ANTH 1220 Cultural Anthropology Chapter 1,2,3,4,5 Cultural Anthropology
ANTH 1220:Cultural Anthropology Chapter 1,2,3,4,5
Cultural Anthropology:University of Manitoba
Anthropology and the Study of Culture:
•	Is the study of humanity, including our pre-historic origins and contemporary human diversity.
o	Covers much greater span of time than other disciplines that study humanity
Anthropology is a broader scope.
•	Some consider a science; - form of inquiry that involves first the formulation of (hypothesis, or hunch) then observation or testing whether the hunch/hypothesis is correct.
•	Humanistic approach:
o	Understanding humanity through the study of people’s
Art, music, poetry, language and other forms of symbolic expression
•	Anthropology seeks to produce new knowledge – primary goal as an academic field of inquiry.
•	Finding can influence:
o	Government, Policy makers, businesses, technology developers, health
– care providers, teachers and the general public
4 Fields of Anthropology: Biological Anthropology (physical):
•	Study of humans as biological organisms, including their evolution and contemporary variation.
•	3 subfields: Primatology, Paleoanthropology, Paleopathology
•	1) Primatology:
o	Study of the nonhuman members of the order of mammals called primates
Wide range of animals from small, nocturnal to gorillas (largest members)
Primatologists – study nonhuman primates in wild and in captivity
•	Record and analyze how the animals spend their
o	Time, collect/share food form social groups, rear offspring, develop leadership patterns and experience conflict and conflict resolution.
Jane Goodall’s (1971, 1986) Tanzanian chimpanzees – social relationships
•	2) Paleoanthropology:
o	Study of human evolution on the basis of the fossil record.
Important activity is the search for fossils
•	To increase amount/quality of evidence = to human evolution
•	2) Paleopathology:
o	Study of diseases in prehistory
Analysis of trace elements in bones, (strontium) provides detailed info
•	Diets, activities, health of prehistoric peoples
•	3) Contemporary Human Biological Variation:
o	Define, measure, and seek to explain differences in the biological makeup and behaviour of contemporary humans
Past, biological Anthropologists:
•	Significant differences = “racial”
Late 19th – Early 20th century:
•	“Race” as social categories defined on the basis of
o	Skin colour, hair texture, and head shape and facial features.
Anthropologists do, however recognize the reality of racism and many people in many contexts.
•	The study of past human cultures through their material remains
•	Data include:
o	Stones and bone tools, skeletal material, remains of buildings and pot shards (broken pottery) and coprolites (fossilized fecal material)
•	Archaeology has contributed knowledge about towns and villages
o	Emergences of the great early states of Egypt, Phoenicia, the Indus Valley and Mexico.
o	Revealed Before Common Era – queens were often rulers (challenges male political dominance)
•	Garbage Project:
o	Excavated the Fresh Kills landfills on Staten Island, near New York City
o	Excavation of artifacts such as pop top can tabs, disposable diapers cosmetic containers and telephone books
Learning consumption patterns.
•	The study of human communication, including its origins, history and contemporary variation and change.
•	Integral to Cultural Anthropology – language is the primary means for transmitting culture.
o	How we classify relatives, honour our ancestors; describe beauty make visible beliefs and values.
•	Linked to real-world issues. Study language in everyday use, or discourse and how it relates to power structures at local, regional and international levels.
•	1) Power relations:
o	Expressed through intonation, word choice, and such nonverbal forms of communication as posture and dress.
•	2) Increased attention to role of information technology in communication, (internet and cell phones)
•	3) Attention to the increasing rapid extinction of indigenous languages worldwide
3 subfields: Historical, Descriptive, Sociolinguistics
•	1) Historical Linguistics:
o	Study of language change over time and how languages are related
•	2) Descriptive Linguistics:
o	Study of the structure of languages
•	3) Sociolinguistics:
o	Study of the relation between language and social interaction (including non-verbal)
•	The study of living people and their cultures, including variation and change.
o	Culture – refers to people’s learned and shared behaviours and beliefs.
•	Contemporary people and their cultures.
•	Considers variations and similarities across cultures and how cultures change over time
•	CA’s – learn about culture by spending extended periods of time living with the people they study.
Applied Anthropology: Separate Field or Crosscutting Focus?
Applied Anthropology or practising anthropology or practical anthropology:
•	The use of anthropological knowledge to prevent or solve problems or to shape and achieve policy goals.
•	Canadian Anthropologists – research to practice fields such as Native Land Claims, health care, and ethnic diversity
o	Work of Francophone anthropologists in the 1960’s
•	Canadian Anthropology defining features – integration of basic and applied research.
•	Applied anthropology – thread weaves through the entire discipline of anthropology.
•	Should be a part of all 4 fields.
Introducing Cultural Anthropology:
A Brief History of Cultural Anthropology:
Arm Chair vs Field:
•	Armchair Anthropology: (Sir Edward Taylor)
o	How early CA’s conducted research by sitting and reading about other cultures
Read reports form travellers, missionaries & explorers
•	Never visited places or any direct contact/experience
o	Fieldwork – going to the field where people and cultures are, to learn about culture through
Research in the field, which is any place where people and culture are found.
•	European colonial expansion prompted Enlightenment thinkers to question biblical narrative of human origins.
