ANTH 1220 Cultural Anthropology Chapter 1,2,3,4,5 Cultural Anthropology - $15.49   Add to cart

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ANTH 1220 Cultural Anthropology Chapter 1,2,3,4,5 Cultural Anthropology

ANTH 1220:Cultural Anthropology Chapter 1,2,3,4,5 Cultural Anthropology:University of Manitoba Anthropology and the Study of Culture: Chapter 1: Anthropology: • Is the study of humanity, including our pre-historic origins and contemporary human diversity. o Covers much greater span of time than other disciplines that study humanity  Anthropology is a broader scope. Introducing Anthropology: • Some consider a science; - form of inquiry that involves first the formulation of (hypothesis, or hunch) then observation or testing whether the hunch/hypothesis is correct. • Humanistic approach: o Understanding humanity through the study of people’s  Art, music, poetry, language and other forms of symbolic expression • Anthropology seeks to produce new knowledge – primary goal as an academic field of inquiry. • Finding can influence: o Government, Policy makers, businesses, technology developers, health – care providers, teachers and the general public 4 Fields of Anthropology: Biological Anthropology (physical): • Study of humans as biological organisms, including their evolution and contemporary variation. • 3 subfields: Primatology, Paleoanthropology, Paleopathology • 1) Primatology: o Study of the nonhuman members of the order of mammals called primates  Wide range of animals from small, nocturnal to gorillas (largest members)  Primatologists – study nonhuman primates in wild and in captivity • Record and analyze how the animals spend their o Time, collect/share food form social groups, rear offspring, develop leadership patterns and experience conflict and conflict resolution.  Jane Goodall’s (1971, 1986) Tanzanian chimpanzees – social relationships • 2) Paleoanthropology: o Study of human evolution on the basis of the fossil record.  Important activity is the search for fossils • To increase amount/quality of evidence = to human evolution • 2) Paleopathology: o Study of diseases in prehistory  Analysis of trace elements in bones, (strontium) provides detailed info • Diets, activities, health of prehistoric peoples • 3) Contemporary Human Biological Variation: o Define, measure, and seek to explain differences in the biological makeup and behaviour of contemporary humans  Past, biological Anthropologists: • Significant differences = “racial”  Late 19th – Early 20th century: • “Race” as social categories defined on the basis of o Skin colour, hair texture, and head shape and facial features.  Anthropologists do, however recognize the reality of racism and many people in many contexts. Archaeology (Prehistory): • The study of past human cultures through their material remains • Data include: o Stones and bone tools, skeletal material, remains of buildings and pot shards (broken pottery) and coprolites (fossilized fecal material) • Archaeology has contributed knowledge about towns and villages o Emergences of the great early states of Egypt, Phoenicia, the Indus Valley and Mexico. • “Kingdoms” o Revealed Before Common Era – queens were often rulers (challenges male political dominance) • Garbage Project: o Excavated the Fresh Kills landfills on Staten Island, near New York City o Excavation of artifacts such as pop top can tabs, disposable diapers cosmetic containers and telephone books  Learning consumption patterns. Linguistic anthropology: • The study of human communication, including its origins, history and contemporary variation and change. • Integral to Cultural Anthropology – language is the primary means for transmitting culture. o How we classify relatives, honour our ancestors; describe beauty make visible beliefs and values. • Linked to real-world issues. Study language in everyday use, or discourse and how it relates to power structures at local, regional and international levels. • 1) Power relations: o Expressed through intonation, word choice, and such nonverbal forms of communication as posture and dress. • 2) Increased attention to role of information technology in communication, (internet and cell phones) • 3) Attention to the increasing rapid extinction of indigenous languages worldwide 3 subfields: Historical, Descriptive, Sociolinguistics • 1) Historical Linguistics: o Study of language change over time and how languages are related • 2) Descriptive Linguistics: o Study of the structure of languages • 3) Sociolinguistics: o Study of the relation between language and social interaction (including non-verbal) Cultural anthropology: • The study of living people and their cultures, including variation and change. o Culture – refers to people’s learned and shared behaviours and beliefs. • Contemporary people and their cultures. • Considers variations and similarities across cultures and how cultures change over time • CA’s – learn about culture by spending extended periods of time living with the people they study. Applied Anthropology: Separate Field or Crosscutting Focus? Applied Anthropology or practising anthropology or practical anthropology: • The use of anthropological knowledge to prevent or solve problems or to shape and achieve policy goals. • Canadian Anthropologists – research to practice fields such as Native Land Claims, health care, and ethnic diversity o Work of Francophone anthropologists in the 1960’s • Canadian Anthropology defining features – integration of basic and applied research. • Applied anthropology – thread weaves through the entire discipline of anthropology. • Should be a part of all 4 fields. Introducing Cultural Anthropology: A Brief History of Cultural Anthropology: Arm Chair vs Field: • Armchair Anthropology: (Sir Edward Taylor) o How early CA’s conducted research by sitting and reading about other cultures  Read reports form travellers, missionaries & explorers • Never visited places or any direct contact/experience • Field: o Fieldwork – going to the field where people and cultures are, to learn about culture through  Direct observation o Fieldwork:  Research in the field, which is any place where people and culture are found. • European colonial expansion prompted Enlightenment thinkers to question biblical narrative of human origins. • 19th Century