLEASE inform me if this document violates any rules and I will remove it. This is a combination of MANY files and posts within the groups. I had to go through the questions and rewrite for comprehension, reformat for this document, highlight, and change answers from many incorrect ones. This took hours to compile as a one stop document to entirely prepare you for the HESI Exam. That being said: I would not charge for something like this since it is a cumulation of many people's efforts. However, if anyone wants to donate to me for my time and effort as well as the sample study plan at the bottom of the document, it would be very much appreciated!!! My cashapp is $eliarnn. HESI VOCABULARY Abstain To voluntarily refrain from something. Constrict To draw together or become smaller. Accountable To be responsible. Contingent Dependent. Acute Sudden, intense. Contraindication A reason something is not advisable. Adhere To hold fast or stick together. Convulsive Having or causing shaking of the body. Adverse Undesired, possibly harmful. Cursory Quick, perfunctory, not thorough. Ambivalent Uncertain, having contradictory feelings. Defecate Expel feces. Ambulate To walk. Deficit A lack of something. Apply To place, put on, or spread something. Depress Press downwards. Assent To give consent, to agree. Depth Downward measurement from surface. Audible Able to be heard. Deteriorating Worsening Bacteria Single-celled, microscopic organization. Diagnosis Identification of an injury or disease. Bilateral Present on two sides. Diffuse Spread over a large area; generalized. Cardiac Of or relating to the heart. Dilate To enlarge or expand. Cavity An opening or an empty area. Dilute To make a liquid less concentrated. Cease Come to or bring to an end. Discrete Distinct, separate. Chronic Lasting or recurring over a long period of time. Distal Distant; away from the center (such as of the body) Chronology Order of events as they occurred; timeline. Distended Enlarged or expanded from pressure. Compensatory Offsetting or making up for something. Dysfunction Impaired or abnormal functioning. Concave Rounded inward. Empathy Ability to share what others are feeling. Concise Brief, to the point. Equilibrium Balance. Congenital Present at birth. Etiology The origin or cause of a disease or condition. Consistency How thick or thin a liquid is in relation to how it flows Exacerbate To make worse or more severe. Exposure To come into contact. Lateral On the side. Extension Lengthening; unbending a joint. Lethargic Difficult to arouse Fatal Resulting in death. Manifestation An indication or sign of a condition. Fatigue Extreme tiredness, exhaustion. Musculoskeletal Of or relating to muscle and skeleton. Febrile Related to or caused by a fever. Neurologic Of or relating to the nervous system. Flexion Bending a joint. Neurovascular Of or relating to the nervous system and the blood vessels. Flushed Reddened or ruddy appearance. Nutrient Substance that provides nourishment. Gastrointestinal Of or relating to the stomach and the intestines. Occluded Closed or obstructed. Hematologic Of or relating to blood. Ongoing Continuous. Hydration Maintenance of body fluid balance. Oral Given through or affecting the mouth. Hygiene Measures contributing to cleanliness and good health. Otic Of the ear. Impaired Diminished or lacking some usual quality or level. Parameter A characteristic or constant factor, limit. Impending Occuring in the near future. Patent Open. Imply To suggest without explicitly stating. Pathogenic Causing or able to cause disease. Incidence Occurrence. Pathology Processes, causes, and effects of a disease; abnormality. Infection Contamination or invasion of body tissue by pathogenic organism. Posterior Located behind; in the back. Infer To conclude or deduce. Potent Producing a strong effect. Inflamed Reddened, swollen, warm, and tender. Potential Capable of occurring or likely to occur. Ingest To swallow for digestion. Precaution Preventative measure. Initiate To begin or put into practice. Precipitous Rapid, uncontrolled. Insidious So gradual as to not become apparent for a long time. Predispose To make more susceptible or more likely to occur. Intact In place, unharmed. Preexisting Already present. Intubate To insert a tube into something. Primary First or most significant. Invasive Inserting or entering into a body part. Priority Of great importance. Kinetic Of or relating to movement. Prognosis The anticipated or expected course or outcome. Labile Changing rapidly and often. Rationale The underlying reason. Laceration Cut; tear. Recur To occur again. Latent Present but not active or visible. Syndrome Symptoms that, when together, reflect a specific disease or disorder. Renal Of or relating to the kidneys. Therapeutic Of or relating to the treatment of a disease or disorder. Residual Remaining, continuing. Toxic Causing harm, poisonous. Respiration Inhalation and exhalation of air. Transdermal Crossing through the skin. Retain To hold or keep. Transmission Transfer from one person to another. Status Condition. Trauma Injury, wound. Subcutaneous Under the skin. Triage Assign degree of urgency/priority based on severity of condition. Sublingual Under the tongue. Ubiquitous Seeming to be everywhere at once. Supplement To take in addition to or to complete. Urinate Excrete or expel urine. Suppress To stop or subdue. Vascular Of or relating to the blood vessels. Symmetric Being equal or the same in size, shape, and relative position. Virulent Extremely harmful and severe. Symptom An indication of a problem. Virus Microscopic infectious agent capable of replicating only in living cells. Vital Essential. Volume Amount of space occupied by a fluid. These are questions that have been on the test in May 2020 or later! *Highlighted are the terms (not descriptions) to know.* These are based on memory of the test takers, so they are not exactly as seen on the test. 1. The lower surface of a structure is referred to as....INFERIOR 2. Injurious? TOXIC 3. Equilibrium? SENSE OF BALANCE 4. Site? LOCATION 5. The patient gave his Assent? AGREEMENT 6.The technician wore gloves as precaution? PREVENTIVE MEASURE 7. The ____ of his right eye was damaged. LENS ( correct word usage) 8. The inebriated man staggered while walking to his car. STUMBLE 9. The nurse noticed an ominous sign? Dangerous 10. A well known person, with connotation of infamy, is most likely? NOTORIOUS 11. In health field, the act of urinating is? VOIDING 12. The maintenance of adequate hydration? FLUID BALANCE 13. Acute? SEVERE 14. What term means to suggest, to hint, to express indirectly? IMPLY ( it's not infer) 15. Labile? UNSTABLE 16. The nurse checked for any patency in drainage of all devices? OPEN 17. What term means to bring about, cause to happen, to accomplish, and to make? EFFECT 18. Exhilarating ? REFRESHING 19. Place under observation? SURVEILLANCE 20. Ingest? SWALLOW 21. What term means unruly, intractable, adverse? UNTOWARD 22. He had three discrete symptoms? SEPARATE 23. Contemplate? PONDERING 24. Deteriorating? WORSENING 25. The abrupt.... SUDDEN 26. Bilateral? TWO SIDED 27. Hygiene? CLEANLINESS 28. Occluded? OBSTRUCTED 29. Ominous? THREATENING 30. The sound could be heard ______ ....... ? THROUGHOUT The answer choices were: through, though, throughout, thought 31. The students thought the _________ was very difficult. EXAMINATION Answer choices: examined, exams, examining, examination 32. There was no ________ as to why she treated her boyfriend. JUSTIFICATION Answer choices: alibi, justification, rational, 33. Receipt? A WRITTEN ACKNOWLEDGE FOR GOODS 34. What term is exclude, to shout? OSTRACIZE 35. Feasible? PRACTICAL 36. Ubiquitous? WIDESPREAD 37. Vertigo? SENSE OF MOVEMENT 38. Empathy? " I AM ALSO NEW TO THIS TOWN. I KNOW HOW HE FEELS" 39. A nurse encourages participation from all group members and open to new ideas in decision making? DEMOCRATIC 40. Very sensible? REASONABLE UNDERSTANDING 41. Jaundice? YELLOWING OF THE SKIN 42. To gather together? ASSEMBLE 43. Bending of the joint? FLEXION 44. Medication use as a treatment for constipation? LAXATIVE 45. A number of people ________ to the United States....... in search for textile goods? EMIGRATE answer choice: emigrate, emigrating, immigrating, migrated 46. Scientist worked fearfully in the _________ LABORATORY (know the spelling) 47. After becoming an invalid, the man became ungracious........ recuperating ? INJURED 48. Dynamic? IN MOTION 49. Overt symptoms? Easily Observed 50. Never judge a book by _______ cover? ITS 51. A word that denotes a comparison? THAN 52. The bad smell made him _____. GAG answer choices were: remember, attach, gag, 53. The student found out his test results during ______. Evaluation answer choices: evaluation, interview, laboratory 54. The nurse needed _______ in the emergency room. ASSISTANCE ( correct word usage) answer choices: assistance, assisting, assistant, assist 55. Insidious means NO OBVIOUS SYMPTOMS. 56. Know how to spell MEDICATION. 57. The woman told…..? BEHAVIOR 58. The artist was very ____ in his art work. CREATIVE 59. Something that remains is referred to as...Residual. 60. Rational means...Reason. ________________________________________ HESI GRAMMAR Things to know: Noun-person, place, or thing. The angry man loudly stormed out of his room. Pronoun-word takes place of noun The angry man loudly stormed out of his room. Verb-action. The angry man loudly stormed out of his room. Adjective-descriptive word. The angry man loudly stormed out of his room. Adverb-word describing a verb or adjective. The angry man loudly stormed out of his room. Subject-Verb Agreement: A subject must agree with its verb in terms of number. Comma in a Compound Sentence: Compound (sentences with 2 independent clauses) sentences must have a conjunction (and,but, or, nor) with a comma before. Run-On Sentence: 2 sentences are written as one. This is wrong if written with no punctuation or just a comma. It can be made right with a conjunction, dash, semicolon, or a colon. Cliches: Expressions that have lost their originality. Euphemisms: A mild version of a more blunt ot offensive term. (Ex: the euphemism of the word “dead” is the phrase “passed away.” Affect vs Effect: Affect is to influence. Effect is a result. Among vs Between: Among shows relationship involving 3 people, a group, or things. Between shows relationships involving two people or things. Amount vs Number: Amount refers to bulk items. Number refers to countable units. Good vs Well: Good is an adjective; it comes before nouns and after linking verbs. Well is an adverb in most cases; it is only an adverb when talking about health. Bad vs Badly: Bad is an adjective (description). Badly is an adverb (modify an action). Can vs May: Can implies ability to do something. May implies permission to do something. Farther vs Further: Farther means measurable distance. Further means to a greater extent. Fewer vs Less: Fewer refers to countable number. Less refers to degree or amount-in bulk or in the abstract. I.e. vs E.g.: I.e. explains. E.g. provides an example. Lie vs Lay: Lie means to recline or rest. Lay means to put or place. Which vs That: Which is used to introduce information that is not necessary to understand the meaning of the sentence. That is used to introduce information that is necessary. Who vs Whom: Who can replace he, she, they, I, or we. Whom replaces him, her, them, me, or us. These are questions that have been on the test in May 2020 or later! *Highlighted are the terms (not descriptions) to know.* These are based on memory of the test takers, so they are not exactly as seen on the test. 1. WHICH SENTENCE IS GRAMMATICALLY CORRECT? a) Who’s coming to the party? b) Whose to blame for the economy? c) Who’s hat is this? d) Whose going to vote? 2. WHICH SENTENCE IS GRAMMATICALLY CORRECT? a) I went two the store. b) I want ice cream, too. c) The nurse gave him too shorts. d) I want to know your name. 3. WHICH SENTENCE IS GRAMMATICALLY CORRECT? a) He did well on his diet. b) He done well on his diet. c) He did good on his diet d) He done good on his diet 4. WHICH SENTENCE IS GRAMMATICALLY CORRECT? a) Several lost his or her keys on the train. b) Does everyone have their train tickets ready? c) Is everyone ready for their ice-cream sundaes? d) Somebody left his or her jacket on the train. 5. WHICH SENTENCE SHOULD REPLACE THE FOLLOWING INCORRECT SENTENCE? “This door to remain unlocked when occupied.” a) This door will remain unlocked when the office is occupied. b) This door to remain unclosed while open. c) This sentence is correct as written. d) This office must have the door unlocked at all times. 6. WHICH SENTENCE IS GRAMMATICALLY CORRECT? a) Sarah plays her new saxophone well. b) The dog catches the freebee good. c) The band did good during the half time show. d) The band that played before ours was well. 7. WHICH USE OF APOSTROPHE IS CORRECT IN THE SENTENCE? Because of staff change’s, the list of birthday’s was distributed to all worker’s in the business’ three offices. a) Change’s b) Worker’s c) Business’ d) Birthday’s 8. WHICH SENTENCE IS GRAMMATICALLY CORRECT? a) The patient told the nurse, “put the flowers on that table over their.” b) The students looked at their test scores. c) Their comes a time when one choose between right and wrong. d) Their waiting for you. 9. ARRANGE ALPHABETICALLY: VERBAL, VOLUME, VOID, VITAL. a) Vital, verbal, void, volume b) Verbal, vital, void, volume c) Verbal, volume, void, vital d) Vital, verbal, volume, void 10. IDENTIFY THE INCOMPLETE SENTENCE. a) While they were sleeping. b) Everything worked out all right. c) He wept. d) Babies are sure cute and cuddly. SELECT THE WORD OR PHRASE THAT MAKES THE SENTENCE GRAMMATICALLY CORRECT, QUESTION 11-15. 11. She was so mad at her boyfriend, she ____________ on him when he called. a) Yelled b) Screamed c) Speak d) Hung up 12. The GIRL quickly ran through the dark woods to get back to the house. 13. It was a beautiful performance. We all watched her from a balcony in the theater as she danced gracefully across the ________ stage. a) Massive b) Stunningly c) Lonely d) Misery 14. A tuberculin skin test should be read within 24 hours _________ administration. a) In b) Of c) Has d) On 15. John F. Kennedy was a senator before he _______ president in 1960. a) Elected b) Was electing c) Was elected d) Had elected 16. IDENTIFY THE DEPENDENT CLAUSE IN THIS SENTENCE: The mother dog left her bed as soon as the puppies were asleep. a) As soon as the puppies were asleep b) Left her bed as soon as c) The puppies were asleep d) The mother dog left her bed 17. SELECT THE SENTENCE IN WHICH SNAKE IS USED AS A VERB. Correct a a) The cobra is venomous snake. b) The plumber used his snake to open up the clogged pipe c) You are being a snake when you steal from me. d) The spy had to snake his way furtively (secretly) onto the train. 18. In which sentence is the form fast used as an adverb? a) The clock on the wall is ten minutes fast. b) The cars on the overpass moved fast. c) The fast cars drove over the bridge. d) The batter could not hit the fast pitch. 