•	19th Century and early 20th Century Sir Edward Tylor and Sir James Frazier and Henry Morgan USA)
o	Inspired concept of biological evolution they developed model of cultural evolution
Where all cultures evolve form lower to higher forms overtime
•	View Placed non – Western peoples at a “primitive” stage and Euro –
American culture as “civilization” and assumed that non – Western cultures either catch up to level of western civilization or die out
•	Bronislaw Malinowski (major figure) early cultural anthropology
o	Established a theoretical approach = Functionalism:
Theory that a culture is similar to a biological organism, in which parts work to support the operation and maintenance of the whole
o	Religion and family organization – contribute to the functioning of the whole culture.
o	Functionalism is linked to holism:
Perspective in anthropology that cultures are complex systems that cannot be fully understood without paying attention to their different components
•	Including: economics, social organization and ideology.
•	Roots of Canadian Anthropology are anchored in both British/European Tradition
o	Shaped by ethno historical and advocacy work with First Nations peoples
Strong relations with museums.
•	First full-time anthropological appointment at U of Toronto (1925)
Definition of Culture:
o	Exists among all human beings, local culture – distinct patterns of learned and shared behaviour and ideas found in local regions
o	Based on ethnicity, gender, age and more.
•	Interpretive Anthropologist:
o	Culture includes:
o	Focuses on peoples perceptions, thoughts and ideas
But doesn’t focus on behaviour as a part of culture – but seeks to explain behaviour
o	Culture is contested and negotiated, not always shared or imposed.
•	Culture Materialist:
o	Culture is the total socially acquired way of life or life style of a group of people
o	Patterned, repetitive ways of thinking, feeling and acting that are characteristic of members in particular society.
Characteristics of Culture:
Culture Is Not the Same as Nature:
o	Culture shapes what people eat, how they eat, when they eat and meaning of food and eating.
o	Defines foods that are acceptable and unacceptable
o	China – cheese disgusting / France – cheese love
o	Pork – Judaism and Islam = forbid
o	Proper ways to eat are one first things person needs to learn in other cultures
India – using right hand / left hand polluted.
o	Cooking and serving the food
Women – responsibility (cooking)
Public feasts (Men)
o	Culture defines substances to drink, when to drink, and with whom
o	French consumption of wine, Canada Water during meal, India water after meal
o	Social drinking – whether beverage is “whatever” creates and reinforces social bonds.
o	Question who sleeps with whom
o	Culture shapes amount of time a person sleeps
o	India – women sleep few hours than men (due to start fire for meal)
o	Type A N.A – males sleep few hours (too much sleep = wimp)
o	Products of elimination are considered dirty, polluting and disgusting.
Culture is Based on Symbols:
•	Symbol – object that has a range of culturally significant meanings.
•	Symbols are arbitrary
o	Unpredictable and diverse
•	Cannot predict how a culture will symbolize any particular thing.
Culture is Learned:
•	Based on arbitrary symbols – can’t be predicted but must be LEARNED
•	Begins at birth, if not before and stores info through sounds heard from world.
•	Cultural Learning:
o	Unconscious, occurring as normal part of life – thru observation.
•	School formal cultural learning - but not always had formal schooling
o	Guidance of elders by observation and practice.
Cultures Are Integrated:
•	Integrated to assert the principle of holism
•	Applied anthropologists – involved in analyzing cultural change
•	Introducing change to one aspect of culture – without giving attention
o	May be detrimental to survival of culture.
Cultural Interaction and Change:
•	Trade networks, international development projects, telecommunications, education, migration and tourism.
o	Process of intensified global interconnectedness and movement of goods, info, and people
Major force in change in culture.
o	US dominated corporation “Fast Food culture”
o	2 or more cultures mixed to form something new – a blend
o	Transformation of global culture by local cultures = into new
Distinctive Feature of Cultural Anthropology
Ethnography and Ethnology:
o	First hand, detailed description of a living culture, based on personal observation.
o	“Culture Writing” – full form length book
o	Provides rich, culturally specific insights
o	The study of a particular topic in more than one culture using ethnographic material
o	Cross cultural analysis
o	Compared topics in: - to examine patterns of similarity and variation and cause for them
Child bearing practices
o	Look beyond individual cases to wider patterns, provides a comparative view and rises.
•	Idea that each culture must be understood in terms of values and beliefs of that culture
o	Should not be judged by standards of another culture
•	Assumes no culture is better than other
•	Gain a sense of relativism – spend amount of time living w/people outside your own culture
o	Studying abroad
o	Socially engage travel will help
o	Reading about other cultures, Internet research, and cooking and reading novels.
•	Absolute cultural relativism – What goes on in culture must not be questioned or changed - not right or wrong answer.
o	Holocaust - comfortable with position from Nazi’s
•	Critical cultural relativism offers – alternative view
o	Poses questions about cultural practices and ideas (who accept them, why and who they might be harming or helping
o	Recognizes internal cultural differences:
Pays attention to various power groups
•	Ethnocentrism: (opposite from cultural relativism) – bad word in C.A
o	Judging other cultures by standards of one’s own culture rather than by standards of particular culture.
o	Fuelled by changing other people in the world
o	European colonial expansion
•	A way of categorizing people on the basis of their economic position in society, usually measured in terms of income or wealth
•	Exhibited in terms of lifestyle
•	Class societies divided into upper, middle and lower class.