and early 20th Century Sir Edward Tylor and Sir James Frazier and Henry Morgan USA) o Inspired concept of biological evolution they developed model of cultural evolution  Where all cultures evolve form lower to higher forms overtime • View Placed non – Western peoples at a “primitive” stage and Euro – American culture as “civilization” and assumed that non – Western cultures either catch up to level of western civilization or die out • Bronislaw Malinowski (major figure) early cultural anthropology o Established a theoretical approach = Functionalism: o Functionalism:  Theory that a culture is similar to a biological organism, in which parts work to support the operation and maintenance of the whole o Religion and family organization – contribute to the functioning of the whole culture. o Functionalism is linked to holism: o Holism:  Perspective in anthropology that cultures are complex systems that cannot be fully understood without paying attention to their different components • Including: economics, social organization and ideology. • Roots of Canadian Anthropology are anchored in both British/European Tradition o Shaped by ethno historical and advocacy work with First Nations peoples  Strong relations with museums. • First full-time anthropological appointment at U of Toronto (1925) Definition of Culture: • Culture: o Exists among all human beings, local culture – distinct patterns of learned and shared behaviour and ideas found in local regions o Based on ethnicity, gender, age and more. • Interpretive Anthropologist: o Culture includes:  Symbols  Motivations  Moods  Thoughts o Focuses on peoples perceptions, thoughts and ideas  But doesn’t focus on behaviour as a part of culture – but seeks to explain behaviour o Culture is contested and negotiated, not always shared or imposed. • Culture Materialist: o Culture is the total socially acquired way of life or life style of a group of people o Patterned, repetitive ways of thinking, feeling and acting that are characteristic of members in particular society. Characteristics of Culture: Culture Is Not the Same as Nature: • Eating: o Culture shapes what people eat, how they eat, when they eat and meaning of food and eating. o Defines foods that are acceptable and unacceptable o China – cheese disgusting / France – cheese love o Pork – Judaism and Islam = forbid o Proper ways to eat are one first things person needs to learn in other cultures  India – using right hand / left hand polluted. o Cooking and serving the food  Women – responsibility (cooking)  Public feasts (Men) • Drinking: o Culture defines substances to drink, when to drink, and with whom o French consumption of wine, Canada Water during meal, India water after meal o Social drinking – whether beverage is “whatever” creates and reinforces social bonds. • Sleeping: o Question who sleeps with whom o Culture shapes amount of time a person sleeps o India – women sleep few hours than men (due to start fire for meal) o Type A N.A – males sleep few hours (too much sleep = wimp) • Elimination: o Products of elimination are considered dirty, polluting and disgusting. Culture is Based on Symbols: • Symbol – object that has a range of culturally significant meanings. • Symbols are arbitrary o Unpredictable and diverse • Cannot predict how a culture will symbolize any particular thing. Culture is Learned: • Based on arbitrary symbols – can’t be predicted but must be LEARNED • Begins at birth, if not before and stores info through sounds heard from world. • Cultural Learning: o Unconscious, occurring as normal part of life – thru observation. • School formal cultural learning - but not always had formal schooling o Guidance of elders by observation and practice. Cultures Are Integrated: • Integrated to assert the principle of holism • Applied anthropologists – involved in analyzing cultural change • Introducing change to one aspect of culture – without giving attention o May be detrimental to survival of culture. Cultural Interaction and Change: • Trade networks, international development projects, telecommunications, education, migration and tourism. • Globalization: o Process of intensified global interconnectedness and movement of goods, info, and people  Major force in change in culture. • Mc-Donaldization o US dominated corporation “Fast Food culture” • Hybridization: o 2 or more cultures mixed to form something new – a blend • Localization: o Transformation of global culture by local cultures = into new Distinctive Feature of Cultural Anthropology Ethnography and Ethnology: • Ethnography: o First hand, detailed description of a living culture, based on personal observation. o “Culture Writing” – full form length book o Provides rich, culturally specific insights • Ethnology: o The study of a particular topic in more than one culture using ethnographic material o Cross cultural analysis o Compared topics in: - to examine patterns of similarity and variation and cause for them  Marriage forms  Economic practices  Religious beliefs  Child bearing practices o Look beyond individual cases to wider patterns, provides a comparative view and rises. Cultural Relativism: • Idea that each culture must be understood in terms of values and beliefs of that culture o Should not be judged by standards of another culture • Assumes no culture is better than other • Gain a sense of relativism – spend amount of time living w/people outside your own culture o Studying abroad o Socially engage travel will help o Reading about other cultures, Internet research, and cooking and reading novels. • Absolute cultural relativism – What goes on in culture must not be questioned or changed - not right or wrong answer. o Holocaust - comfortable with position from Nazi’s • Critical cultural relativism offers – alternative view o Poses questions about cultural practices and ideas (who accept them, why and who they might be harming or helping o Recognizes internal cultural differences:  Winners/Losers  Oppressors/Victims  Pays attention to various power groups • Ethnocentrism: (opposite from cultural relativism) – bad word in C.A o Judging other cultures by standards of one’s own culture rather than by standards of particular culture. o Fuelled by changing other people in the world o European colonial expansion Local Cultures: Class: • A way