19. Which phrase should be moved to the end of the sentence? The painter decided to use the urn as his subject with flowers on the table. a) As his subject b) With flowers c) The painter d) The urn 20. Make this a complete sentence: ______________ as she watched me from the kitchen window. Correct Answer: I ran around outside as fast as I could SELECT THE CORRECT WORD(S) FOR THE BLANK IN THE FOLLOWING SENTENCE 21. Susan gave ice cream to John and ________________. a) Us b) Me c) We d) I 22. My mom and __________ went to the store. a) Me b) I c) Us d) We 23. I am looking forward to ________ my birthday party at work. a) Has b) Have c) Had d) Having 24. The dress ______ you wore at my birthday party is my favorite. a) That b) Their c) When d) Which 25. You _________ on your final exam. a) Worked b) Forget c) Did well d) Done good 26. A synonym is a word ____________ a meaning similar to another word. a) Having b) That have c) Who have d) Who is having 27. In preparation for your birthday dinner, I will help _________ the dinnerware on the table. a) Sit b) Set c) Sat d) Seat 28. Two students (are) _____________ their professor about possibility of obtaining good grade in class. a) Ask/Are b) Is c) Was d) Could 29. To be admitted to the university, he __________ to make application by May 15. a) Has b) Have c) Might d) Should 30. _________ you taking a cruise to commemorate your wedding anniversary? a) Are b) Is c) Was d) Could 31. ____________ are the very ancient people. a) The Chinese b) Chinese c) The Chineses d) Chineses 32. The nursing _____ put the band _______ on the wound to _______ the nurse. a) Aide, aide, aid b) Aide, aid, aid c) Aide, aide, aide d) Aid, aid, aide 33. Do you know _________________ a) What time is it? b) What time it is? c) What is time? d) It is what time? 34. The accident _____________________ if the motorist had obeyed the speed limit sign. a) Never happened b) Would happen never c) Never would happen d) Never would have happened 35. After having robbed the bank, ______________________________. a) The thief hid at the house of a friend b) The police searched for the thief for many weeks c) The bank president offered a reward for the thief. d) The thief’s wife became very nervous. 36. She went to the party ____________ her dislike for the host. a) In spite of b) Despite of c) Although d) Even though 37. He tried to remember the names of all the people _________ were there that night. a) Which b) That c) Who d) Those 38. As we celebrated the start of the evening festivities, our glasses _____________ and a toast was made by our host. a) Were risen b) Were rose c) Were raised d) Arose 39. Since the factory was destroyed the company has _________ business to do. a) No b) Not c) None d) Neither 40. He doesn’t care for a rap music and ____________________. a) Neither me b) Neither I do c) Neither do I d) Don’t neither 41. The nurse asked the patient to choose _________ items from the menu. a) Eight b) Ate c) For d) Fore 42. She told her friend that her favorite colors _________ red and blue. a) Is b) Are c) Could be d) Seem to be 43. If the nurse _________________ the patient was going to threw up. She would have brought a basin. a) Had knew b) Had known c) Wanted to know d) Could be known 44. If I _________________ you, I would leave now. a) Was b) Were c) Where d) Which 45. The baby ___________ because she was hungry a) Cries b) Cry c) Cried d) Crying 46. The national anthem ______________ at the super bowl by Whitney Houston. a) Was sung b) Was singing c) Had Sung d) Sung 47. It is important that John _____________ his resume immediately. (It is required that he SEND the payment immediately). a) Send b) Sends c) Sent d) Sended 48. The blue whale is the largest animal _________ the world. a) In b) On c) Of d) At 49. Economics ____________ my least favorite subject at school. a) Am b) Is c) Are d) Been 50. When a person finds ________________in a stressful situation, it helps to breathe deeply. a) Oneself b) yourself c) Themselves d) Itself 51. Children generally _____________ with others of the same size and age. a) Play b) Plays c) Played d) Playing 52. Scissors should never be ___________ by the handle. a) Carry b) Carries c) Carried d) Carrying 53. The child cried, “I want to do it _____________. a) Mine b) Me c) Myself d) Me self 54. The nurse did not think that the symptoms ___________ an emergency room visit. a) Desired b) Warranted c) Guaranteed d) Should have been 55. During the storm, the glass in three of the windows _______. a) Broken b) Breaks c) Was broken d) Were broken 56. He ___________ football games. a) Never almost attends b) Almost never attends c) Almost attends never d) Attends almost never 57. I am looking forward to ___________ on a vacation next month. a) Go b) Going c) Be go d) Going to go 58. If they _________ that the weather was going to be so bad, they wouldn’t have gone to the beach. a) Know b) Knew c) Had known d) Were knowing 59. Finishing quickly is not as important as _____________ all the question correctly. a) Answer b) Answering c) Answered d) Answers 60. SELECT THE SENTENCE THAT USES “THEY’RE” CORRECTLY a) The teacher told the student, put the box they’re. b) The students looked at they’re test scores. c) They’re more likely to do well if they study. d) Most student finished they’re homework early. 61. WHICH SENTENCE IS GRAMMATICALLY CORRECT. a) The nurse asked the patient to lay down on the gurney. b) The nurse asked the patient to lie down on the gurney. c) The nurse asked the patient to ley down on the gurney. d) The nurse asked the patient to lei down on the gurney. 62. WHICH SENTENCE IS GRAMMATICALLY CORRECT? a) Which one do you want? b) Pick the won you want? c) Whose one do you want? d) Who’s do you want? 63. WHICH SENTENCE IS GRAMMATICALLY CORRECT? a) The winner was me. b) It was I who won. c) The runner was her. d) It was me who lost. 64. WHICH SENTENCE IS GRAMMATICALLY CORRECT? a) He did bad on the test. b) He felt bad about the broken window. c) He felt badly about being late. d) When the patient feels badly, give him an aspirin. SELECT THE WORD OR PHRASE IN THE SENTENCE THAT IS NOT USED CORRECTLY, question 65 - 79. 65. Before his death at age 82, comedian Rodney Dangerfield’s motto was, “I don’t get no respect.” a) At b) No c) Before d) Was 66. Because I want to go to the movies later, I am going to due my homework now. a) Because b) To go c) Due d) Am going to 67. Based on the principals of asepsis, the nurse should consider a sterile packet below waist level to be contaminated. a) Principals b) Asepsis c) Nurse d) Sterile 68. He ate for pieces of fried chicken at dinner, and no vegetables. a) No b) For c) At d) Ate 69. It was after soon he arrived in the U.S.A that he met the woman who was to become his wife. a) Was b) After soon c) Become d) Arrived 70. A sentence must always begin with a capital letter but many people forget this simple rule. a) Must b) Always c) Capital d) Forget 71. Of the many people what she interviewed; she chose the one with the most experience. a) Of the b) What c) With d) Most experience 72. Her mother asked her what would she do after she graduated from college. a) Would b) After c) Do d) Graduated 73. The student ___________ for the final exam. a) Was studying b) Didn’t studied c) Studied hardly d) Would have studies 74. The mailperson’s job is to put the envelope’s in every mailbox on the block. a) Envelope’s b) Mailperson’s c) Block d) Every 75. The physician started to preform the operation, but the patient was not yet completely under anesthesia. a) Preform b) Patient c) Completely under d) Not yet 76. The nurse’s notes in the medical record indicate the patients pain was severe. a) Notes b) Was c) Patients d) Nurse’s 77. The charge nurse overheard the nursing assistant discussing the private details of a client’s medical condition with a personnel friend in the hospital cafeteria. a) Client’s b) Overheard c) Details d) Personnel 78. The nurse asked the patient to choose ate items from the menu that are his favorite. a) Ate items b) Patient c) His Favorite d) Asked 79. The patient was to cold, so he asked the nurse for another blanket. a) Was b) To c) Asked for d) Another 80. The car that she had seen at the Ford dealer was the one that she final decided to buy. a) Was b) Had seen c) Final d) To buy 81. When you add sugar to it, your cup of coffee becomes not only sweet, also fattening. a) To b) Cup of c) Becomes d) Also 82. The team want to go to the game early for tryouts. a) Want b) To go c) For d) Early 83. After the policeman had ran for several miles, he finally caught up with the man who had stolen the purse. a) Had ran b) Finally c) Up with c) Several 84. The patients voice was a little horse and he complained of a sore throat, so the doctor prescribed a throat lozenge. a) Sore b) Horse c) Prescribed d) Lozenge 85. During the blackout, one of the patients were frightened and screamed loudly. a) During b) One c) Were d) Loudly 86. During the time he lived