•	Class membership determined by groups relationship
o	To ownership of means of production, how groups of people make a living.
•	A classification of people into groups on the basis of supposedly homogenous biological traits.
o	Culturally constructed category not biological reality
•	A shared sense of identity among a group based on a heritage, language or culture
•	Sense of group affiliation based on distinct heritage or world view as a people
o	Neutral or positive term
Often been a basis for discrimination, segregation and oppression
•	Patterns of Culturally constructed and learned behaviours and ideas attributed to males, females or blended genders.
•	3rd or 4th genders
•	Gender variability
o	Contrasted to sex, biological markers to define categories of males and female.
•	CA – person’s biological makeup doesn’t correspond to gender.
•	Human life cycle from birth to old age – take person thru cultural stages
•	Spatial rituals marking physical maturation, marriage or end of period of learning
o	In all societies
•	Elaborate age categories for males define their roles and status as they move
o	Boys to men.
•	Enduring group setting formed form a particular purpose – have own cultural characteristics
o	Boarding schools
•	Relationships of power and inequality exist within institutions and between different institutions
o	Cross cut criteria (intersect with gender)
Three Theoretical Debates
1)	Biological Determinism vs. Cultural Constructionism:
•	Biological Determinism: (Derek Freeman)
o	Theory that explains human behaviour and ideas mainly as a result of biological features
Genes & Hormones/Physiology
o	Genes & Hormones that lead to homicide, alcoholism & adolescent stress
Reproductive success of the species
o	Behaviours and ideas that have reproductive advantages more than others are passed on to future generations.
o	Human males better “spatial” skills than females (advantage in food and mates)
- Result from evolutionary selection
•	Cultural Constructionism: (Margaret Mead)
o	Theory that explains human behaviour and ideas as being mainly the results of learning
Products of culturally shaped learning
o	Evidence that such skills are passed on culturally thru learning not genes
o	Parents socialize their sons and daughters
o	Anthropologists use C.C to explain behaviours of homicide and alcoholism
From child hood experiences and family roles
Most Anthropologist support CC than Biological determinism.
2)	Interpretive Anthropology vs. Cultural Materialism: - combines both
•	Interpretive Anthropology:
o	How people use symbols to make sense of the world around the
How meaning are negotiated
o	View culture as contested domain not a given
o	Favour Ethnography – rich, complex descriptions from insiders point of view
o	Communicate complexity and rejects approaches that reductionist
o	Cows & Pork (Hindus / Jews) – Marvin Harris
•	Cultural Materialism:
o	Material conditions in studying and explaining human behaviours and ideas.
o	Basic materials of life:
Ways of making a living
o	Infrastructure – crucial material factors
Shapes the other 2 domains of culture
•	1) Structure – (social organization, kinship, political organization)
•	2) Superstructure – (Ideas, values, beliefs)
o	Seek explanations for behaviour & Ideas based on 1st w/infrastructural factors
3)	Individual Agency vs. Structural: - blend structural perspective w/attention to agency
•	Individual Agency:
o	Individual will or agency has to do with why people behave and think the way we do
o	Individual has ability to choose how to behave/think
o	Power of forces or “structures”
o	Argues “free will” – choices are structured by larger forces
Political institutions and ideological systems.
•	Example: Poverty study:
o	Agency – individuals try to change situation as best they can
o	Structures – emphasize poor are trapped by large/powerful forces
Chapter 2: Methods in Cultural Anthropology
1.	How do cultural anthropologists conduct research on culture?
2.	What does fieldwork involve?
3.	What are some important issues in cultural anthropology?
History of Fieldwork:
•	Most CA’s gather data by doing fieldwork – going to the field
o	Wherever people and culture are to learn about culture = direct observation.
Armchair Anthropology approach: (1870’s)
•	Early CA’s conducted research by sitting and reading about other cultures
•	They read reports written by:
•	They never explored or visited or had any direct experience
•	Sir Edward Tyler – proposed first definition (armchair anthropologist)
•	Sir James Frazer
o	Wrote “myths”, rituals and collection symbols from his wide reading
•	19th & 20th century
•	Anthropologists hired European colonial gov’t –
•	Step closer to learning directly about people of other cultures
•	Travelled to colonized countries in Africa & Asia - live near not with them
•	Send out for “native” to be interviewed
•	Andaman island 20th century
•	Due Indigenous people decimated by diseases – brought in by British colonizers
o	By direct colonial violence
•	To collect data he could from the remaining people in order to document
o	Social Life
o	Religious beliefs
Lewis Henry Morgan:
•	19th century
•	Took steps to learn thru direct observation
•	Observations of Iroquoian groups
•	“The League of the Iroquois” – book - reduce savages interpretation
•	Same observation as Morgan
•	Short trips to Iroquoian
•	“Iroquois book of Rites” – book
Participant Observation: (Today)
•	Is a research method for learning about culture that involves living in a culture for an extended period while gathering data.