of categorizing people on the basis of their economic position in society, usually measured in terms of income or wealth • Exhibited in terms of lifestyle • Class societies divided into upper, middle and lower class. • Class membership determined by groups relationship o To ownership of means of production, how groups of people make a living. Race: • A classification of people into groups on the basis of supposedly homogenous biological traits. o Culturally constructed category not biological reality Ethnicity: • A shared sense of identity among a group based on a heritage, language or culture • Sense of group affiliation based on distinct heritage or world view as a people o Neutral or positive term  Often been a basis for discrimination, segregation and oppression Gender: • Patterns of Culturally constructed and learned behaviours and ideas attributed to males, females or blended genders. • 3rd or 4th genders • Gender variability o Contrasted to sex, biological markers to define categories of males and female. • CA – person’s biological makeup doesn’t correspond to gender. Age: • Human life cycle from birth to old age – take person thru cultural stages • Spatial rituals marking physical maturation, marriage or end of period of learning o In all societies • Elaborate age categories for males define their roles and status as they move o Boys to men. Institutions: • Enduring group setting formed form a particular purpose – have own cultural characteristics o Hospitals o Boarding schools o Universities o Prisons • Relationships of power and inequality exist within institutions and between different institutions o Cross cut criteria (intersect with gender) Three Theoretical Debates 1) Biological Determinism vs. Cultural Constructionism: • Biological Determinism: (Derek Freeman) o Theory that explains human behaviour and ideas mainly as a result of biological features  Genes & Hormones/Physiology o Genes & Hormones that lead to homicide, alcoholism & adolescent stress  Reproductive success of the species o Behaviours and ideas that have reproductive advantages more than others are passed on to future generations. o Human males better “spatial” skills than females (advantage in food and mates)  - Result from evolutionary selection • Cultural Constructionism: (Margaret Mead) o Theory that explains human behaviour and ideas as being mainly the results of learning  Products of culturally shaped learning o Evidence that such skills are passed on culturally thru learning not genes o Parents socialize their sons and daughters o Anthropologists use C.C to explain behaviours of homicide and alcoholism  From child hood experiences and family roles  Most Anthropologist support CC than Biological determinism. 2) Interpretive Anthropology vs. Cultural Materialism: - combines both • Interpretive Anthropology: o How people use symbols to make sense of the world around the  How meaning are negotiated o View culture as contested domain not a given o Favour Ethnography – rich, complex descriptions from insiders point of view o Communicate complexity and rejects approaches that reductionist o Cows & Pork (Hindus / Jews) – Marvin Harris • Cultural Materialism: o Material conditions in studying and explaining human behaviours and ideas. o Basic materials of life:  Environment  Natural resources  Ways of making a living o Infrastructure – crucial material factors  Shapes the other 2 domains of culture • 1) Structure – (social organization, kinship, political organization) • 2) Superstructure – (Ideas, values, beliefs) o Seek explanations for behaviour & Ideas based on 1st w/infrastructural factors 3) Individual Agency vs. Structural: - blend structural perspective w/attention to agency • Individual Agency: o Individual will or agency has to do with why people behave and think the way we do o Individual has ability to choose how to behave/think • Structural: o Power of forces or “structures” o Argues “free will” – choices are structured by larger forces  Economy  Social  Political institutions and ideological systems. • Example: Poverty study: o Agency – individuals try to change situation as best they can o Structures – emphasize poor are trapped by large/powerful forces Chapter 2: Methods in Cultural Anthropology Key Questions: 1. How do cultural anthropologists conduct research on culture? 2. What does fieldwork involve? 3. What are some important issues in cultural anthropology? History of Fieldwork: • Most CA’s gather data by doing fieldwork – going to the field o Wherever people and culture are to learn about culture = direct observation. Armchair Anthropology approach: (1870’s) • Early CA’s conducted research by sitting and reading about other cultures • They read reports written by: o Travellers o Missionaries o Explorers • They never explored or visited or had any direct experience • Sir Edward Tyler – proposed first definition (armchair anthropologist) • Sir James Frazer o Wrote “myths”, rituals and collection symbols from his wide reading Verandah Anthropology: • 19th & 20th century • Males • Anthropologists hired European colonial gov’t – • Step closer to learning directly about people of other cultures • Travelled to colonized countries in Africa & Asia - live near not with them • Send out for “native” to be interviewed Salvage Anthropology: • Andaman island 20th century • Due Indigenous people decimated by diseases – brought in by British colonizers o By direct colonial violence • To collect data he could from the remaining people in order to document o Language o Social Life o Religious beliefs Lewis Henry Morgan: • 19th century • Took steps to learn thru direct observation • Lawyer • Observations of Iroquoian groups • “The League of the Iroquois” – book - reduce savages interpretation Horatio Hale: • Same observation as Morgan • Short trips to Iroquoian • “Iroquois book of Rites” – book Participant Observation: (Today) • Is a research method for learning about culture that involves living in a culture for an extended period while gathering data. • Key elements: o Living with the people o Learning the language o Participating in their everyday life • 20th century – major turning point in CA research in WWI o Foundation of fieldwork Participant observation • Bronislaw Malinowski – “Father of participant observation” o Learned