in New York, he worked as a writer, and editor, and a library. a) As b) An c) During d) Library 87. San Francisco is one of the many cities in the world which have recently been hit by earthquakes. a) In b) Have c) Been hit d) Many cities 88. The sales man recommended that he keeps his receipt for at least a month. a) That b) Keeps c) For d) At least 89. The radio broadcast has heard by almost everyone in the country. a) Has heard b) Almost everyone c) In d) The country 90. I will call you when I will get back from visiting my sister. a) When b) Will get c) Visiting d) My 91. It’s true that children depend in their parents for food, clothing and shelter. a) It’s b) That c) In d) Clothing 92. The teachers let the students to know that they would have an hour to complete the test. a) Let b) To know c) Would have d) The test 93. He had already finished studying at an University when he was called to join the army. a) An b) Had c) Studying d) Already 94. Long before his death, Pablo Picasso had become one of the most important artists in history. a) Long before b) had become c) the most d) Important 95. The man’s heart attack scared him badly and he decided having a regular check-up from then on. a) Man’s b) Badly c) From d) Having 96. In the accident that destroyed his car, he had ten of his tooths knocked out. a) That destroyed b) Tooths c) Knocked out d) Ten of 97. The most important things in my life are making money, traveling abroad, and to live well. a) In b) Are c) The most d) To live 98. There are three things to remember for the test: Vocabulary, Grammar, and Spelling. a) There b) For c) Are d) And 99. WHICH SENTENCE IS GRAMMATICALLY CORRECT? a) Gosh, I be ordering a V-8! b) Gosh, I coulda had a V-8! c) Gosh, I could have had a V-8! d) Gosh, I should ordered a V-8! 100. WHICH WORD IS USED INCORRECTLY? It seem like the sun never shines on Saturday. 101. WHICH WORD IS USED INCORRECTLY? The procedure for giving injections were explained thoroughly to the student nurses. a) Thoroughly b) Were c) Procedure d) Student WHICH SENTENCE IS GRAMMATICALLY INCORRECT? 102. As I was passing my friend’s house last night, I was seeing that she had a new car packed in her drive way. a) As I b) Was seeing c) Friend’s d) A new car 103. You should try on many another pair of shoes before you decide which ones you want to buy. a) On b) Another c) Decide d) To buy 104. Napoleon Bonaparte was some of the most famous generals in European history. a) Some b) The most famous c) In d) European 105. He will go to home when his math class finishes. a) To home b) His c) Math class d) Finishes 106. Use etc. correctly in a sentence - the list included diseases such as measles, flu, chicken pox, etc. ________________________________________ HESI ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY Things to know: Directional terminology: superior (above), inferior (below), anterior (front), posterior (back), medial (toward midline), lateral (away from midline), proximal (closer to attachment), distal (farther from attachment), superficial (closer to surface), and deep. Planes: sagittal (right/left), coronal (front/back), transverse (upper/lower), and oblique (all others). Focus on how the blood flows through the heart and the endocrine system! There are very few to zero questions that are picture based. You must know functions and how things relate to each other. This quizlet is the same as the questions below. These are questions that have been on the test in May 2020 or later! *Highlighted are the terms (not descriptions) to know.* These are based on memory of the test takers, so they are not exactly as seen on the test. 1. Characteristic of viral herpes: Skin eruption 2. when a boxer gets hit and has a deviated Septum: vomer (in nose) 3. Which of the following is a structure found in the upper respiratory? Pharynx 4. A person who has damage to their ulnar nerve will have decreased sensation in? Arm 5. Which bone does not articulate with any other bone? Hyoid 6. . Which of the following statements best describe endocrine glands? They secrete chemicals into the blood. 7. Diet is important because bones are storage places for? Calcium and phosphorous 8. Which organ is part of both the male reproductive system and the urinary system? Urethra 9. Ligaments provide what with connection? Bone to bone 10. What structure conducts urine from the kidney to the urinary bladder? Ureter 11. Anaerobic respiration can lead to a burning sensation caused by which molecule? Lactic acid 12. As part of the negative feedback system, which type of cell is stimulated to resorb bone matrix in response to a decrease in calcium in the blood? Osteoclasts 13. Sweat on the skin's surface cools the body through which process? Evaporation 14. When assessing a female client who describes herself as a vegetarian in the nurse notes that she has an unusual skin color. The nurse should ask the client if she has eaten large amount of: carrot and squash. 15. Which hand position describes an anatomical position of a person who is standing erect with feet forward? Palms of the hand facing anterior 16. Which structure is a ball and socket joint? Shoulder 17. Which anatomical structure houses the malleus, incus, and stapes? Skull ear 18. What are like cells grouped together called? A tissue 19. . The pulse point located behind the knee is palpated over which artery? Popliteal 20. Ceruminous glands secrete Ear wax 21. What type of synovial joint is the elbow? Hinge 22. What occurs when the sympathetic nervous system is stimulated? Increased Cardiac output 23. Where does digestion begin in the digestive system? Oral cavity 24. Which structure regulates the transport of substances in and out of a cell? The cell membrane 25. The mediastinum is located within which cavity? Thoracic 26. . What is the effect of serotonin, a neurotransmitter? Involved with mood, anxiety and sleep 27. What is the response of cells in the collecting tubules in the nephrons when antidiuretic hormone ADH is secreted? Water is reabsorbed from the urinary filtrate 28. What is the function of the thrombocytes (platelets)? Play role in blood clotting 29. Which muscle of the quadriceps femoris group lies on the slide surface of the lower extremity? Vastus lateralis 30. Which structure is located on the sternum? Xiphoid process 31. The occipital region is located in which part of the body? Head 32. Which structure carries oxygen to the cells? Hemoglobin 33. Which gland is commonly known as the "Master Gland"? Pituitary Gland 34. Aspirin occurs when there is a tear in which structures? Ligament 35. What epidermal derivative is involved in temperature homeostasis? Eccrine gland 36. Which are the parts of bone? Osteoblast,epiphyseal, diaphysis 37. Aqueous humor is watery fluid in which part of the body? Eye 38. The Malleus, Incus, and Stapes are located in which part of the body? Ear 39. Dorsiflexion plantar flexion are types of joint movement that are associated with which part of the body? Foot 40. Within which vessel does blood return from the lungs? Pulmonary vein 41. Which part of the brain is involved in auditory functioning? Temporal lobe 42. What internal structure of the ear is concerned with hearing? Cochlea 43. Fertilization of an ovum occurs in which anatomical structure? Fallopian tubes 44. Where is the tibialis anterior muscle located? Lower leg 45. An overproduction of cerumen (earwax) can accumulate in which area? External ear canals 46. The mitral valve is located between which two structures? Left ventricle & Left atrium 47. . The olfactory nerves are associated in which sense? Smell 48. Vessel carries blood from the body to the heart? Vena cava 49. . Hormone(s) is/are produced by the ovaries? Estrogen & progesterone 50. Plane divides the body into right and left sides? Sagittal 51. Two principal divisions that makeup nervous system? Peripheral (PNS) & Central (CNS) 52. The orthopedic surgeon informs you that you have broken the distal region of the humerus. What area is he describing? Epiphysis 53. . Part