•	Key elements:
o	Living with the people
o	Learning the language
o	Participating in their everyday life
•	20th century – major turning point in CA research in WWI
o	Foundation of fieldwork Participant observation
•	Bronislaw Malinowski – “Father of participant observation”
o	Learned culture in S.Pacific Trobriand Island during – WWI
o	2 years learned - wrote everything in notebooks
Language – able to talk (no interpreters)
Participated in daily life
o	Argonauts of the Western Pacific – book
o	Established the tradition of participant observation – new university programs
•	Primary goal early on – record as much as possible in: (disappearing cultures)
o	Peoples language
o	Social life
•	Thought could study everything – holism
o	Notebooks to collect data on economics, family, politics, religion, language, arts & crafts
•	Fieldwork conducted in more than one location in order to understand the behaviours and ideas of dispersed members of a culture or the relationships among different levels such as state policy and local culture
•	Fieldwork conducted on a topic in more than one location
o	Migrant populations in both their place of origin and new location
•	Useful for studying many topics.
Working in the Field:
Length and difficult process:
•	Learn the language of the people, live as they do, understand their lives, be a friend
•	Research takes place
•	May be in multiple sites
•	Depends on many factors –
o	Will locals accept you, will fit requirements, adequate housing
•	Rapport – trusting relationship between the research and the study population
•	First goal is to establish rapport - with key leaders or decision makers in community (gate keepers – human or material resources to group/community)
•	Trust depends on how researcher presents him/herself
•	Locals may Cultures have difficulty – why study them
o	Provide inaccurate answers
o	Spy – serious issue
Gift Giving and Exchange:
•	Gifts expected in exchange for relationships in culture
•	Gifts – culturally & ethically appropriate
o	Basic medical care – wound dressing,
o	Taught at local school
o	Higher education – outside homelands
•	Learning local rules of exchange – important (appropriate?)
•	How to deliver gift (timing, in private or public)
o	Wrapped or unwrapped
•	How to behave as gift giver (emphasize the smallness of the gift)
Factors Influencing Fieldwork:
•	Anthropologist is more wealthy and powerful than the people studied
•	Influence the locals – higher standard (refrain from sexual jokes and etc.…)
•	Affect how they relate to researcher.
•	CA’s dominated by Euro-American White researchers – studied other cultures
o	Non-white or non Euro-American
•	“Whiteness” – labelled as a god or ancestor spirit to his or her being colonist past
•	Female researcher – young & unmarried = face more difficulties
o	Than young unmarried man or older women
•	Most cultures find that very unusual
•	Gender boundaries exist cross – culturally to varying degrees
•	Gender segregation limits males – from gaining full range of activities
o	Domestic domain
•	Study all ages, children/adolescents readily welcome participation of friendly adult in daily lives
o	Great deal of attention to children and adolescents
•	Persistent feeling of uneasiness, loneliness, and anxiety that often occurs when a person has shifted from one culture to a different one.
•	Happens to many CA’s – student’s study abroad, overseas, volunteers or any one spends significant time living and participating in another culture.
•	Psychological aspect – reduced competence
o	Simple tasks become difficult
o	Self – efficacy is undermined
o	May abandon project – inability to adapt to fieldwork situation
o	Reverse culture shock
•	CA’s – participant observation essential to learn about culture
•	Participating or being apart of the peoples lives, while observing
o	Complex parts
•	Research adopts lifestyle of people being studied
•	Living in same kind of housing, eating similar food, wearing similar clothing
o	Learn language and participate in activities in special events.
•	Living as closely to the way they live to experience the application of their ideas and beliefs in systems of knowledge.
•	Data collected according to the researchers questions & categories with the goal of being able to test hypothesis.
•	Data collected that reflect what insiders say and understand about their culture, and insider’s categories of thinking.
Talking w/People: Interview:
•	Technique for gathering verbal data through questions or guided conversation
o	More purposeful than casual conversation.
o	Various styles & formats
•	Open – ended interview – interviewee takes lead in setting direction of convo
o	Interviewer doesn’t interrupt or provide prompting questions.
o	Researcher discovers themes are important to person.
•	Formal research instrument containing pre-set series of questions
•	Face to face setting, mail or email
•	Vary degree of questions
o	Structured – close ended
o	Unstructured – open ended
•	Researcher enough familiarity with study population – design questions make cultural sense.
Combining Observation and Talking:
•	Questionnaires must be complimented with observational data on what people actually do
•	Qualitative, in depth description of an individual’s life as narrated to the researcher.
•	Reveals info on individuals and how they think
•	Seek individuals who occupy particularly in social niches
•	Individual experiences and shared patterns – are revealed.
•	Includes written and oral stories, myths, plays, saying, speeches, jokes and transcriptions.
•	Franz Boas – collected pages of text from aboriginal groups from BC
Archival & Historical Sources:
•	CA’s work in cultures with written history gain insights about present from past achieves
•	Libraries, churches, museums
•	Local official – land ownerships, agricultural production, religion practices & political activities.
•	Important info about past come from field work
o	Living with people
o	Anthropology of memory.
o	Not simply as a record of history but as interpretive reconstruction
Multiple Research Methods & Team Projects:
o	Technique involves seeking information on a particular topic from more than one angel or perspective
•	Asking 2 people about the same thing doubles the information and often reveals that perspectives differ
o	Other sources – newspapers for additional perspectives
•	Team projects:
o	CA’s & researchers from other disciplines who provide additional skills
•	Daily logs, personal journals, descriptions of events and notes about those notes.