culture in S.Pacific Trobriand Island during – WWI o 2 years learned - wrote everything in notebooks  Language – able to talk (no interpreters)  Participated in daily life  Expeditions  Festivals o Argonauts of the Western Pacific – book o Established the tradition of participant observation – new university programs  Training anthropologists • Primary goal early on – record as much as possible in: (disappearing cultures) o Peoples language o Songs o Rituals o Social life • Thought could study everything – holism o Notebooks to collect data on economics, family, politics, religion, language, arts & crafts Multi-sited research: • Fieldwork conducted in more than one location in order to understand the behaviours and ideas of dispersed members of a culture or the relationships among different levels such as state policy and local culture • Fieldwork conducted on a topic in more than one location o Migrant populations in both their place of origin and new location • Useful for studying many topics. Working in the Field: Length and difficult process: • Learn the language of the people, live as they do, understand their lives, be a friend Site Selection: • Research takes place • May be in multiple sites • Depends on many factors – o Will locals accept you, will fit requirements, adequate housing Gaining Rapport: • Rapport – trusting relationship between the research and the study population • First goal is to establish rapport - with key leaders or decision makers in community (gate keepers – human or material resources to group/community) • Trust depends on how researcher presents him/herself • Locals may Cultures have difficulty – why study them o Provide inaccurate answers o Spy – serious issue Gift Giving and Exchange: • Gifts expected in exchange for relationships in culture • Gifts – culturally & ethically appropriate o Basic medical care – wound dressing, o Taught at local school o Higher education – outside homelands • Learning local rules of exchange – important (appropriate?) • How to deliver gift (timing, in private or public) o Wrapped or unwrapped • How to behave as gift giver (emphasize the smallness of the gift) Factors Influencing Fieldwork: Class: • Anthropologist is more wealthy and powerful than the people studied • Influence the locals – higher standard (refrain from sexual jokes and etc.…) • Affect how they relate to researcher. Race: • CA’s dominated by Euro-American White researchers – studied other cultures o Non-white or non Euro-American • “Whiteness” – labelled as a god or ancestor spirit to his or her being colonist past Gender: • Female researcher – young & unmarried = face more difficulties o Than young unmarried man or older women • Most cultures find that very unusual • Gender boundaries exist cross – culturally to varying degrees • Gender segregation limits males – from gaining full range of activities o Domestic domain Age: • Study all ages, children/adolescents readily welcome participation of friendly adult in daily lives • Mead o Great deal of attention to children and adolescents Culture Shock: • Persistent feeling of uneasiness, loneliness, and anxiety that often occurs when a person has shifted from one culture to a different one. • Happens to many CA’s – student’s study abroad, overseas, volunteers or any one spends significant time living and participating in another culture. • Psychological aspect – reduced competence o Simple tasks become difficult o Self – efficacy is undermined o May abandon project – inability to adapt to fieldwork situation o Reverse culture shock  Can occur. Participant Observation: • CA’s – participant observation essential to learn about culture • Participating or being apart of the peoples lives, while observing o Complex parts • Research adopts lifestyle of people being studied • Living in same kind of housing, eating similar food, wearing similar clothing o Learn language and participate in activities in special events. • Living as closely to the way they live to experience the application of their ideas and beliefs in systems of knowledge. Fieldwork Techniques Etic: • Data collected according to the researchers questions & categories with the goal of being able to test hypothesis. Emic: • Data collected that reflect what insiders say and understand about their culture, and insider’s categories of thinking. Talking w/People: Interview: • Technique for gathering verbal data through questions or guided conversation o More purposeful than casual conversation. o Various styles & formats • Open – ended interview – interviewee takes lead in setting direction of convo o Interviewer doesn’t interrupt or provide prompting questions. o Researcher discovers themes are important to person. Questionnaire: • Formal research instrument containing pre-set series of questions • Face to face setting, mail or email • Vary degree of questions o Structured – close ended o Unstructured – open ended • Researcher enough familiarity with study population – design questions make cultural sense. Combining Observation and Talking: • Questionnaires must be complimented with observational data on what people actually do Specialized Methods: Life History: • Qualitative, in depth description of an individual’s life as narrated to the researcher. • Reveals info on individuals and how they think • Seek individuals who occupy particularly in social niches • Individual experiences and shared patterns – are revealed. Texts: • Includes written and oral stories, myths, plays, saying, speeches, jokes and transcriptions. • Franz Boas – collected pages of text from aboriginal groups from BC Archival & Historical Sources: • CA’s work in cultures with written history gain insights about present from past achieves • Libraries, churches, museums • Local official – land ownerships, agricultural production, religion practices & political activities. • Important info about past come from field work o Living with people o Anthropology of memory. o Not simply as a record of history but as interpretive reconstruction Multiple Research Methods & Team Projects: • Triangulation: o Technique involves seeking information on a particular topic from more than one angel or perspective • Asking 2 people about the same thing doubles the information and often reveals that perspectives differ o Other sources – newspapers for additional perspectives • Team projects: o CA’s & researchers from other disciplines who provide additional skills Recording Culture: Field Notes: • Daily logs, personal journals, descriptions of events and notes about those notes. • Ideally notes written each day (field notes) o Tape recorder and laptop • Back log accumulates of daily “scratch notes” or rough jottings Tape Recording, Photography, Videos and films: • Tape recorders – major aid in fieldwork • Raise problems – research participants suspicions about a machine o Ethical issue of protecting identity of people • Problems with videos o Recording rituals – amount of forgotten, or missed material o But precludes taking notes simultaneously. o Team approach • Photographs – o May supplement, complement or even contradict written accounts o Arranged in groups to suggest comparison or juxtaposed in striking manner to illustrate change. Data Analysis: Qualitative Data: • Quantitative terms and reporting on quantitative results o Local conditions – accompany graphs, charts and computation • Descriptive field notes, informant’s narratives, myths and stories and songs and sagas. • General procedure: o Search for themes, or regularities in data. o Exploring data or playing with data either by hand or with computer. Quantitative Data: • Numeric data can proceed in several directions (sophisticated methods) o Computer or computer software. • Helps identify demographic and other structures and constraints. Reflective Ethnographies: • Research experience itself in addition to generating or presenting theoretical arguments and analysis. • Field work experience important part of ethnography • Characterized as personalized styles and findings o Frequently use “I” in writings. Ethics in Anthropology: Ethics and Collaborative Research: • 2 major events in 1950’s and 1960’s – led US Anthropologists o Reconsider role in research to sponsors and people they were studying. • 1) “Project Camelot” (1950’s) o Political leadership and stability in S.A o Anthropologist – gather info on political events and leaders  Without revealing purpose - then report to sponsor (gov’t) • 2) Vietnam War o Role of Anthropologist people that were studied o Many of anthropologists participated in teach – ins and anti war protests o US draft resistors – absorbed by departments of anthropologists as graduate students and professors o Aligning Canadian departments more closely with US ones. • 1971 – code of ethics was adopted by (AAA) o Code states  Primary responsibility is to ensure the safety of the people being studied. o Does not conduct / condone covert or undercover research o People being studied should be informed that they’re being studied o Purposes for why they are being studied. Collaborative Research • Of 2 varieties working with teams of researchers or working in consultation and collaboration with local peoples. Safety in the Field: • Physical and psychological risks to researcher o Mental health risks o Disease – major factor  Typhoid/Malaria • Danger from public violence o Political mobs, actual battles • Can prepare them – risk awareness, training in basic medical care and fieldwork safety Chapter 3: Economies and Their Modes of Production Economic anthropology: • Subfield of CA, studies economic system that includes: MOP’s o Production (making goods or money) o Consumption (Using up goods or money) o Exchange (Transfer of goods or money) • Dualist ideology – western culture prioritizes culture over nature o Exploitation and global competition  Exploiting resources – not sustainable World economy: Global trade • 3 areas – core, periphery and semi periphery • Core area: o Most profitable activities (high tech services), manufacturing, financial activities. o Strong governments, dominating role in affairs w/other countries • Periphery: o Least profitable activities, production of raw goods, foodstuffs, and labour intensive goods o Import high tech goods and services from core o Weak governments • Semi periphery o Stands in the middle Modes of Production: (5) Foraging: • Involves using food that is available in nature (collect) o Gathering o Fishing o Hunting  Live in considerable marginal areas • Oldest economic system o Do not grow own food or keep domesticated animals • Danger of extinction as a pure form (euro colonialism and industrial development) • Rely on set of tools to gather, transport and process wild food • Require little time and have lots of leisure time • Obtaining and processing foods – very sustainable Extensive strategy: • Temporary use of large areas of land and high degree of spatial mobility • 2 types – temperate climate foraging & circumpolar foraging • TCF o Nuts, tubers, fruit, small animals, some large game o Men & Woman forage, Men hunt large game o Casual construction, non-permanent, Little maintenance • CF o Large marine and terrestrial animals o Men Hunt and fish o Time constructions, and maintenance, some permanent Division of Labour: • Gender and age – but great deal of cultural variation • Man the Hunter – providing meat (Men’s higher social status) – abandoned theory • Woman the gather – 75-80% provide food and remaining men hunted Property relations: • Use rights – person or group socially recognized priority in access to particular resources o Gathering regions, hunting and fishing areas o Water holes o Willingly shared equal rights o Passed down equally to all children who are members of the group. • When untouched by outside influences and with abundant land available – very sustainable (Foraging) Horticulture: Horticulture: • On growing domesticated crops in gardens using simple hand tools. o Shifting cultivation • More labour intensive than foragers – energy required to prep and food Process. • Allow for bigger populations. • Surplus of food supply – allows for trade relationships = wealth 5 stages of Horticulture: • Clearing – forest cleared (partially), set on fire = growth (rich fertilizer) o Slash and burn cultivation • Planting – sticks loosen soil, plant seeds (scattering), plant plants by hand • Weeding – little weeding, ash cover (hard to grow) • Harvesting – Substantial labour, cut or dig crops (residential area) • Fallowing – left unused for specific number of years = regain fertility. Divisions of Labour: • Gender and age – key factors • Men and women’s roles clearly different • Men clear garden area (field labour) – prestige foods • Women (closer to home) – staple foods o Do not contribute to producing food = low status (may be high or not if contribute) • Men do cleaning and cultivating and children more productive labour. Property Relations: • Use right – more defined and formalized than foragers o Cleaning and cultivating land = family’s claim on land. Sustainable system: • Fallowing crucial in viability in horticulture • Conditions = negative consequences o Pressure - on access land from outsiders, loggers, miners, farmers o Government - policies to increase production for cash for taxes o Interest – increase production = buy manufactured commodities o Pressure – internal population growth (out migrations not possible Pastoralism: Pastoralism: • Keeping domesticated animal herds and using their products, such as meat and milk for most of their diet. • Extensive strategy and requires mobility – high successful and sustainable o For economic systems o Herds move or pasture = depleted • External constraint – states do not like when pastoralists move across state lines o 1 place = keep track and tax Division of Labour: • Gender and age – defying roles • Men charge of herding • Women – processing herd products (closer to home) • Children – tending herds. Property relations: • Animals then housing • Ownership of animals inherited (thru males) • Private property of animals – trade for other goods. • Use of rights = pasture land and migration routes (oral tradition) Agriculture: Agriculture is intensive strategy • Involves continuous use of the same land and resources. • Domesticated animals – plowing, transport, organic fertilizer • Very dependant on artificial water sources • Indigenous Knowledge o Local knowledge about the environment (plants, animals and resources)  Declining rapidly, completely lost • More labour inputs – destruction of important habitats, rain forests. • NON – Sustainable o Also undermines other systems o Critical cost of agriculture. Family Farming: • Farmers produce mainly to support themselves but also produce goods for sale in the market system. • Linked to urban markets (wealthy or poor) • Ploughing, planting seeds, cutting, caring, irrigation systems • Clear gender roles, rigid class distinctions • Land rights can be bought or sold Plantations • Grow tea, coffee, rubber • Concentrated ownership of land • Hired labour • Inequality • Dominant in former colonies • Poor social welfare Division of Labour: • Gender and age – organizing work • Men = bulk of labour (male dominated) • Women = balanced • Children – prominent roles in agriculture • Men Ploughing Hypothesis • Women children Hyp – incompatible with child care • Women and food processing Hyp – child care and increase fertility in farm families Property relations: • Land investments – protected by property rights • Rights to land – acquired or sold Industrial capital agriculture: • Capital intensive means using machinery and purchased inputs as processed fertilizers for human and animal labour. o Decline in family farm • Corporate farms – produce goods solely for sale and owned by companies o Reliant of hired labour Industrial Collective Agriculture: • Industrialized agriculture that involves state control of land, tech and good produced o CA’s – these culture are rare Industrialism: Industrialism: • Production of goods through mass employment in business and commercial operations • Satisfy consumer demands for nonessential goods • Growing need for information processing = computer programing, data processing and communications. • Employment increases in manufacturing and service sectors Formal Sector: • Salaried or wage-based work registered in official statistics o Unionized – workers o Factories o Ethnicity – solidarity Informal Sector: • Work that is outside the formal sector, not officially registered and sometimes illegal. (No benefits) o Illegal drug industry o Sex trade – Thailand Changing Modes of Production Foragers: • Tiwi of Northern Australia • Involved in tourism – managing support in their own values/interests • International recognition • Live in larger settlements & engage in very little way of foraging activity Horticulturalists: • Mundurucu of Brazilian Amazon • Adapted to rubber plantations region by combing horticulture practices with work rubber farms o Leave traditional villages to live in rubber area year round • Shift in gender roles btw horticultural villages / rubber farms o Creative response to changes in economic practices / conditions. Pastoralists: • Herders of Mongolia • Political changes at state level (shift from private to state managed) herding back to private family herding • Dependence on state services - collapse of services still being felt today Family Farmers: • Maya of Chiapas, Mexico • Increases in public spending – small family farmers to dependence on wage work o Necessities of life • Model change increasingly common in latter half of 20th century Industrialists: • Taiwanese in South America • Export clashed with local values, in gender and identity • Modes of productive organization are connected with wider systems of cultural values. Chapter 4: Consumption and Exchange Mode of Consumption: • Dominant way in culture of using up goods and services Mode of Exchange: • Dominant way in culture of transferring goods services and other items between and among people and groups. What is Consumption? • Consumption involves what a person takes in and also involves what a person spends or uses in other resources. o Intake (eating, using things second) o Output (spending or using resources to obtain those things) • Personalized consumption – consumer has personal face to face relationship • Depersonalized – distancing consumers from workers who actually produce goods o Exploits workers. Modes of Consumption Relationship between supply and demand Minimalism: • Few and finite consumer demands and an adequate and sustainable means to achieve them o Free range foragers o Some horticulturalists & pastoralists Consumerism: • Peoples demands are many and infinite – satisfying them never sufficient o Colonialism, globalization and other expansions. o Industrialist cultures o Globalization is spreading consumerism thru out the world. Consumption Fund: • Category within a person’s or household budget use to provide his or her needs and demands. 