of the brain attaches to the spinal cord? Medulla oblongata 54. Which term is used to describe movement of the arms and legs away from the midline of the body? Abduction 55. Structure provides a pulse reading in the neck? Carotid Artery 56. Which hormone is produced by the posterior pituitary gland? Oxytocin 57. What is the primary function of the hemoglobin (blood)? Carry oxygen 58. What stimulates the chemoreceptors to function? rise in CO2; Fall in o2 59. Which condition causes a client to say "I can't see far away"? Nearsightedness 60. Anaerobic respiration can lead to burning sensation caused by which molecule? lactic acid 61. Golgi apparatus functions as? process protein secretion. synthesize carbs and glycoproteins 62. What organ produces insulin? pancreas 63. What effects do serotonin has or neurotransmitters? appetite, sleep, mood 64. Fertilization occurs in the? oviduct 65. When drawing blood from antecubital region which blood vessel is used to obtain blood? median cubital 66. What hormone induces growth of pubic and axillary hair at puberty? Testosterone and estrogen 67. Increase in the rate of depth of breath results in what blood PH changes? alkalosis 68. . What lobe of the brain is responsible for auditory functioning? Temporal 69. What is the function of the hypothalamus? regulates function of body, balance, thermoreg 70. How many carbs per gram do carbohydrates contain? 4 71. When water molecules move across cell membranes from high to low concentration this process is called? osmosis 72. What is the result of carbon dioxide in the body? body become more acidic 73. What part of the body is the lower back? lumbar 74. High levels of which ion would most likely result in a cardiac arrest? Potassium 75. What blood vessel perfuses the kidney? Renal vein 76. What gland is located on the anterior surface of the trachea? Thyroid Gland 77. In white blood cells what contributes to phagocytosis? macrophages, neutrophils 78. What part of the brain is attached to the spinal cord? medulla oblongata 79. What structure of the eye picks out color? retina 80. What is the outermost protective layer of the skin? Epidermis 82. The organ of corti is located in? Ear 83. Where in the body are nutrients absorbed? Small intestine 84. What cell structure regulates the transportation of substances in and out the cell? Plasma membrane 85. The rough endoplasmic reticulum functions in the human cell too? Synthesize protein 86. What is the response of cells in the collecting tubules in the nephrons when antidiuretic hormone ADH is secreted? water is reabsorbed from urinary filtrate 87. Tissue repair is enhanced by a diet high in? Protein 88. What is the definition of chyme? bolus that turns into soupy substance. The result of action by the stomach. 89. What are hormones? chemical messengers 90. What female reproductive organ produces oocytes, estrogen, progesterone? ovaries 91. What structure is located in the upper airways? nose, pharynx 92. What cellular process helps to move debris and mucous through the lining of tubules? Cilia 93. Which is a hollow organ? gallbladder 94. Which muscle is included in the quadriceps femoris group? Rectus femoris, Vastus lateralis, vastus medialis, vastus intermedius 95. Which structure is responsible for normal respiratory function? medulla oblongata 96. The Mitral valve is located between which two structures? left atrium left ventricle 97. Which hormone is produced by the posterior pituitary gland? ADH and OT 98. Client has large pituitary tumors. What part of the body does this affect? head hurt, sickness, low blood pressure 99. Which structure produces Blymphocytes? red bone marrow 100. What occurs when the sympathetic nervous system stimulation is increased? Blood pressure rises, goosebumps 101. The buttocks are which surface of the body? dorsal 102. . The esophagus is located in which body cavity? thoracic 103. The tympanic membrane is located between which structures? external auditory canal and middle ear 104. How many days is the average menstrual cycle? 28 days 105. Which structure produces T-lymphocytes? thymus 106. A person who has damaged the ulnar nerve will have decreased sensation in which area? arm -inability to adduct arms and fingers 107. Calcaneus is located in? foot 108. Urinary system in the human body primary task is to? expel waste 109. Which of the following produce progesterone to prepare the uterus for pregnancy? Corpus luteum 110. What are fingerprints made of? Friction Ridges 111. ABCD of cancer? Melanoma Asymmetry (one half of the mole doesn't match the other), Border irregularity, Color that is not uniform, Diameter greater than 6 mm 112. What location would the urinary bladder & internal reproductive organ be found? pelvic region 113. Which one increases angle at the joint? extensor 114. Which hormone is released by posterior lobe? oxytocin 115. What is the order of organization of living things? organelle, cells, tissues, organs, organ systems, organisms, populations, communities, ecosystem, and biosphere. 116. What bones are formed first during intramembranous ossification? flat bone of face and cranial 117. What is the most obvious skin cancer? basal cell carcinoma 118. Describe active transport. requires energy and work from cell 119. Describe passive transport? Provide examples. doesn't require energy ex. diffusion and osmosis 120. The passive movement of molecules or particles along a concentration gradient, or from regions of higher to regions of lower concentration. diffusion 121. Movement of water across a membrane osmosis 122. Fibrous joint immovable and held together by ligaments only ex. teeth in socket 123. Cartilaginous connection between articulating bones made up of cartilage 124. Synovial joints highly moveable hinge, pivot, saddle 125. Two types of asexual reproduction? binary fission and mitosis 126. What links the nasopharynx to the middle ear? eustachian tube 127. calciferol is controlled by? parathyroid 128. sebaceous gland secretes oil 129. endocytosis engulfs and brings in 130. exocytosis fuses within plasma membrane and releases content outside of cell 131. pituitary gland produces adrenocorticotropic hormone GH 132. adrenal gland secretes cortisol and aldosterone 133. Aerobic respiration takes place in the mitochondria and requires oxygen and glucose, and produces carbon dioxide, water, and energy. 134. Anaerobic respiration also produces energy and uses glucose, but it produces less energy and does not require oxygen. 135. What part of the respiratory system is I the upper respiratory? Bronchioles, alveolar ducts, and alveoli 136. aerobic respiration happens in presence of oxygen 137. soft spot on baby head fontanelle 138. what do endocrine hormones do growth metabolism sexual development and function 139. layers of epidermis (Inner to Outer)? stratum basale, stratum spinosum, stratum granulosum, stratum lucidum, and stratum corneum. 140. top of sternum manubrium 141. parts of sternum manubrium body xiphoid 142. what makes up most plasma water 143. polypeptide are chains of amino acids 144. Mitosis- the process of cell division that occurs in five stages before pinching two "daughter" cells in a process called cytokinesis 145. Meiosis: to make haploid gametes and the production of germs cells 146. Photosynthesis- precursor to the glucose molecule is produced in a process. Use sunlight to synthesize foods from carbon dioxide and water. Generates oxygen as a byproduct. 