•	Ideally notes written each day (field notes)
o	Tape recorder and laptop
•	Back log accumulates of daily “scratch notes” or rough jottings
Tape Recording, Photography, Videos and films:
•	Tape recorders – major aid in fieldwork
•	Raise problems – research participants suspicions about a machine
o	Ethical issue of protecting identity of people
•	Problems with videos
o	Recording rituals – amount of forgotten, or missed material
o	But precludes taking notes simultaneously.
o	Team approach
•	Photographs –
o	May supplement, complement or even contradict written accounts
o	Arranged in groups to suggest comparison or juxtaposed in striking manner to illustrate change.
•	Quantitative terms and reporting on quantitative results
o	Local conditions – accompany graphs, charts and computation
•	Descriptive field notes, informant’s narratives, myths and stories and songs and sagas.
•	General procedure:
o	Search for themes, or regularities in data.
o	Exploring data or playing with data either by hand or with computer.
•	Numeric data can proceed in several directions (sophisticated methods)
o	Computer or computer software.
•	Helps identify demographic and other structures and constraints.
•	Research experience itself in addition to generating or presenting theoretical arguments and analysis.
•	Field work experience important part of ethnography
•	Characterized as personalized styles and findings
o	Frequently use “I” in writings.
Ethics in Anthropology:
Ethics and Collaborative Research:
•	2 major events in 1950’s and 1960’s – led US Anthropologists
o	Reconsider role in research to sponsors and people they were studying.
•	1) “Project Camelot” (1950’s)
o	Political leadership and stability in S.A
o	Anthropologist – gather info on political events and leaders
Without revealing purpose - then report to sponsor (gov’t)
•	2) Vietnam War
o	Role of Anthropologist people that were studied
o	Many of anthropologists participated in teach – ins and anti war protests
o	US draft resistors – absorbed by departments of anthropologists as graduate students and professors
o	Aligning Canadian departments more closely with US ones.
•	1971 – code of ethics was adopted by (AAA)
o	Code states
Primary responsibility is to ensure the safety of the people being studied.
o	Does not conduct / condone covert or undercover research
o	People being studied should be informed that they’re being studied
o	Purposes for why they are being studied.
•	Of 2 varieties working with teams of researchers or working in consultation and collaboration with local peoples.
Safety in the Field:
•	Physical and psychological risks to researcher
o	Mental health risks
o	Disease – major factor
•	Danger from public violence
o	Political mobs, actual battles
•	Can prepare them – risk awareness, training in basic medical care and fieldwork safety
Chapter 3: Economies and Their Modes of Production
•	Subfield of CA, studies economic system that includes: MOP’s
o	Production (making goods or money)
o	Consumption (Using up goods or money)
o	Exchange (Transfer of goods or money)
•	Dualist ideology – western culture prioritizes culture over nature
o	Exploitation and global competition
Exploiting resources – not sustainable
•	3 areas – core, periphery and semi periphery
•	Core area:
o	Most profitable activities (high tech services), manufacturing, financial activities.
o	Strong governments, dominating role in affairs w/other countries
o	Least profitable activities, production of raw goods, foodstuffs, and labour intensive goods
o	Import high tech goods and services from core
o	Weak governments
•	Semi periphery
o	Stands in the middle
Modes of Production: (5)
•	Involves using food that is available in nature (collect)
Live in considerable marginal areas
•	Oldest economic system
o	Do not grow own food or keep domesticated animals
•	Danger of extinction as a pure form (euro colonialism and industrial development)
•	Rely on set of tools to gather, transport and process wild food
•	Require little time and have lots of leisure time
•	Obtaining and processing foods – very sustainable Extensive strategy:
•	Temporary use of large areas of land and high degree of spatial mobility
•	2 types – temperate climate foraging & circumpolar foraging
o	Nuts, tubers, fruit, small animals, some large game
o	Men & Woman forage, Men hunt large game
o	Casual construction, non-permanent, Little maintenance
o	Large marine and terrestrial animals
o	Men Hunt and fish
o	Time constructions, and maintenance, some permanent
Division of Labour:
•	Gender and age – but great deal of cultural variation
•	Man the Hunter – providing meat (Men’s higher social status) – abandoned theory
•	Woman the gather – 75-80% provide food and remaining men hunted
•	Use rights – person or group socially recognized priority in access to particular resources
o	Gathering regions, hunting and fishing areas
o	Water holes
o	Willingly shared equal rights
o	Passed down equally to all children who are members of the group.
•	When untouched by outside influences and with abundant land available – very sustainable (Foraging)
•	On growing domesticated crops in gardens using simple hand tools.
o	Shifting cultivation
•	More labour intensive than foragers – energy required to prep and food Process.
•	Allow for bigger populations.
•	Surplus of food supply – allows for trade relationships = wealth
5 stages of Horticulture:
•	Clearing – forest cleared (partially), set on fire = growth (rich fertilizer)
o	Slash and burn cultivation
•	Planting – sticks loosen soil, plant seeds (scattering), plant plants by hand
•	Weeding – little weeding, ash cover (hard to grow)
•	Harvesting – Substantial labour, cut or dig crops (residential area)
•	Fallowing – left unused for specific number of years = regain fertility.
Divisions of Labour:
•	Gender and age – key factors
•	Men and women’s roles clearly different
•	Men clear garden area (field labour) – prestige foods
•	Women (closer to home) – staple foods
o	Do not contribute to producing food = low status (may be high or not if contribute)
•	Men do cleaning and cultivating and children more productive labour.