5 Funds: • Basic needs fund – food, beverages, shelter and clothing • Recurrent cost – maintenance and repair of tools, animals, machinery and shelter • Entertainment – Leisure activities • Ceremonial – for social events such as rituals • Rent and Tax – Payments to landowners or governments for use of land, housing or civic responsibilities. Consumption Inequalities Entitlement: • Culturally defined right to life – sustaining resources • Set or bundle – more secure and lucrative than others. Direct Entitlements: • Most secure form • Owning land that produces food is a direct entitlement Indirect entitlements: • Depend on exchanging something in order to obtain consumer needs • Exchange (labour trades, animal hides, money or food stamps). • Dependency on other people (risker) than support from direct. Famine: • Massive levels of death resulting from food deprivation in a widespread area. Entitlement at 3 Levels Global – Some countries are more secure in global economy than other countries National – Those with direct entitlements may be more secure than those of indirect Household – Some members are more secure than others • Men more than women Consumption Categories Class: • Levels of income, distinctive consumption • Working classes were closer “necessity” Gender: • Discrimination and inequality • Men’s food vs women’s food • Gender may play into what is considered appropriate • Kuru – women died more than men (gender pattern) Race: • North America – racial differences in consumption and welfare exists • Discrimination – affects consumption in housing Age: • Food certain for ages • Characteristics consumption are culturally shaped • Aging effects everyone – class o Wealth can protect elderly Ethnicity: Food Taboos • Marvin Harris – Jewish/Muslims eating pig o Environmental factors, pigs in arid habitats (ecologically unflavoured) • Mary Douglas – food away of communicating (symbolic meaning) o Animals hoofs – unclean o Pig – hoofed but doesn’t chew o Impurity and sinfulness. Culture and Exchange Exchange: • Transfer of something that may be material or immaterial between Material goods: • Food most common exchange daily life and rituals • Marriage arrangements involve complex stages of gifts or counter gifts • Alcoholic beverages Symbolic Goods: • Intangible valuables such as myths and rituals Labour: • People contribute labour to other people on regular basis or irregular • Crisis rebuilding a barn (damage by fire) • Sense of moral economy (trust and sharing) o Families show up to help Money: • To a medium of exchange that can be used for a variety of goods • Cross culturally (shells, salt, cattle, furs, cocoa beans, iron hoes) • Modern money form of coins and paper bills. Rights in people: • Slavery and human trafficking • Women as objects in marriage exchange Modes of Exchange: Generalized Reciprocity: • Transaction that involves the least conscious sense of interest in material gain or thought of what might be received in return • Exchange between people who know each other • Pure gift: o Something given with no expectation or thought of return Balanced Reciprocity: • Exchange equally valued goods or services usually between people of roughly equal social status. • More economic – less personal • Kula – trading shells to others (exchange after period of time) Negative Reciprocity: • Trying to one up someone Redistribution: • Expected reciprocity one person collects goods or money from many members of a group and provides a social return at a later time. • Pooled goods, generous feast • May be inequality – return not equal Unbalanced Exchange: • Market Exchange: o Prominent form of unbalanced exchange is buying and selling commodities under competitive conditions in which the forces of supply and demand determine value. o May or may not have personal relationship or social equals o Not likely to generate social bonding o Take place in marketplace • Gambling: o Make profit by playing game of chance o Cross culturally • Theft: o Taking something with no expectation or thought of returning anything to the original owner for it. o Opposite of pure gift. Changes Patterns of Consumption and Exchange Cash cropping and declining Nutrition: • Growing crops change to cash crop production • Rising standard of living • Peoples nutritional status declines with cash crop Lure of Western Goods: • Produce surplus to lure goods Chapter 5: Birth & Death 4 variables that are important in affecting demand for children: • 1) Children’s labour value • 2) Children’s value as old age support for their parents • 3) Infant and child mortality rates • 4) Economic costs of children o First 3 variables positive relationship, when high = high value of fertility o Economic cost = negative relationship – high costs = desire fewer children Demography: • Study of population dynamics in cross – cultural perspective • Historical trend in fertility / mortality o Agriculture societies (High fertility, High mortality) o Industrial (low & Low) • Includes 3 area: o Fertility -  Rate of births in a population or the rate of population increase in general • There is not correlation btw sexual frequency and fertility o Mortality –  Deaths in a population or the rate of population decline in general or from particular causes. o Migration –  The movement of a person or people form one place to another • CA – focus on small populations and samples and examine relationships btw population dynamics and aspects of culture. Modes of Reproduction: Reproduction in Foraging Societies: • Model for most of human history o Moderate death & birth rates • Value of children = moderate o Small number • Indirect/Direct means of fertility control o Long birth intervals and Low fat diet (women)  1) Breastfeeding - inhibits progesterone production and suppress ovulation  2) Low body fat = need certain level of fat for ovulation o Induced abortion / infanticide Reproduction in Agricultural Societies: • High growth rate (more birth than deaths) – Pronatalism (as many children) • Very high # of children o Families = large labour force (work land etc) • Increase reliance on direct means of birth control • Gender division of labour values = male work • Increasing