147. The ribs are attached to the sternum 148. a thin pouch in the heart auricle 149. What expands the thoracic cavity? inhalation 150. What separates the abdominal and thoracic cavity? Diaphragm 151. distal convoluted tubule controlled by? PTH 152. Why is the HCL chemical in the stomach not absorbed/ harm stomach? mucus lining protects it 153. What is the part of the heart with the largest layer? left ventricle 154. What makes the colors of the skin? melanin and melanocytes 155. Distal convoluted tubule works with hormone ADH 156. What is produced by the hypothalamus and released by the posterior pituitary? Oxytocin 157. Ligament connects what to what? bone to bone 158. Tendon connects what to what? bone to muscle 159. What are the bone forming cells? Osteocytes 160. What are the 4 steps of bone ossification? hematoma formation, callus formation, ossification, and bone remodeling 161. The gallbladder is part of which system? digestive system 162. Vastus lateralis does what? extends knee and stabilizes 163. Muscle contraction that moves food through the digestive tract is called what? peristalsis 164. Where are schwann cells? nervous system 165. How does the nervous system work with the muscular? tells muscles how to respond to environment 166. Somatic nervous system has what type of movements? voluntary 167. Autonomic nervous system has what type of movement? involuntary movements (sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems) 168. Which organ system is responsible for regulating muscle growth? endocrine 169. How does lymph work with circulatory lymph? draws excess fluid from the cells and deposits it into blood vessels 170. What is the function of parathyroid? manufacture the parathyroid hormone, which plays a role in regulating your body's levels of the minerals calcium and phosphorus 171. What is a normal heart rate? 60-100 bpm. Athletes can be closer to 40 bpm 172. How is pepsin used in the body? breakdown proteins 173. Esophagus is part of which system? Digestive 174. Which system produces antibodies lymphatic 175. Blood that has supplied nutrients and oxygen to heart muscle returns to? right atrium via coronary sinus 176. Diploid has how many chromosomes? 46 177. Haploid has how many chromosomes? 23 178. What are the functions of the skeletal system? 1. protection 2. movement 3. mineral storage 4. production of blood 179. Efferent away from CNS 180. Afferent toward CNS 181. A mature female reproductive cell, especially of a human or other animal, that can divide to give rise to an embryo usually only after fertilization by a male cell. Ovum 182. A mature haploid male or female germ cell that is able to unite with another of the opposite sex in sexual reproduction to form a zygote. Gamete 183. What carries blood away from the body in order to exchange nutrients, oxygen, and waste? Capillaries 184. What is the exchange of gases between the atmosphere and the blood through the alveoli called? External respiration 185. Most of the carbon dioxide in blood does what? It is converted to bicarbonate ions by carbonic anhydrase within red blood cells. 186. What are the two functions of the male and female sex organs? Production of gametes and production of hormones 187. Which tissue serves as the framework of the body by providing support and structure for organs? connective 188. What are the glands of the skin that produce a thin and watery secretion? eccrine glands 189. All actions of the nervous system depend on the transmission of nerve impulses over which of the following? neurons 190. monocytes becomes macrophages 191. lymphocytes important in immune system 192. neutrophils phagocytize microorganisms 193. In order for inhalation to occur, what must happen? contraction of the diaphragm, which enlarges the chest cavity and draws air 194. Functional units of the kidney? nephrons 195. Where does fertilization occur? fallopian tubes 196. What is important for wound healing? Cellular contact 197. What is the most abundant tissue? connective tissue ________________________________________ HESI MATHEMATICS Things you need to know: Fractions are essential in the math section. You must know how to add, subtract, multiply, divide, reduce, and turn into improper fractions. Conversions: 0C=32F. 1ft=12in. 2.54cm=1in. 1gal=4qt. 1gal=128oz. 1qt=2pt. 1pt=2c. 1c=8oz. 1oz=30mL. King Henry Died Unusually Drinking Chocolate Milk=kilo,hecta,deca,unit,deci,centi,milli. 1. 1 2/3 4/7. 2 5/21 2. 1.25 X 2.0 . 2.5 3. 8.08 change into a fraction. 8 2/25 4. Change 1/1000 to a ratio. 1:1000 5. 0.2 divided by 1.1. 0.18 6. How many fluid ounces are in 2 1/2 gallons. 320 0z 7. How many ml are in 6 liters. 6000ml 8. which fraction is equivalent to 7/28. 1/4 9. 5/12 x 4/9. 5/27 10. 1 1/2 divided by 2 . 3/4 11. 0.5:20 :: x:200 . 5 12. 9:X :: 5:300. 540 13.3:10 :: 12:X. 40 14. 7/8 9/10 6/5. 2 39/40 15. 1/5 to decimal 0.2 16. 32 divided by 8/9. 36 17. x:600 :: 4:20 120 18. 0.9 divided by 3 0.3 19. 3:5 :: x:10 6 20. 5 3/4 divided by ½. 11 ½ 21. 0.6: X :: 0.3:2 4 22. How many grams are in 4 kilograms 4000 grams 23. military time for 6 am 0600 24. 2100 in regular time 0900pm 25.0.75 put into proportion and reduce to fraction ¾ 26. 0.12 change to percent 12% 27. 12 5/6 divided by 4 2/3. 2 ¾ 28. 5 1/3 3 ½. 8 5/6 29. 240:x:80:0.8. 2.4 30. 32 divided 8/9. 36 31. 6gm to mg. 6000 mg 32. 9/10- 2/5. ½ 33. 5 3/4 divided ½. 11 ½ 34. 4/9x1 4/5x 2/5. 8/25 35. 1/4 3/8. 5/8 36. Sarah ran a 24 mile race. She ran 6 miles in 1 hours, 6 miles in 1.2 hours, 6 miles in 1.5 hours, 6 miles in 1.6 hours. How long did it take her to finish the race? 5.3 hours 37.. Two chickens lay 6 eggs in 24 hours. How many chickens will lay 24 eggs in 24 hours? 8 chickens 39. 7/8 9/10 6/5. 2 39/40 40. 0.9divided 3 0.3 41. Percentage word problem 54% of $789.56? $426.36 42. 0.5:20: x: 200. 5 43. 6 clients are throwing a party & each cake serves 24 servings & has a party of 70 & 3 staff. How many cakes are needed? 2 3/4 cakes 44. x=11 x 44/2(x). 253 45. 2100 in military time? 9pm 46. A farmer has 240 acres under cultivation at the cost of $188.99 per acre. If he averages a yield of 60 bushels per acre, what profit is expected if the price per bushel is $5.67? 36,290.40 47. A man is reading a thick book. If he reads two chapters a day how long it will take him to read the book if there is 6 pages per chapter & 798 pg? 66.5 (67 rounded) 48. An office worker mails 25 envelopes to customers each day. Every envelope contains 3 reports with a paper clip on each one. The supply of paper clips is provided in boxes of 500. How many days will it take for the clerk to use up one box of paper clips? 6.66 – 7days. 49. 12 1/8 - 9 ½. 2 5/8 50. 2/3 1/6 2/5. 1 7/30 51. 22 4/13-21 2/3. 25/39 52. x:500:3:1000. 1.5 53. 2 5/8-7/8. 1 ¾ 54. 12 5/6 divided 4 2/3. 2 ¾ 55. 7 7/10 - 3 4/5. 3 9/10 56. A ride requires you to be 48 inches, what height would you have to be in feet to ride it. 4ft 57. The physician tells a woman who usually drinks 5 cup of coffee daily to cut down her consumption by 75%. If this is compliant with physician's instructions, how many ounces of coffee is she allowed daily? 10 ounces 58. A library contains 67, 982 books. The children's section represents 1/3 of the total books. Of the remaining books, 75% are fiction. How many books are in the fiction section? 33,991 59. There is 48 students in a class. 7 out of 8 are females what percent are females. 87% 60. There is a school that has 6,190 students there is already 216 how many more teachers are needed? 6190/ 216= 29 more teachers 61. A mom is planning a birthday and wants each kid to have 15 balloons. The balloons come in pack of 50, how many packs will she need for 10 kids? 3 packs 62. A class has 25 students 44% of the students are boys. How many boys are in class? x/25 44%/100= 11 boys 63. A person Drove from 8am Tuesday to 5pm Wednesday. Total drive 3 9 6 miles. He have lunch for 30 mins on Tuesday and sleep overnight from 7pm Tuesday and go back to drive at 5am Wednesday. On Wednesday he have 3 0 min for lunch. What is the average speed that he drives? 18mph 64. John drove for 3 hours at a rate of 50 miles per hour and for 2 hours at 60 miles per hour. What was his average speed for the whole journey? 54 mph 65. Diaper Question A mother changes a baby diaper 6 times a day how many times does she change it in a year? 2190 66. How many ounces are in 3 gallons? 384 67. 3km is equal to how many meter? 3000 68. 3/4 pints is how many ounces? 