•	Use right – more defined and formalized than foragers
o	Cleaning and cultivating land = family’s claim on land.
•	Fallowing crucial in viability in horticulture
•	Conditions = negative consequences
o	Pressure - on access land from outsiders, loggers, miners, farmers
o	Government - policies to increase production for cash for taxes
o	Interest – increase production = buy manufactured commodities
o	Pressure – internal population growth (out migrations not possible
•	Keeping domesticated animal herds and using their products, such as meat and milk for most of their diet.
•	Extensive strategy and requires mobility – high successful and sustainable
o	For economic systems
o	Herds move or pasture = depleted
•	External constraint – states do not like when pastoralists move across state lines
o	1 place = keep track and tax
Division of Labour:
•	Gender and age – defying roles
•	Men charge of herding
•	Women – processing herd products (closer to home)
•	Children – tending herds.
•	Animals then housing
•	Ownership of animals inherited (thru males)
•	Private property of animals – trade for other goods.
•	Use of rights = pasture land and migration routes (oral tradition)
Agriculture is intensive strategy
•	Involves continuous use of the same land and resources.
•	Domesticated animals – plowing, transport, organic fertilizer
•	Very dependant on artificial water sources
•	Indigenous Knowledge
o	Local knowledge about the environment (plants, animals and resources)
Declining rapidly, completely lost
•	More labour inputs – destruction of important habitats, rain forests.
•	NON – Sustainable
o	Also undermines other systems
o	Critical cost of agriculture.
•	Farmers produce mainly to support themselves but also produce goods for sale in the market system.
•	Linked to urban markets (wealthy or poor)
•	Ploughing, planting seeds, cutting, caring, irrigation systems
•	Clear gender roles, rigid class distinctions
•	Land rights can be bought or sold
•	Grow tea, coffee, rubber
•	Concentrated ownership of land
•	Hired labour
•	Dominant in former colonies
•	Poor social welfare
Division of Labour:
•	Gender and age – organizing work
•	Men = bulk of labour (male dominated)
•	Women = balanced
•	Children – prominent roles in agriculture
•	Men Ploughing Hypothesis
•	Women children Hyp – incompatible with child care
•	Women and food processing Hyp – child care and increase fertility in farm families
•	Land investments – protected by property rights
•	Rights to land – acquired or sold
Industrial capital agriculture:
•	Capital intensive means using machinery and purchased inputs as processed fertilizers for human and animal labour.
o	Decline in family farm
•	Corporate farms – produce goods solely for sale and owned by companies
o	Reliant of hired labour
Industrial Collective Agriculture:
•	Industrialized agriculture that involves state control of land, tech and good produced
o	CA’s – these culture are rare
•	Production of goods through mass employment in business and commercial operations
•	Satisfy consumer demands for nonessential goods
•	Growing need for information processing = computer programing, data processing and communications.
•	Employment increases in manufacturing and service sectors
•	Salaried or wage-based work registered in official statistics
o	Unionized – workers
o	Ethnicity – solidarity
•	Work that is outside the formal sector, not officially registered and sometimes illegal. (No benefits)
o	Illegal drug industry
o	Sex trade – Thailand
Changing Modes of Production
•	Tiwi of Northern Australia
•	Involved in tourism – managing support in their own values/interests
•	International recognition
•	Live in larger settlements & engage in very little way of foraging activity
•	Mundurucu of Brazilian Amazon
•	Adapted to rubber plantations region by combing horticulture practices with work rubber farms
o	Leave traditional villages to live in rubber area year round
•	Shift in gender roles btw horticultural villages / rubber farms
o	Creative response to changes in economic practices / conditions.
•	Herders of Mongolia
•	Political changes at state level (shift from private to state managed) herding back to private family herding
•	Dependence on state services - collapse of services still being felt today
•	Maya of Chiapas, Mexico
•	Increases in public spending – small family farmers to dependence on wage work
o	Necessities of life
•	Model change increasingly common in latter half of 20th century
•	Taiwanese in South America
•	Export clashed with local values, in gender and identity
•	Modes of productive organization are connected with wider systems of cultural values.
Chapter 4: Consumption and Exchange
Mode of Consumption:
•	Dominant way in culture of using up goods and services
Mode of Exchange:
•	Dominant way in culture of transferring goods services and other items between and among people and groups.
What is Consumption?
•	Consumption involves what a person takes in and also involves what a person spends or uses in other resources.
o	Intake (eating, using things second)
o	Output (spending or using resources to obtain those things)
•	Personalized consumption – consumer has personal face to face relationship
•	Depersonalized – distancing consumers from workers who actually produce goods
o	Exploits workers.
Modes of Consumption
Relationship between supply and demand
•	Few and finite consumer demands and an adequate and sustainable means to achieve them
o	Free range foragers
o	Some horticulturalists & pastoralists
•	Peoples demands are many and infinite – satisfying them never sufficient
o	Colonialism, globalization and other expansions.
o	Industrialist cultures
o	Globalization is spreading consumerism thru out the world.
•	Category within a person’s or household budget use to provide his or her needs and demands.
•	Basic needs fund – food, beverages, shelter and clothing
•	Recurrent cost – maintenance and repair of tools, animals, machinery and shelter
•	Entertainment – Leisure activities
•	Ceremonial – for social events such as rituals
•	Rent and Tax – Payments to landowners or governments for use of land, housing or civic responsibilities.