specialization o Midwives and herbalists. • High fertility rates = Mennonites / Hutterites Reproduction in Industrial Societies: • Negative population growth o High growth in developing nations • Replacement level fertility: o # of births equals the # of deaths = maintenance of current population size. • Below Replacement Level Fertility: o # of births is less than the number of deaths = population decline. o Canada, Japan and Cuba ex. o Invest more resources in fewer children  Children less useful in production • Demographic Transition: o Process of change from the high fertility and high mortality in agricultural societies - to low fertility and low mortality (industrialized societies) • 3 distinct features: o 1) Stratified reproduction (social inequality) – middle class upper (few children with high survival rates) o 2) Population aging  Japan fertility rate decline to replacement level  Not balanced by # of young people o 3) High level of scientific involvement  In aspects of pregnancy (prevent, termination, becoming pregnant) Culture and Birth: Sexual Intercourse and Fertility Begin? • Culture socialize children about the appropriate time o Gender o Class o Race and Ethnicity • Only at marriage o Fake blood with groom/bride • Biology states – female is fertile from o No woman bares as many children as her biological capacity allows. o Menarche – onset of first menstruation o Menopause – final cessation of menstruation Often? • Hindus – far less frequently than Euro-Americans in all age groups o Hinduism – sacred days (first night of full mood) • Wide range of frequency of sexual intercourse across cultures. Levels of Decision Making: Family Level: • Value and costs of children • Gender preference o Depending on division of labour • Sex Selective infanticide – the killing of an infant or child based on sex • Low husband power – wife older than husband • Intermediate husband power – Equal ages • High Husband power – husband older than wife National Level: • Governments promote population increase or decrease o Leaders urge women to have more babies o Provide extra support for families low cost child care Global Level: • Pharmaceutical companies, World Bank, religious groups o Influence national and individual priorities – fertility o USA withdrew support for abortion – promoting abstinence (pop control) • CDIA – quality family planning Fertility Control: • Cultures increase, reduce or regulate fertility o Direct methods  Plant and animal substances – induce abortion o Indirect methods  Long periods of breast feeding – reduce conception • Induced Abortion: o Cultural universal - done by women herself or with another women o Religious, economic and social factors affect decisions  Life style – doesn’t fit  Poverty  Catholicism – forbid abortion (NO relation between Religion / abortion) • New Reproductive Technologies: o Amniocentesis o IVF Culture and Death: • Culture helps define both the good life and good death • Shapes patterns of cause of death, patterns which change over time • Conditions us to either fear or look forward to death. Infanticide: • Direct Infanticide: o Killing infant or child from actions such as beating, smothering, poisoning or drowning o Unbalanced sex ratio w/in cultures = infanticide for girls • Indirect infanticide: o Killing of an infant or child via more subtle process – such as food deprivation  Fail to take sick infant to a clinic or failure to provide warm clothing in winter. Infant mortality rate: • Deaths of children under the age of one year per 1000 births Suicide: (rates are increasing worldwide) Sati: • Suicide of a wife upon death of her husband (India) o Husband dies of act of great personal and group honour o Voluntarily joins husband on funeral. (Burns to death) o Assisted suicide Femicide: • The murder of a person based on the fact of her being female. Warfare: • Accounts for high proportion of male deaths in some horticultural societies Ethnocide: • Destruction of culture without physically killing its people Genocide: • Physical extermination of cultural and its people Dowry: • Transfer of cash and goods from the bride’s family to the newly married couple and to the groom’s family Groomprice: • Transfer of cash and goods, often large amounts, from the bride’s family to the groom’s family Brideprice or Bridewealth: • Transfer of cash and goods from the groom’s family to the bride’s family and to the bride Movie: (Sir Edward Evans – Pritchard) • Accepted witch craft – culture • Strange Beliefs • British Anthropologist – privilege • Colonial – presence (represent the men) o Sensitive to locals • Fieldwork – involved living with them, learn, speak of their culture o Dramatic/ceremonial – details just important o Not just going over to visit • Pritchard – own fieldwork o Asandi (central Africa/Sudan) • House built – similar • 1926 – took a long journey to get where you need to be • Photographs, writing o Like our own just not custom o Customs and notions o Description • Primitive peoples – mind inferior to Europeans o Witchcraft/Magic – intent of ideas (misguided, primitive) o Bad luck - magic • Witchcraft = Death (bad luck) • Death – witchcraft o Mystical beliefs o Oracles – witchcraft answers o Who is causing or how to deal with it. • Bengi o Feed to chicken – dies or not (answer) • Witchdoctor – combat witch craft o Spells, procedures and ceremonies o Magic in his power – see evil intentions in others • Aszandi o New question rational thinking in any culture. Part 2 – 1932 Egypt: • Scars on forehead – meaning I’m a man (left boy hood) o Can marry, • What did Evans Pritchard suggest was the key to Azandi philosophy and how did he study this? o Witchcraft o Participated – immersed in fieldwork (P.O) o Case studies – individuals been effected by witchcraft (biased sample) o Took Azandi witchcraft – as seriously (treated system of thought with serious/rigor) – complicated philosophy • What was prevailing of European ideology Evan-Pritchard trying to disprove? (Studies Azandi, Egypt) o Disprove idea that Europeans some how more advance, advance irrational way of thinking o Tribal peoples were capable “primitive” mentality o Every bit as rational and sophisticated o Contributing to Anthropology studies – historical context

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