12 69. Race question: Rounded to the tenths) Sarah ran a 24 mile race. She ran 6 miles in 1.6 hours, 6 miles in 1.2 hours, 6 miles in 1.3 hours 6 miles in1.5 hours. How long did it take her to finish the race? 5 ½ hrs 70. Cake question There was a word problem that said 6 clients are throwing a party & each cake serves 24 servings & has a party of 70 & 3 staff. How many cakes are needed? 4 cakes 71. The paper clip An office worker mails 25 envelopes to customers each day. Every envelope contains 3 reports with a paper clip contains 3 report with a paper clip on each one. The supply of paper clip is provided in boxes of 500. How many days will it take for the clerk to use up one box of paper clips? 6.66 0r 7 days 72. 77/6 x 3/14 2.75 73. 77/10- 19/5 3.9 74. 12-7 4/5 4 1/5 75. If a dice is rolled 1time what is the percent rolling a 5? 16.67% 76. if a dice is rolled 1 time what is the percent rolling an even number? 50% 77. Sally are 0.35 of her lunch john ate 75%. Who ate more? John ate more 78. Cat question There is 7 girls and each girl has 7 cats, how many legs are in the group? 210 legs 79. If Alice consumes two times as many calories as Claire, and Claire consumes 2,500 calories a day. How many calories does Alice consume a week? 35,000 80. Train A leaves the station at 1:45 traveling at a constant speed of 65 mph. If it arrives at its destination at 3:15, how many miles did it travel? 97.5 81. Leslie is blowing up one of her favorite photographs to hang on her wall. If the photo's original length and height were 8 inches and 15 inches, and the new height is 4 feet, how many feet must the new picture be? 2.1 82. If Larry can wash 50 cars in 20 minutes, how many minutes will it take him to wash 80 cars? 32 83. A runner leaves his house at 7:45 for a morning run. If he travels at an average speed of 6 mph and gets back home at 10:00, how many miles did he run? 13.5 84. A bowling team consists of 34 members, and 18 are male. If 4 females leave the team, what percent of the remaining members are male? 60% 85. If Andy runs five times as long as Jake and Jake runs 24.5 miles each week, how many miles does Andy run in a day? 17.5 86. Two workers can finish building a play set in 18 hours. How long will it take 4 workers to build 3 play sets? 27 87. If Randy sells 8 times as many vacuum cleaners as Janice, and Janice sells 690 vacuum cleaners per year, on average, how many does Randy sell each month? 460 88. A marathon runner is training for his next race. On his daily run he completes 21.6 mile and burns 2,274 calories. What is his rate of calories burned per mile? 105.28 89. A baker can bake 4 cakes with 10 cups of sugar. If he has a 30 cup bag that is 1/2 full, how many cakes can he bake? 6 cakes 90. Two buildings in downtown Chicago stand across the river from each other. The first building's height is 1,700 feet and it casts a shadow that is 525 feet long. If the second building's height is 1,450 feet, how long will its shadow be at the same time of day (round to the nearest foot)? 448 ________________________________________ HESI BIOLOGY 1. How many chromosomes do sperm and egg produce in meiosis? 23 2. How many chromosomes do sperm and egg produce in mitosis? 46 3. What helps the cells shape and cell to adapt? cytoskeleton 4. What gives the cell the ability to move and proper? microtubules 5. What is the main component of blood plasma? water 6. What is the first step in metabolism of food to cellular energy? glycolysis 7. What drives the cell/ pushes it forward? propulsion 8. All humans have how many pairs of chromosomes? 23 pairs 9. The plasma membrane is made of/ composed of what? lipids, proteins, and carbohydrates 10. What organelle is responsible for packaging, processing, and shipping? Golgi Apparatus 11. Plant cells have what organelle that functions as storage, waste disposal, and protection? vacuoles 12. What are the site of cellular respiration? (eukaryotic cells) mitochondria 13. What are plasma membranes mostly made of? lipids 14. What is the magnification of an ocular lens on a microscope? 10x 15. What part of the microscope is the side going to be placed on? stage 16. What holds the genetic code for each person? DNA 17. What is DNA made of? nucleotides 18. What is the most important component of the cell, contributing to protection, communication, and the passage of substances into and out the cell. The cellular membrane 19. The plasma membrane is made of how many phospholipid layers? 2 20. How is oxygen transported through blood or body? circulatory system 21. The mRNA strand is what to the DNA strand? identical except T is replaced with U 22. What organelle is responsible for protein synthesis and membrane production? endoplasmic reticulum (rough ER) 23. What is the intake of food through the cell membrane creating food vacuole? phagocytosis 24. The bird's body and function of wings? hereditary 25. What phase does replication take place in? S phase 26. What are different versions of a gene? (variations) alleles 27. What cycle is the sequence of reactions by which most living cells generate general energy during the process of aerobic respiration; it takes place in the mitochondria. The Kreb Cycle 28. What kind of cells are in meiosis (sex cells)? gametes 29. What organelle pushes water out of the cell? vacuoles (contractile) 30. What is an animal cell? Eukaryotic 31. Movement of ions and other molecular substances across cell membranes without the need of energy is what? Passive transport 32. What is the diffusion of water through a semipermeable membrane from areas of high concentration to areas of low concentration? osmosis 33. The expulsion or discharge of substances from the cell (removal)? exocytosis 34. What does aerobic respiration require? oxygen 35. What skin layer can produce fingerprints? dermis papillae ________________________________________ HESI READING COMPREHENSION Things to know: The reading passages for V1 are Eating, Food, Game of Bridge, Getting a Good Nights Sleep, Insomnia, Phobia, Rainforest, Safe Driving, The Water Cycle, Voice, and/or White Elephant. The passages are only 3-4 paragraphs each. Most questions can be answered using only the introduction and conclusion! Purpose: Why is this being written? Purposes are to entertain, inform, or persuade. Tone: The author's attitude toward the subject. Some examples of tone are argumentative, optimistic, sympathetic, and cautious. Connotation: The emotions the reader attaches to words, positive or negative. ________________________________________ HESI CRITICAL THINKING Things to know: ABCs of Nursing: Airway, Breathing, Circulation, Decreased Conciousness, Everything Else. (In order of priority.) 1. Patient: A 65-year- old male. Situation: The family brings the patient to the emergency room because he just took an entire bottle of pills. Question: What action should the nurse take first? Determine the patient’s level of consciousness. 2. Patient: An 80 year-old male who has used continuous oxygen for the past three years. Situation: While making a home visit, the wife tells the nurse that her husband was doing well on 2 litres of oxygen per minute until late last night when he developed severe shortness of breath on the way to the bathroom. Question: What action should the nurse take first? Assess the patient’s oxygen saturation by pulse oximeter. 3. Patient: A 41-year-old male. Situation: The patient is complaining of severe stomach pain and states that he has been “vomiting all the time.” Question: What should the nurse do first? Administer a prescribed pain medication. 4. Patient: The wife of a wealthy owner of the town’s bank. Situation: The patient and her husband arrive on the unit. While orienting the patient to the hospital room, the nurse notices that the patient has placed a large amount of cash and some expensive earrings in the drawer of the bedside table. Question: What is the best action for the nurse to take? Advise the patient to have her husband take the items home when he leaves. 