•	Culturally defined right to life – sustaining resources
•	Set or bundle – more secure and lucrative than others.
•	Most secure form
•	Owning land that produces food is a direct entitlement
•	Depend on exchanging something in order to obtain consumer needs
•	Exchange (labour trades, animal hides, money or food stamps).
•	Dependency on other people (risker) than support from direct.
•	Massive levels of death resulting from food deprivation in a widespread area.
Entitlement at 3 Levels
Global – Some countries are more secure in global economy than other countries
National – Those with direct entitlements may be more secure than those of indirect Household – Some members are more secure than others
•	Men more than women
•	Levels of income, distinctive consumption
•	Working classes were closer “necessity”
•	Discrimination and inequality
•	Men’s food vs women’s food
•	Gender may play into what is considered appropriate
•	Kuru – women died more than men (gender pattern)
•	North America – racial differences in consumption and welfare exists
•	Discrimination – affects consumption in housing
•	Food certain for ages
•	Characteristics consumption are culturally shaped
•	Aging effects everyone – class
o	Wealth can protect elderly
•	Marvin Harris – Jewish/Muslims eating pig
o	Environmental factors, pigs in arid habitats (ecologically unflavoured)
•	Mary Douglas – food away of communicating (symbolic meaning)
o	Animals hoofs – unclean
o	Pig – hoofed but doesn’t chew
o	Impurity and sinfulness.
Culture and Exchange
•	Transfer of something that may be material or immaterial between
•	Food most common exchange daily life and rituals
•	Marriage arrangements involve complex stages of gifts or counter gifts
•	Alcoholic beverages
•	Intangible valuables such as myths and rituals
•	People contribute labour to other people on regular basis or irregular
•	Crisis rebuilding a barn (damage by fire)
•	Sense of moral economy (trust and sharing)
o	Families show up to help
•	To a medium of exchange that can be used for a variety of goods
•	Cross culturally (shells, salt, cattle, furs, cocoa beans, iron hoes)
•	Modern money form of coins and paper bills.
Rights in people:
•	Slavery and human trafficking
•	Women as objects in marriage exchange
Modes of Exchange:
•	Transaction that involves the least conscious sense of interest in material gain or thought of what might be received in return
•	Exchange between people who know each other
•	Pure gift:
o	Something given with no expectation or thought of return
•	Exchange equally valued goods or services usually between people of roughly equal social status.
•	More economic – less personal
•	Kula – trading shells to others (exchange after period of time)
•	Trying to one up someone
•	Expected reciprocity one person collects goods or money from many members of a group and provides a social return at a later time.
•	Pooled goods, generous feast
•	May be inequality – return not equal
•	Market Exchange:
o	Prominent form of unbalanced exchange is buying and selling commodities under competitive conditions in which the forces of supply and demand determine value.
o	May or may not have personal relationship or social equals
o	Not likely to generate social bonding
o	Take place in marketplace
o	Make profit by playing game of chance
o	Cross culturally
o	Taking something with no expectation or thought of returning anything to the original owner for it.
o	Opposite of pure gift.
Changes Patterns of Consumption and Exchange
Cash cropping and declining Nutrition:
•	Growing crops change to cash crop production
•	Rising standard of living
•	Peoples nutritional status declines with cash crop
Lure of Western Goods:
•	Produce surplus to lure goods
Chapter 5: Birth & Death
4 variables that are important in affecting demand for children:
•	1) Children’s labour value
•	2) Children’s value as old age support for their parents
•	3) Infant and child mortality rates
•	4) Economic costs of children
o	First 3 variables positive relationship, when high = high value of fertility
o	Economic cost = negative relationship – high costs = desire fewer children
•	Study of population dynamics in cross – cultural perspective
•	Historical trend in fertility / mortality
o	Agriculture societies (High fertility, High mortality)
o	Industrial (low & Low)
•	Includes 3 area:
o	Fertility -
Rate of births in a population or the rate of population increase in general
•	There is not correlation btw sexual frequency and fertility
o	Mortality –
Deaths in a population or the rate of population decline in general or from particular causes.
o	Migration –
The movement of a person or people form one place to another
•	CA – focus on small populations and samples and examine relationships btw population dynamics and aspects of culture.
Modes of Reproduction:
Reproduction in Foraging Societies:
•	Model for most of human history
o	Moderate death & birth rates
•	Value of children = moderate
o	Small number
•	Indirect/Direct means of fertility control
o	Long birth intervals and Low fat diet (women)
1) Breastfeeding - inhibits progesterone production and suppress ovulation
2) Low body fat = need certain level of fat for ovulation
o	Induced abortion / infanticide
Reproduction in Agricultural Societies:
•	High growth rate (more birth than deaths) – Pronatalism (as many children)
•	Very high # of children
o	Families = large labour force (work land etc)
•	Increase reliance on direct means of birth control
•	Gender division of labour values = male work
•	Increasing specialization
o	Midwives and herbalists.
•	High fertility rates = Mennonites / Hutterites
Reproduction in Industrial Societies:
•	Negative population growth
o	High growth in developing nations
•	Replacement level fertility:
o	# of births equals the # of deaths = maintenance of current population size.
