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PHI 210 Final Exam / PHI210 Final Exam ( Version-2, New, 2020): Critical Thinking: Strayer University (100% Correct)(SATISFACTION GUARANTEED, Check REVIEWS of my 1000 Plus Clients)

PHI210 EXAM 2 • Question 1 4 out of 4 points An "explanation" is a statement that provides a _________ for why or how something became the way it is. Selected Answer: reason Correct Answer: reason • Question 2 4 out of 4 points Tentative explanations for phenomena that need to be tested are called which of the following? Selected Answer: hypotheses Correct Answer: hypotheses • Question 3 4 out of 4 points While sitting in a parking lot after work, Brandon witnesses someone step around a garbage bag on the ground. This leads Brandon to question people's reaction to litter. If Brandon were to conduct an investigation, which part of the investigation will he have already completed? Selected Answer: identifying the question Correct Answer: identifying the question • Question 4 4 out of 4 points A set of statements designed to convince others that an action or idea is right or wrong is a type of _________. Selected Answer: argument Correct Answer: argument • Question 5 4 out of 4 points Conspiracy theories often lack which of the following? Selected Answer: simplicity and falsifiability Correct Answer: simplicity and falsifiability • Question 6 4 out of 4 points Which of the following is MOST likely to lead to bad decisions? Selected Answer: Go with the first choice that springs to mind without taking a moment to consider alternatives. Correct Answer: Go with the first choice that springs to mind without taking a moment to consider alternatives. • Question 7 4 out of 4 points If you see a couple of viable options among your top choices, you may benefit from making which of these? Select the BEST option. Selected Answer: a pro/con list Correct Answer: a pro/con list • Question 8 4 out of 4 points Angela and Glenn are deciding if they should get married. Their biggest point of contention by far is over money. Angela believes strongly that the right way to handle family finances is to save as much as possible for the future. Glenn, however, has no problem spending freely, using credit cards, and borrowing for lifestyle. As Angela is considering whether or not to marry Glenn, which of the following questions would help her to evaluate the problem of finances? Selected Answer: Does marrying Glenn fit with my personal financial values? Correct Answer: Does marrying Glenn fit with my personal financial values? • Question 9 4 out of 4 points Which of the following BEST demonstrates "articulating the goal of the decision?" Selected Answer: John explains to his friends that he is putting himself through medical school because he wants to get a job in which he can save lives. Correct Answer: John explains to his friends that he is putting himself through medical school because he wants to get a job in which he can save lives. • Question 10 4 out of 4 points Clinton graduated college with a bachelor's degree in mathematics. While in school he turned down the option to stay an extra year and earn a master's degree in engineering. Currently, Clinton is having a difficult time finding employment as a mathematician, while all of his engineering friends easily found jobs. What question is Clinton likely asking himself when reflecting upon his decision to not get the master's degree, which has made it more difficult for him to find a job? Selected Answer: What do I wish I had known earlier? Correct Answer: What do I wish I had known earlier? • Question 11 4 out of 4 points "Acknowledging a right to benefit from the presence of animals requires government action to ensure human access to animals in a number of different spheres," writes Jessica Pierce, Ph.D., in Psychology Today. The pragmatic meaning of the term "right" in this statement is _________. Selected Answer: being able to own a pet Correct Answer: being able to own a pet • Question 12 4 out of 4 points To Albert, the word "love" brings up positive feelings about his son; to Raj, it brings up negative feelings about a previous relationship; and to Anthony, it refers to the warm feeling he gets during family gatherings. Which category of meaning are these statements describing? Selected Answer: connotative meaning Correct Answer: connotative meaning • Question 13 4 out of 4 points Which statement BEST describes why using an innuendo in communication can be misleading? Selected Answer: The innuendo plants an idea in the audience's mind without going on record directly stating the idea. Correct Answer: The innuendo plants an idea in the audience's mind without going on record directly stating the idea. • Question 14 4 out of 4 points A word that can be interpreted in different ways because it has multiple meanings could be described as which of the following? Selected Answer: semantic ambiguity Correct Answer: semantic ambiguity • Question 15 0 out of 4 points Which statement BEST describes the relationship between defining terms and clear thinking? Selected Answer: Clear thinking is independent of how well terms are defined. Correct Answer: Clear thinking is helped by well-defined terms. • Question 16 4 out of 4 points Which of the following BEST illustrates a justification? Selected Answer: Eric believes stealing is not okay unless you are stealing food because you're hungry. Correct Answer: Eric believes stealing is not okay unless you are stealing food because you're hungry. • Question 17 4 out of 4 points Which theory is characterized by doing what is best for others instead of oneself? Selected Answer: ethical altruism Correct Answer: ethical altruism • Question 18 4 out of 4 points What makes an argument an ethical argument? Selected Answer: a conclusion based on a moral premise that makes a statement about right and wrong in a particular situation Correct Answer: a conclusion based on a moral premise that makes a statement about right and wrong in a particular situation • Question 19 4 out of 4 points How do excuses and justifications differ? Selected Answer: An excuse is a reason for breaking a principle, while the justification provides an argument that violating some moral principle is the right course of action. Correct Answer: An excuse is a reason for breaking a principle, while the justification provides an argument that violating some moral principle is the right course of action. • Question 20 4 out of 4 points Consider the following argument: Premise 1: Steven played a video game with heavy gun use. Premise 2: Simulating shooting guns at people is wrong. Conclusion: Therefore, Steven should not be playing the video game. The statement, "Steven should not be playing the video game," is an example of which of the following? Selected Answer: a conclusion based on a moral statement Correct Answer: a conclusion based on a moral statement • Question 21 4 out of 4 points Adam posted in a thread about theoretical physics. In his post he refuted General Relativity and cited a paper that was recently self-published by one person on her own personal website and had no references to other works in the field.Which important question did Adam not answer sufficiently when evaluating the cited paper? Selected Answer: What person or organization vouches for the credibility of information on this website? Correct Answer: What person or organization vouches for the credibility of information on this website? • Question 22 4 out of 4 points Which of the following would be an example of the false dichotomy fallacy? Selected Answer: Unless all scientists agree that climate change is caused by human activity, there's no point in taking steps to reduce carbon emissions. Correct Answer: Unless all scientists agree that climate change is caused by human activity, there's no point in taking steps to reduce carbon emissions. • Question 23 4 out of 4 points Which of the following statements uses "innuendo"? Selected Answer: The chain store doesn't even refute that they are involved in human trafficking. Correct Answer: The chain store doesn't even refute that they are involved in human trafficking. • Question 24 4 out of 4 points Which of the following is an example of the post hoc ergo propter hoc fallacy? Selected Answer: The eight warmest years on record all have occurred since the War in Iraq began in 2001, thus the War in Iraq is one of the primary causes of global warming. Correct Answer: The eight warmest years on record all have occurred since the War in Iraq began in 2001, thus the War in Iraq is one of the primary causes of global warming. • Question 25 4 out of 4 points When debating solutions to problems related to climate change on a national level, which problem related to climate change has a prominent amount of conflicting political opinions? Selected Answer: possible economic effects of fighting climate change Correct Answer: possible economic effects of fighting climate change

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