BLINN COLLEGE - BIOL 3V2 / ATI TEAS 6 EXAM STUDY GUIDE|COMPLETE SOLUTION 100%
ATI TEAS 6 EXAM STUDY GUIDE – Blinn College (A Grade / School graded) ATI TEAS 6 EXAM STUDY GUIDE Science Cell ¬ Cell: basic organizational unit of all living things. One thing in common is they all have membranes (phospholipids). ¬ Cell structure organization: All cells contain DNA, and RNA & can synthesize proteins. Consists of nucleic acids, cytoplasm, and cell membrane. o Tissues: Cells that are grouped together o Organs: Tissues that are grouped together o Systems: Organs that are grouped together o Organism: A complete individual ¬ Nuclear parts of a cell o Nucleus: contains chromosomes, & regulates DNA of the cell. Defining structure of eukaryotic cells (they all have nucleus). Passes genetic traits between generations. Contains nuclear envelop, nucleoplasm, nucleolus, nuclear pores, chromatin, & ribosomes. o Chromosomes: thread like rods of DNA. Short deoxyribonucleic acid, DNA is the genetic material that stores information about the plant/animal. o Chromatin: DNA & Protein makeup chromosomes o Nucleolus: Proteins, small/round doesn’t have membrane. Protein synthesis, synthesizes & stores RNA. o Nuclear envelope: Encloses structures within nucleus. Made of lipids. o Nuclear pores: Exchange materials between the nucleus * cytoplasm o Nucleoplasm: Liquid like cytoplasm, within nucleus. Cell Membranes ¬ Cell Membrane (Plasma membrane): Semipermeable membrane of lipids and proteins. Made of phospholipid bilayer, hydrophilic ends of the outer layer facing the external environment, the inner layer facing inside the cell, hydrophobic ends facing each other. o Hydrophilic: Water loving, can dissolve water o Hydrophobic: Hates water, can’t dissolve water ¬ Selective Permeability o Selective Permeability with regards to size, charge, and solubility. ¬ Cell structure o Ribosomes: synthesize proteins from amino acids. o Golgi apparatus: synthesize materials like proteins that are transported out of the cell. Near nucleus & consists of layers of membranes. o Vacuoles: Sacs used for storage, digestion, and waste removal. One large in plant cells/ Animal cells are small or have numerous. o Vesicle: Has membrane, & can move materials within the cell. o Cytoskeleton: Microtubules that shape and support the cell. o Microtubules: Part of cytoskeleton & help support cell. Made of protein. o Cytosol: Liquid material within the cell. Mostly water & had floating materials. o Cytoplasm: Cytosol & organelles found within the plasma membrane, not within nucleus! o Cell membrane: Barrier that keeps materials out of cell. Determines what’s allowed in and out. o Rough Endoplasmic reticulum: Ribosomes on the surface, produce & store proteins o Smooth Endoplasmic reticulum: Helps store lipids & proteins. o Mitochondrion: Generate ATP, involved in cell growth & death. Contain their own DNA aside from the one within the nucleus. ♣ Functions: Produce energy, cell signaling, cellular differentiation, cell cycle & growth regulation. Can also have aerobic respiration. - - - - - - - Immune System ¬ Protects body against invading pathogens including bacteria, viruses, fungi, & protists. o Immune system includes: lymphatic system (lymph, lymph capillaries, lymph vessels, & lymph nodes) o Lymph nodes are located in the neck, armpits, & groin area. o Thymus is a maturation chamber for immature T-cells that are formed in bone marrow. o Spleen cleans the blood of dead cells, & pathogens. ¬ The body’s general immune defenses include o Skin: Intact epidermis & dermis form a form a formidable barrier against bacteria, o Ciliated mucous membranes: Cilia sweep pathogens out of the respiratory tract. o Glandular Secretions: Secretions from exocrine glands destroy bacteria. o Gastric secretions: Gastric acid destroys pathogens. o Normal Bacterial populations: compete with pathogens in the gut & vag. o Phagocytes & inflammation reponses mobilize white blood cells & chemical reactions to stop infection. ¬ Three types of whte blood cells o Macrophage: Phagocytes that alert T cells to presence of foreign substances. o T lymphocytes: These directly attack cells infected by viruses & bacteria o B lymphocytes: These cells target specific bacteria for destruction. ¬ Types of leukocytes o Leukocytes are produced in red bone marrow. ♣ Leukocytes are macrophages. (engulf & destroy pathogens). ♣ Granulocytes (neutrophils, basophils & eosinophils) • (Neutrophil: respond quickly to invaders) • (Basophil: alert body of invasion) • Eosinophils: large, long-living phagocytes that defend against multicellular invaders. ♣ T lymphocytes (help the body fight infections by producing antibodies & other chemicals.) ♣ B lymphocytes (natural killers) (Produce antibodies) ¬ Antigen & Typical Immune Response o Antigen: proteins on the surfaces of bacteria, viruses, & fungi ♣ Drugs, Toxins, & foreign particles o Plasma cells: produce antibodies specific to that pathogens o Antibodies bind to antigens on the surface of pathogens & mark them for destruction by other phagocytes. o Memory cells remain in the blood stream to protect against future infections. Active & Passive immunity ¬ Adaptive immunity: reacts to pathogens that have encounter infection or has an immunization. ¬ Adaptive & passive immunity can come naturally or artificially ¬ Naturally acquired passive immunity is natural, happens during pregnancy -> passes it to the baby. ¬ Artificially acquired passive immunity: immunization acquired Skeletal System ¬ Over 200 bones in human body ¬ Axial skeleton: Skull, sternum, ribs, & vertebral column o Skull: Cranium, Face o Hyoid, Auditory ossicles o Vertebral column o Thorax o Sternum Ribs ¬ Appendicular skeleton: Arms, legs, hips & shoulders • Appendicular Skeleton: o Shoulder girdle: Clavicle & Scapula ♣ Upper limbs: Humerus, Radius, Carpals, Metacarpals, Phalanges o Pelvic Girdle: ♣ Hip, Pelvic, or Coxal bone o Lower Limbs: ♣ Femur, Patella, Fibula, Tibia, Tarsals, Metatarsals, and Phalanges o Flat bones: There are flat bones in the skull (occipital, parietal, frontal, nasal, lacrimal, and vomer), the thoracic cage (sternum and ribs), and the pelvis (ilium, ischium, and pubis). o Long bones: Tibia, fibula, femur, metatarsals, phalanges, clavicle, humerus, radius, ulna, metacarpals, phalanges o Short bones: Tarsals, carpals, o Irregular bones: Vertebrae, sacrum o Sesamoid bones: Patella. ¬ Skeletal system function o Movement, mineral storage, support, protection, & blood cell formation (RBC’s produced in bone marrow). Life and physical sciences Macromolecules ¬ 4 basic organic macromolecules: carbohydrates (polysaccharides), nucleic acids, proteins, & lipids. ¬ 4 basic building blocks: monosaccharides (glucose), amino acids, fatty acids (glycerol), nucleotides. Carbohydrates ¬ Primary source of energy & responsible for providing energy ¬ Simple sugars: Monosaccharides (glucose, fructose, & sucrose), & disaccharides. Lipids ¬ Lipids are hydrophobic ¬ Function: energy storage, & structural function ¬ Phospholipids are lipids that have phosphate group ¬ Glycerides are formed from fatty acids Proteins ¬ Proteins are macromolecules from amino acids o Peptides result of condensation reactions o A peptide is a compound of two or more amino acids.