•	Below Replacement Level Fertility:
o	# of births is less than the number of deaths = population decline.
o	Canada, Japan and Cuba ex.
o	Invest more resources in fewer children
Children less useful in production
•	Demographic Transition:
o	Process of change from the high fertility and high mortality in agricultural societies - to low fertility and low mortality (industrialized societies)
•	3 distinct features:
o	1) Stratified reproduction (social inequality) – middle class upper (few children with high survival rates)
o	2) Population aging
Japan fertility rate decline to replacement level
Not balanced by # of young people
o	3) High level of scientific involvement
In aspects of pregnancy (prevent, termination, becoming pregnant)
Culture and Birth: Sexual Intercourse and Fertility
•	Culture socialize children about the appropriate time
o	Race and Ethnicity
•	Only at marriage
o	Fake blood with groom/bride
•	Biology states – female is fertile from
o	No woman bares as many children as her biological capacity allows.
o	Menarche – onset of first menstruation
o	Menopause – final cessation of menstruation
•	Hindus – far less frequently than Euro-Americans in all age groups
o	Hinduism – sacred days (first night of full mood)
•	Wide range of frequency of sexual intercourse across cultures.
Levels of Decision Making:
•	Value and costs of children
•	Gender preference
o	Depending on division of labour
•	Sex Selective infanticide – the killing of an infant or child based on sex
•	Low husband power – wife older than husband
•	Intermediate husband power – Equal ages
•	High Husband power – husband older than wife
•	Governments promote population increase or decrease
o	Leaders urge women to have more babies
o	Provide extra support for families low cost child care
•	Pharmaceutical companies, World Bank, religious groups
o	Influence national and individual priorities – fertility
o	USA withdrew support for abortion – promoting abstinence (pop control)
•	CDIA – quality family planning
•	Cultures increase, reduce or regulate fertility
o	Direct methods
Plant and animal substances – induce abortion
o	Indirect methods
Long periods of breast feeding – reduce conception
•	Induced Abortion:
o	Cultural universal - done by women herself or with another women
o	Religious, economic and social factors affect decisions
Life style – doesn’t fit
Catholicism – forbid abortion (NO relation between Religion / abortion)
•	New Reproductive Technologies:
Culture and Death:
•	Culture helps define both the good life and good death
•	Shapes patterns of cause of death, patterns which change over time
•	Conditions us to either fear or look forward to death.
•	Direct Infanticide:
o		Killing infant or child from actions such as beating, smothering, poisoning or drowning
o	Unbalanced sex ratio w/in cultures = infanticide for girls
•	Indirect infanticide:
o	Killing of an infant or child via more subtle process – such as food deprivation
Fail to take sick infant to a clinic or failure to provide warm clothing in winter.
Infant mortality rate:
•	Deaths of children under the age of one year per 1000 births
Suicide: (rates are increasing worldwide)
•	Suicide of a wife upon death of her husband (India)
o	Husband dies of act of great personal and group honour
o	Voluntarily joins husband on funeral. (Burns to death)
o	Assisted suicide
•	The murder of a person based on the fact of her being female.
•	Accounts for high proportion of male deaths in some horticultural societies
•	Destruction of culture without physically killing its people
•	Physical extermination of cultural and its people
•	Transfer of cash and goods from the bride’s family to the newly married couple and to the groom’s family
•	Transfer of cash and goods, often large amounts, from the bride’s family to the groom’s family
Brideprice or Bridewealth:
•	Transfer of cash and goods from the groom’s family to the bride’s family and to the bride
Movie: (Sir Edward Evans – Pritchard)
•	Accepted witch craft – culture
•	Strange Beliefs
•	British Anthropologist – privilege
•	Colonial – presence (represent the men)
o	Sensitive to locals
•	Fieldwork – involved living with them, learn, speak of their culture
o	Dramatic/ceremonial – details just important
o	Not just going over to visit
•	Pritchard – own fieldwork
o	Asandi (central Africa/Sudan)
•	House built – similar
•	1926 – took a long journey to get where you need to be
•	Photographs, writing
o	Like our own just not custom
o	Customs and notions
•	Primitive peoples – mind inferior to Europeans
o	Witchcraft/Magic – intent of ideas (misguided, primitive)
o	Bad luck - magic
•	Witchcraft = Death (bad luck)
•	Death – witchcraft
o	Mystical beliefs
o	Oracles – witchcraft answers
o	Who is causing or how to deal with it.
o	Feed to chicken – dies or not (answer)
•	Witchdoctor – combat witch craft
o	Spells, procedures and ceremonies
o	Magic in his power – see evil intentions in others
o	New question rational thinking in any culture.
Part 2 – 1932 Egypt:
•	Scars on forehead – meaning I’m a man (left boy hood)
o	Can marry,
•	What did Evans Pritchard suggest was the key to Azandi philosophy and how did he study this?
o	Participated – immersed in fieldwork (P.O)
o	Case studies – individuals been effected by witchcraft (biased sample)
o	Took Azandi witchcraft – as seriously (treated system of thought with serious/rigor) – complicated philosophy
•	What was prevailing of European ideology Evan-Pritchard trying to disprove? (Studies Azandi, Egypt)
o	Disprove idea that Europeans some how more advance, advance irrational way of thinking
o	Tribal peoples were capable “primitive” mentality
o	Every bit as rational and sophisticated
o	Contributing to Anthropology studies – historical context