5. Patient: A 45-year-old female who is 5’ 2” tall, weighs 200 pounds, and has smoked since age 21. Situation: The patient comes to the clinic with a complaint of “leg pain.” Question: It is most important for the nurse to obtain information about which previous occurrence? A previous blood clot in the leg. 6. Patient: A 61-year-old female. Situation: The patient has a fever of unknown origin. The nurse administered a fever-reducing medication 30 minutes ago. At this time there has been no decrease in the patient’s fever. Question: What action would be best for the nurse to take? Sponge the patient with cool water. 7. Patient: A 70-year-old male who is relatively healthy. Situation: A liquid mediation is prescribed for this patient. Question: Prior to administering the prescribed medication, what intervention has the highest priority? Determine if the patient is allergic to the medication. 8. Patient: A fifty-eight-year-old female. Situation: While the nurse is offering the patient her morning medications, she tells the nurse that she does not recall ever taking a pill tat was pink colored. Question: What should the nurse do in response to this patient’s comment? Withhold the mediation until the patient’s prescription is verify. 9. Patients: A 63-year-old with a burn on the left lower leg who is complaining of pain. A 45-year-old with pneumonia, complaining of shortness of breath. A 31-year-old with abdominal pain who has just vomited blood. An 88-year-old who has right-sided paralysis and wants to be helped to the bathroom immediately. Question: Who should the nurse see first? The 45-years old with pneumonia and shortness of breath. 10. Patients: A 13-year-old female with a kidney infection who reports that there is “lots of blood” in her urine. An 18-year-old male with acute alcohol poisoning who is seeing “bugs on the walls.” A 21-year-old female with inflammatory bowel disease who has soaked a dressing three hours after surgery. A 25-year old male who is sobbing in his room after being told that he has testicular cancer. Question: Who should the nurse see first? The 21-years old who is three hours postoperative and has a soaked dressing. 11. The Patients: 42-year-old with diabetes who is blind and is asking to get up and moved to a chair. An 88-year-old with lower body paralysis who wants to be turned in bed. A 17-year-old with asthma who smokes and has been in the bathroom for 30 minutes. A 55-year-old with cardiac disease who tells the nurse, “Get the TV fixed or I am leaving this place.” The Question: Which patient should the nurse see first? The 17-year old with asthma who may be smoking in the bathroom. 12. Patient: An elderly female accompanied by her middle-aged son. Situation: The patient is being discharged after 15-day stay on the medical unit, and the son offers the nurse a box of candy as a gesture of thanks for caring for his mother. Question: What should the nurse do in response to the offer of this gift? Sincerely thank the son, and share the candy with all staff member on the unit. 13. Patient: A 25-year-old female who has smoked since age 12. Situation: The patient is complaining of “skipped heart beats.” Question: Which instruction is most important for the nurse to provide this patient? Call for assistance if she feels weak or dizzy when getting out of bed. 14. Patient: A frail 88-year-old male who has recently become slightly confused. Situation: The nurse is making a home visit and assesses the safety features of the home environment. Question: Which suggestion would be most important for the nurse to provide the family? Eliminate any throw rugs from floor. 15. Patient: A 55-year-old female with a family history of hypertension. Situation: The patient is concerned about her health and states, “I have had severe headaches for the last six months. I think I might have high blood pressure.” The nurse determines that the woman’s blood pressure is 138/86 (high normal). Question: What action would be best for the nurse to take? Ask the patient about the frequency, timing and quality of her headaches. 16. Patient: A 35-year-old female with a history of asthma. Situation: The patient has been using a steroid inhaler because she is short of breath. However, she states that her shortness of breath is “no better.” Question: What is the most important information for the nurse to obtain? Method of using the inhaler. 17. Patient: An older confused male. Situation: At 3 a.m. the patient, who thinks he is in the bathroom, defecates in the bed. The bed needs to be changed. However, there are no bed sheets on the nursing unit. Question: What action should the nurse take first? Ask a nursing assistant to go to another unit and borrow linen. 18. Patient: A 25-year-old female hospitalized for anorexia. Situation: The charge nurse denies the patient permission to pass dinner trays. Question: What is the most important reason for the nurse to deny this anorexic patient permission to pass the dinner trays? Treatment protocol for anorexics mandates that they avoid preoccupation with food. 19. Patient: A 75-year-old male who had a heart attack four years ago. Situation: The patient tells the nurse, “Even though I stopped smoking 10 years ago, I have a terrible cough.” Question: What action should the nurse take first? Auscultate all lung fields 20. The Patient: A 70-year-old man dying of prostate cancer. Situation: Nurse “A,” who is charge of a medical unit, notices that a dying patient continues to moan in pain after receiving intravenous injections of morphins whenever Nurse “B” is caring for him. Nurse “A” suspects that Nurse “B” may be diluting the patient’s dose and taking the morphine to feed an addiction. Question: What should Nurse “A” do in this situation? Notify the shift supervisor and unit director of the circumstances before taking action 21.The Patient: A 29-year-old male. Situation: A lower leg cast was applied yesterday to a fractured leg. Today the patient tells the nurse that he is in “terrible pain.” Question: Which action is most important for the nurse to take? Check the patient’s toes for adequate circulation. 22. Patient: A 54-year-old male who weighs 275 pounds. He is 5’ 10” tall and has many family members who have died of heart disease. Situation: He comes to the clinic stating that he has had several episodes of “chest pain” in the last week. Question: What is the most important action for the nurse to take? Ask the patient to describe the chest pain. 23. Patient: A 7-year-old child. Situation: A nurse arrives with an injection containing preoperative sedation that must be given to the child now. The child asks the nurse if the shot will hurt. Question: What response should the nurse offer to this child? “Yes, but it won’t last very long and soon you will be sleepy” 24. Patient: A 35-year-old female. Situation: The patient is admitted with a diagnosis of abdominal pain and diarrhea. Question: Which action should the nurse take first? Initiate Intravenous fluids. 25. Patient: A 51-year-old male. Situation: The patient is pale, has dark circles under his eyes, and responds to questions with a soft, low voice. He tells the nurse that he has not slept well for months, but denies any type of pain. Question: What information is most important for the nurse to obtain? The existence of a significant life in the last year that has caused anxiety. 26. Patient: A 19-year-old male who has previously been healthy. Situation: The patient complains that he is losing weight despite “eating all the time.” Question: Considering this patient’s age and complaint, which diagnostic test is likely to provide the most important information? A fingerstick for blood sugar level. 27. Patient: An adult with diabetes mellitus who was just given a morning does of insulin which lowers the blood sugar. Situation: The patient’s breakfast tray arrives, and the nurse notices that the pancake syrup and sugar packets have not been substituted with products containing artificial sweeteners. Question: What should the nurse do first in this situation? Remove foods containing sugar and offer sugar substitutes. 28. Patient: A terminally ill male. Situation: Nurse “A” and an unidentified woma

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